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Presentation on theme: "MARKETING STRATEGY O.C. FERRELL • MICHAEL D. HARTLINE"— Presentation transcript:

7 Product Strategy

2 Product Classification (1 of 3)
Consumer Product Classifications Convenience Products Shopping Products Specialty Products Unsought Products (1) Products of which consumers are unaware (2) Products that consumers do not consider purchasing until a need or emergency arises

3 Specialty Products

4 Product Classification (2 of 3)
Business Product Classifications Raw Materials Component Parts Process Materials MRO Supplies Accessory Equipment Installations Business Services

5 Product Classification (3 of 3)
Product Lines and Mixes Product Line Product Mix Benefits of offering a wide variety and deep assortment of products: Economies of Scale Package Uniformity Standardization Sales and Distribution Efficiency Equivalent Quality Beliefs

6 Product Lines and Product Mixes at Gillette
Exhibit 7.1

7 Discussion Question Consider the number of product choices that are available in the U.S. consumer market. In virtually every product category, consumers have many, many options to fulfill their needs. Are all of these options really necessary? Is having this many choices a good thing for consumers? Why or why not?

8 New Product Development
Six strategic product development options: (1) New-to-the-world products (discontinuous innovations) (2) New product lines (3) Product line extensions (4) Improvements or revisions of existing products (5) Repositioning (6) Cost reductions Customer perception of differentiation is critical

9 Avis: “We Try Harder”

10 Product Strategy Throughout the Life Cycle
Development Stage Introduction Stage Growth Stage Maturity Stage Decline Stage

11 Stages of the Product Life Cycle
Exhibit 7.2

12 Marketing Strategy During the Product Life Cycle
Exhibit 7.3

13 Development Stage No sales revenue during this stage
Components of the product concept: An understanding of desired uses and benefits A description of the product The potential for creating a complete product line An analysis of the feasibility of the product concept Customer needs should be discerned before developing marketing strategy

14 Introduction Stage Begins when development is complete
Ends when customers widely accept the product Marketing strategy goals during this stage: Attract customers by raising awareness and interest Induce customers to try and buy Engage in customer education activities Strengthen or expand channel and supply relationships Build on availability and visibility Set pricing objectives

15 Growth Stage (1 of 2) Be ready for sustained sales increases
Rapid increase in profitability early in the growth stage that decreases at the end of this stage Length depends on nature of product and competitive reactions Two strategies: (1) Establish a strong, defensible marketing position (2) Achieve financial objectives

16 Growth Stage (2 of 2) Marketing strategy goals in this stage:
Leverage the product’s perceived differential advantages Establish a clear product and brand identity Create unique positioning Maintain control over product quality Maximize availability of the product Maintain or enhance the product’s profitability to partners Find the ideal balance between price and demand Keep an eye focused on the competition

17 Maturity Stage (1 of 2) Few, if any, new firms will enter the market
Still an opportunity for new product features and variations Typically the longest stage in the product life cycle

18 Maturity Stage (2 of 2) Four general goals in this stage:
(1) Generate Cash Flow (2) Hold Market Share (3) Steal Market Share (4) Increase Share of Customer Four options to achieve these goals: (1) Develop a new product image (2) Find and attract new users to the product (3) Discover new applications for the product (4) Apply new technology to the product

19 Decline Stage Two options: Factors to be considered during this stage:
(1) Attempt to postpone the decline (2) Accept its inevitability Harvesting Divesting Factors to be considered during this stage: Market segment potential The market position of the product The firm’s price and cost structure The rate of market deterioration

20 Marketing Strategy in Action
Ford has been creative in restyling the 2005 Mustang with retro styling cues to keep the model viable despite decreasing interest in “muscle cars.” What other ways can marketers combat the inevitability of the decline stage of the product life cycle?

21 Discussion Question Describe the different product decisions that impact each phase of the product life cycle. If you were losing money with a product in the decline stage, why might you consider retaining that product? Why would a firm or brand manager become sentimental about a product and hold on to it even in the face of monetary losses?

22 Branding Strategy Key Issues In Branding Packaging and Labeling
Brand Loyalty Brand Equity Brand Alliances Packaging and Labeling Packaging Protection, storage, convenience, etc. Labeling The Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990 Food Choking Prevention Act

23 Advantages of Branding
Exhibit 7.4

24 The World’s Twenty-Five Most Valuable Brands
Exhibit 7.5

25 Product Strategy for Services
Characteristics of Services Marketing Strategy for Services Product Issues Pricing Services Promoting Service Benefits Distributing Services

26 Unique Characteristics of Services and Resulting Marketing Challenges
Exhibit 7.6

27 Discussion Question Given the unique characteristics of services, what potential ethical issues could arise in service marketing and delivery? How can a service marketer prevent ethical challenges and convey a sense of trust to customers?


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