4 European brand spectrum: Consumers largely unaware of ownership of companies and brands:DKNY –Hellman’s Mayo –Libby’s –Jaguar –First Boston –L’Oreal –Rimmel -Rolls Royce –Calsberg –Harrods -
5 European brand spectrum: Consumers largely unaware of ownership of companies and brands:DKNY – LMVH / FranceHellman’s Mayo – Unilever / UK & NetherlandsLibby’s – Nestle - SwitzerlandJaguar – TATA / IndiaSantander – Santander / SpainL‘Oreal – L Oreal / FranceRimmel – Coty / USARolls Royce – BMW / GermanyCalsberg – Calsberg / DenmarkHarrods - was Mohammed Al Fayed sold to Qatar Holdings
6 European brand spectrum: Now Global in natureHeritage from UK / USA / EuropeEnglish / American / roman namesDiffusion of tastes and culturesThe brand connects consumer behavior and reaction to products and services
7 Brand Valuation central to marketing The concept of Brand:A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design which identifies goods and services between sellers and consumers and differentiate them from those of the competition - KotlerBrand has value as an intangible assetIntellectual propertyBalance sheet goodwillTrade mark registrationA major company asset – refers to the expected future earnings generated by the companies products and servicesBrand Valuation central to marketing
8 Brand versus Products: Brands are not productsBut products / services are brandedWe can (and do) brand just about anythingProducts / servicesPeopleIdeasCorporations / organisationsIndustriesCountries / regions
9 Brands have specific characteristics: Attributes – fast / smooth / sexy / aspirationalBenefits – healing / satisfying / performanceValues – corporate symbolism / customer servicePersonality – consumer grouping / segmentation / stereotyping – Owner Malcolm Glazer /Tampa Bay Buccaneers
10 The most valuable brands in the world? The concept of BrandBrand Equity:Consumer brand preference – high / lowConsumer brand loyalty – high / lowHigh ratings relate to high brand equityGoodwill value on balance sheetsBrand degradation / damageThe most valuable brands in the world?
11 Apple the most valuable brand in the world!!!!! Worth a staggerin +$182 Billion
12 Strong Brands – Brand Equity: Strong brands may be described as having brand equityBrand equity is based on:Brand awarenessBrand imageWe attempt to measureBrand Asset valuator Model – Y&RDifferentiation – PODRelevance – to youEsteem - how well is the brand regardedKnowledge – understanding of the brandPLUSBrand strength – growth potentialBrand stature – current power
13 Sources of Brand Equity: Brand Image Brand image is based on :Strength of associationsFavourability of associationsUniqueness of associationsHeritage
15 Building Brand Equity: Opportunities and issues in the marketing mixProduct – essentially common - Global productsPrice – essentially common, PPP, full transparency in EurozonePlace – channel commonalityKey issue with PROMOTIONLanguage variations of all materials and formats
16 Building Brand Equity: Key promotional balance European big brand advertising is:SophisticatedCulturally StereotypicalHumorousStory tellingMysteriousUses ‘hot buttons’Has heritageCan shockAdvertising – brand strategic, Euro centric with language overlays / strap linesSales Promotion – brand/sales tactical, locally produced material with local messages / prices / focus
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