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CS 443 Advanced OS David R. Choffnes, Spring 2005 Practical, transparent operating system support for superpages Juan Navarro, Sitaram Iyer, Peter Druschel,

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Presentation on theme: "CS 443 Advanced OS David R. Choffnes, Spring 2005 Practical, transparent operating system support for superpages Juan Navarro, Sitaram Iyer, Peter Druschel,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CS 443 Advanced OS David R. Choffnes, Spring 2005 Practical, transparent operating system support for superpages Juan Navarro, Sitaram Iyer, Peter Druschel, Alan Cox (Rice University) Appears in: Fifth Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI 2002) Presented by: David R. Choffnes

2 2 Outline The superpage problem Related Approaches Design Implementation Evaluation Conclusion

3 3 Introduction TLB coverage –Definition –Effect on performance Superpages –Wasted memory –Fragmentation Contribution –General, transparent superpages –Deals with fragmentation –Contiguity-aware page replacement algo –Demotion/Eviction of dirty superpages

4 4 The Superpage Problem Factor of 1000 decrease in 15 years TLB miss overhead: 5% 5-10% 30% TLB coverage trend TLB coverage of % of main memory

5 5 The Superpage Problem Increasing TLB coverage –More TLB entries is expensive –Larger page size leads to internal fragmentation and increased I/O –Solution: use multiple page sizes Superpage definition Hardware-imposed constraints –Finite set of page sizes (subset of powers of 2) –Contiguity –Alignment

6 6 A superpage TLB base page entry (size=1) superpage entry (size=4) physical memory virtual memory virtual address TLB physical address Alpha: 8,64,512KB; 4MB Itanium: 4,8,16,64,256KB; 1,4,16,64,256MB

7 7 Superpage Issues and Tradeoffs Allocation –Relocation –Reservation

8 8 Issue 1: superpage allocation virtual memory physical memory superpage boundaries B B A A C C D D ABCD How / when / what size to allocate? How / when / what size to allocate?

9 9 Superpage Issues (Cont.) Promotion –Incremental –Timing (not too soon, not too late) Demotion and Eviction –Hardware reference and dirty bit limitation

10 10 Issue 2: promotion Promotion: create a superpage out of a set of smaller pages –mark page table entry of each base page When to promote? Create small superpage? May waste overhead. Wait for app to touch pages? May lose opportunity to increase TLB coverage. Forcibly populate pages? May cause internal fragmentation.

11 11 Superpage Issues: Fragmentation Fragmentation –Memory becomes fragmented due to use of multiple page sizes persistence of file cache pages scattered wired (non-pageable) pages –Contiguity as contended resource

12 12 Related Approaches HP-UX and IRIX Reservations –Not transparent Page Relocation –Used exclusively, leads to lower performance due to increased TLB misses Hardware Support –Talluri and Hill: Remove contiguity requirement This approach: Hybrid reservation and relocation system with page replacement that biases toward pages that contribute to contiguity

13 13 Design Reservation-based superpage management Multiple superpage sizes Demotion of sparsely referenced superpages Preservation of contiguity w/o compaction Efficient disk I/O for partially modified SPs Uses buddy allocator for contiguous regions

14 14 Key observation Once an application touches the first page of a memory object then it is likely that it will quickly touch every page of that object Example: array initialization Opportunistic policies –superpages as large and as soon as possible –as long as no penalty if wrong decision

15 15 Reservations Set of frames initially reserved at page fault –Fixed-size objects: largest aligned superpage that is not larger than the object –Dynamic objects: same as fixed, but reservation is allowed to extend beyond the end of the object Preemption –If no available memory for allocation request, system will preempt the reservation whose most recent page allocation occurred least recently

16 16 Managing reservations largest unused (and aligned) chunk best candidate for preemption at front: reservation whose most recently populated frame was populated the least recently reservation whose most recently populated frame was populated the least recently 1 2 4

17 17 Other Design Issues Fragmentation control –Coalescing –Contiguity-aware page replacement Incremental promotions –Occurs as soon as a superpage region is fully populated Speculative demotion –Occurs on eviction (recursively) –Occurs on first write to clean superpage Overhead too high for hash digests –Daemon periodically demotes pages speculatively Necessary due to reference bit limitation

18 18 Incremental promotions Promotion policy: opportunistic

19 19 More Design Issues Multi-list reservation scheme –One list of each page size supported by hardware –Reservations sorted by allocation recency –Preemption removes from head of list Reservation recursively broken into extents Fully populated extents are not put in reservation lists Population map –Reserved frame lookup –Overlap avoidance –Promotion decisions –Preemption assistance

20 20 Implementation Notes FreeBSD uses three lists of pages in A-LRU order: active, inactive, cache Contiguity-aware page daemon –Cache considered available for allocation –Daemon activated when contiguity falls low –Clean file-backed pages moved to inactive as soon as file is closed Wired page clustering Multiple mappings

21 21 Evaluation Setup –FreeBSD 4.3 –Alpha 21264, 500 MHz, 512 MB RAM –8 KB, 64 KB, 512 KB, 4 MB pages –128-entry DTLB, 128-entry ITLB –Unmodified applications

22 22 Best-Case Results TLB miss reduction usually above 95% SPEC CPU2000 integer –11.2% improvement (0 to 38%) SPEC CPU2000 floating point –11.0% improvement (-1.5% to 83%) Other benchmarks –FFT (200 3 matrix): 55% –1000x1000 matrix transpose: 655% 30%+ in 8 out of 35 benchmarks

23 23 Benefits of multiple page sizes Speedups TLB Miss Reduction

24 24 Sustained benefits Use Web server to fragment memory, then use FFTW to see how quickly memory is reclaimed FFTW reaches a speedup of almost 55%, Web server performance degrades only 1.6% on successive run Concurrent execution: only 3% degradation with modified page daemon

25 25 Fragmentation control time min normalized contiguity of free memory no frag control web serverFFT no speedup full speedup partial speedup web serverFFT frag control

26 26 Adversary applications Incremental promotion –Slowdown of 8.9%, 7.2% is hardware-specific Sequential access –0.1% degradation Preemption –1.1% degradation General overhead –Use superpage supporting mechanisms, but dont promote: 1-2% performance degradation

27 27 Cetera Dirty Superpages –Performance penalty of not demoting is a factor of 20 Scalability –Most operations O(1), O(S) or O(S*R) –Daemon, promotion, demotion and dirty/reference bit emulation are linear Promotion/Demotion is amortized to O(S) for programs the need to change page size only early in life Dirty/Reference bits: Motivates the need for clustered page tables either in OS or HW

28 28 Conclusion Effective, transparent and efficient support for superpages Demonstrates effectiveness of multiple page sizes Improved performance for nearly all applications Minimal overhead Scalable to large numbers of page sizes


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