Presentation on theme: "High Renaissance Sponsored by the popes and cardinals who vowed to transform Rome Michelangelo’s ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Brmante’s Tempietto and."— Presentation transcript:
1High RenaissanceSponsored by the popes and cardinals who vowed to transform RomeMichelangelo’s ceiling of the Sistine ChapelBrmante’s Tempietto and basilica for Saint PeterRaphael’s frescoes for the Stanza della SegnaturaJosquin des Prez’s Pangue Lingua –polyphonic work, sang a cappella by the Sistine Chapel ChoirHumanistic ideals of the ageAspiring to the standards of classical beauty
2Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, 1485. Vitruvius – the circle and the square are the ideal shapesPerfect shapes originate from the human body; they mirror the symmetry of the body
3Rome at the Beginning of the 15th Century In the early 15th century, Rome seemed a pitiful place. Its population had shrunk from around 1 million in 100 CE to under 20,000 as the result of the Black DeathThe ancient Colosseum was now in the countryside, the Forum was a pasture for goats and cattle, and the aqueducts had collapsedThe popes had even abandoned the city when in 1309 Avignon was established as the seat of the Church. When Rome reestablished itself as the titular seat of the Church in 1379, succeeding popes rarely chose to visit the city, let alone live in it
5Donato Bramante, Tempietto 1502 Bramante’s Tempietto (Little Temple), built directly over what was revered as the site of Saint Peter’s Martyrdom, is modeled after a classical templeThe 16 exterior columns are Doric, their shafts original ancient Roman granite columnsDiameter of the shaft defines the entire plan. Each shaft is spaced four diameters from the next, and the colonnade they form is two diameters from the circular walls
6Bramante, Tempietto, 1502 Embodiment of Italian humanist architecture Site of Saint Peter’s martyrdomModeled on a classical temple
7Michelangelo, David Marble, 17' 13", 1501-04 Michelangelo represents David before, not after, his triumph, confident, ready to take on whatever challenge faces himEach night, as workers installed the statue in the Piazza della Signoria, supporters of the exiled Medici hurled stones at itOthers objected to the statue’s nudity, and before it was even in place, a skirt of copper leaves was prepared to spare the general public any possible offense
8Michelangelo, David, 1501, Florence David – before his triumph, confident to take on any challengeThe fate of David underscores the political and moral turbulence of the times.
9Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel While working on Julius II’s tomb, Michelangelo was commanded by Julius to paint the 45- by 128-foot ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. At first he refused, but in 1508 he reconsidered and began the taskMichelangelo designed an ambitious plan—nine scenes from Genesis, surrounded by prophets, Sibyls, the ancestors of Christ, and other scenes, narrating events before the coming of the law of MosesTo paint the ceiling, Michelangelo had to construct a scaffold that moved down the chapel from the entrance to the altar. Thus, the first frescoes painted were the Noah group, and the last, the Creation
11Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican, Rome, 1508-1512. Nine scenes from Genesis – before the law of MosesSymbol of acorn – to symbolize the pope’s patronageIgnudiBronze shieldsCreation, Adam and Eve, NoahCenter – Creation of EveBefore the knowledge of good and evilDrunkenness of noah
12Creation of AdamWith the Creation of Eve serving as the center panel, Michelangelo planned the ceiling as a pairing of opposites, with the scenes before Eve representing Creation before the knowledge of good and evil entered the world, and everything after her showing the early history of fallen mankindIn the Creation of Adam, Adam is lethargic, passive; God flies through the skies carrying behind him a bulging red drapery that suggests both the womb and the brain, creativity and reasonAdam, father of humankind, and God the Father are posed along parallel diagonals, and their right legs are in nearly identical positions. The fluttering green ribbon in God’s space echoes the colors of the earth upon which Adam lies
13Michelangelo, Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel, Rome Tension between spiritual and materialAdam –earthboundGod –red drapery –suggests womb, brain, creativity, and reasonEve –prefigures the VirginChild –ChristGod’s finger touches Adam – infuse with energy
14Michelangelo, Creation of Adam Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, 1510
15Michelangelo, Libyan Sibyl Michelangelo, Studies for the Libyan Sibyl Fresco, 1512Michelangelo, Studies for the Libyan SibylRed Chalk, 11-3/8" 8-7/26", ca. 1520A virtuoso display of technique mastery, the Libyan Sibyl underwent dramatic changes between Michelangelo’s preliminary sketches and the final painting.
18RaphaelAs Michelangelo was beginning work on the Sistine ceiling, the young painter Raphael arrived in Rome and quickly secured a commission from Julius II to paint the pope’s private rooms in the Vatican PalaceThe first of these rooms was the Stanza della Segnature, Room of the Signature, which Julius used as a libraryOn each of the four walls Raphael was to paint one of the four major areas of human learning: Law and Justice, to be represented by the Cardinal Virtues; the Arts, to be represented by Mount Parnassus; Theology, to be represented by the Disputà, or Dispute over the Sacrament; and Philosophy, to be represented by the School of Athens. Two scenes had classical themes, the other two Christian
19Raphael, School of Athens Fresco, 19' 27', 1510-11
20Raphael, Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi Panel, 60½" 47", 1517 After Julius died in 1513, the new pope, Leo X, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, quickly hired Raphael for other commissionsHis portrait of Leo suggests a new direction in Raphael’s art. The lighting is more somber, and there is greater emphasis on the material reality of the sceneThe painting creates a sense of drama, as if the viewer is witness to an important historical moment
21Raphael, Pope Leo X with Cardinals, 1517, Florence Illuminated manuscript – naturalistic3 figures look in different directionsBrass knob –reflects the room1517 papacy faced problems –Martin luther’s 95 Theses
22Michelangelo, Laurentian Library Staircase Designed beginning 1524; completed 1559 Michelangelo’s most original contribution to the library, which was designed to house the Medici’s book collection, is the large triple stairwayThe cascading waterfall effect suggests that Michelangelo was becoming increasingly interested in exploring realms of the imagination beyond the humanist vision of a rational world governed by structural logic
23Santi di Tito, Niccolò Machiavelli ca. 1510 A humanist scholar, Machiavelli ( ) had studied the behavior of ancient Roman rulers and citizens at great lengthIn 1512, Machiavelli was dismissed from his post as second chancellor, wrongfully accused of being involved in a plot to overthrow the new heads of state, imprisoned, tortured, and finally exiled permanently to a country home in the hills above FlorenceThere, beginning in 1513, he wrote The Prince, his essay on political power
24The High Renaissance in Venice Of all the Italian cities, Venice alone could claim invincibility because it possessed the natural fortification of being surrounded on all sides by waterVenice considered itself blessed by Saint Mark, whose relics resided in the cathedral of Saint Mark’sA center of fashion, Venice provided the continent with satins, velvets, and brocadesDuring the Renaissance, an elaborate, sensuous style of architecture would develop in Venice
25View of the Doge’s Palace, with Saint Mark’s Cathedral to the Left
26Carpaccio, Lion of Saint Mark, 1516, Venice Venice considered itself blessed by Saint Mark, whose relics resided in the cathedral of Saint Mark
27Masters of the Venetian High Renaissance: Giorgione and Titian The two great masters of painting in the Venetian High Renaissance were Giorgione da Castelfranco, known simply as Giorgione (ca ), and Tiziano Vecelli, known as Titian (ca )Giorgione especially had been inspired by Leonardo’s visit to Venice in As did Leonardo in his landscapes, Giorgione and Titian built up color on their canvases by means of glazingTheir paintings, like the great palaces of Venice whose reflections shimmered on the Grand Canal, demonstrate an exquisite sensitivity to the play of light and shadow, to the luxurious display of detail and design, and to an opulent variety of pattern and texture
28Giorgione, Tempest Oil on canvas, 31¼" 28¾", ca. 1509 Nothing about this painting could be called controlled. The landscape is overgrown and weedy—just as the man and woman are disheveled and disrobedLightning has revealed to the viewer a scene not meant to be witnessedSensuality, even outright sexuality, would become a primary subject of Venetian art
29Giorgone, Tempest, 1509 Mysterious quality, atmospheric painting Almost nude young woman, German mercenary soldierPediment topped with two broken columns
30Pastoral ConcertA harmony of opposites: male and female, clothed and nude, the nobleman and the peasant, court music and folk song, city and country, and so onMusical instruments (the lute and the flute)—metaphors for parts of male and female anatomy, a usage common in both the art and the literature of the periodNarrative presents a purposefully mysterious dream world, giving the viewer’s imagination the freedom to play
32Titian, Sacred and Profane love, 1514 Lamp –divine lightNeoplatonic ideal of the celestial Venus and sacred love
33Titian, Sacred and Profane Love Oil on canvas, 46½" 109-7/8", ca Two female figures—nude is sacred love and luxuriously clothed is earthly or profane love—probably represent two aspects of the same woman.
34Titian, Reclining Nude, 1538Venus of Urbino –more like a woman than an ethereal goddess
35Titian, Reclining Nude (Venus of Urbino) Oil on canvas, 47" 65", ca More real woman than ethereal goddess, this “Venus” stares out at the viewer with matter-of-factness, suggesting she is totally comfortable with her nudity.