Canadas bilingual programs Provincial legislation in western Canada allows bilingual programs in which 50% of instruction is conducted in the non-official language Most programs are found in urban centers Languages - e.g., Arabic, German, Hebrew, Mandarin, Spanish and Ukrainian
Curriculum design The continuous, concurrent development of first and second language skills, or skills in additional languages, is fostered in bilingual programming. Opportunities for linguistic knowledge and skill development in both languages are maximized. (Alberta Education, 1999, p. 11)
Bilingual education Swain (2000) points out that bilingual education seeks to make students proficient in the second language while, at the same time, maintaining and developing their proficiency in the first language and fully guaranteeing their educational development (Stern, 1972, in Swain, 2000, p. 199)
Promoting to Anglophones The levels presented are designed to represent the progression of knowledge, skills and attitudes expected of students who have had no prior exposure to the specific language upon entry into Kindergarten. (Alberta Education, 1999, p. 13)
Benefits of Bilingual Education Students with four or more years of language study score higher on language sections of the SAT: meta- linguistic awareness, higher analogical reasoning and visual spatial skills.
Promoting to HLLs However, students with prior exposure to the specific language can be challenged within this Framework. (Alberta Education, 1999, p. 13) Well-implemented bilingual programs can promote literacy and subject matter knowledge in the minority language without any negative effects on the childs development of the majority language. (Cummins, 2003, p. 63)
First language skills When HLLs enter the school system, they require continued input in their first language in order for their linguistic skills in this language to develop further (Cho, Shin, & Krashen, 2004) First language literacy is a predictor of second or majority language development (Cummins, 2003)
Recognizing linguistic diversity In the last decade we have had to let go of the assumption that early immersion classes would be full of homogeneous young Anglophones (Swain & Lapkin, 2005, 174). Genesee & Gándara (1999) assert that Canadas Immersion/Bilingual model is largely ethnocentric (p. 670), ignoring the reality of linguistic and ethnic diversity in its school population
Minority language mainenance The maintenance and development of minority language linguistic skills is highly influenced by schooling choices (Tse, 2001) Some parents, often under the advice of teachers, choose to concentrate on their children acquiring the dominant societal (majority) language (Cummins, 2003), With reduced input, native speakers of a minority language can struggle to maintain their linguistic skills, as manifested by a reduction in oral fluency (performance) (Lynch, 2003) or gaps in acquisition (Montrul, 2002).
Website promotion Sarah Elaine Eaton in 101 ways to market your language program: A practical guide for language schools and programs includes: #28 Create an outstanding website a website is an essential marketing tool... This is your sales pitch to the world! (Eaton, 2002, p. 37)
Research questions 1. How do Bilingual School Programs market to Anglophones through their websites? 2. How do Bilingual School Programs market to HLLs through their websites? 3. What features do exemplary Bilingual School Program websites have in common?
10 Western Canadian programs ProvinceSchool DistrictSchools Manitoba23 Saskatchewan22 Alberta24 British Columbia11
Manitoba SchoolSchool DistrictLanguag e Website Springfield Heights River East Transcona SDUkranian http://www.sh.retsd.mb.ca /programs/prog_main.htm l Brock Corydon School Winnipeg School DivisionHebrew http://www.wsd1.org/broc kcorydon/ Princess Margaret School River East Transcona SDGerman http://schools.retsd.mb.ca/ pm/Pages/Welcome.aspx
Alberta SchoolSchool DistrictLanguageWebsite Malmo School Edmonton Public SchoolsArabic http://malmo.epsb.ca/ Talmud Torah Edmonton Public Schools Hebrew http://www.talmudtorahso ciety.com/ Delwood Elementary School Edmonton Public Schools Ukranian http://delwood.epsb.ca/ Bowcroft Elementary School Calgary Board of EducationGerman http://schools.cbe.ab.ca/b1 11/
British Columbia (BC) SchoolSchool DistrictLanguageWebsite Dr. Annie B. Jamieson Vancouver School Board Mandarin http://jamieson.vsb.bc.ca/
Dr. Annie B. Jamieson Jamieson School has the only Mandarin Bilingual Program in British Columbia. Entry to the program commences in Grade 4.
Discussion Most school websites do little to promote their Bilingual Programs Minority speakers of the target language are seldom addressed Target language rarely appears Most websites appear relatively static What can we learn from exemplary websites?
Explicitly address HL competence The Arabic Bilingual Program provides students with opportunities to acquire or maintain proficiency in both Arabic and English and to learn about related cultures. Programming begins in Kindergarten, although children may also enter Grade 1 without previous knowledge of the language. Later entry is determined on an individual basis.
Recognize linguistic diversity We are very fortunate to have teachers on our faculty who represent diverse cultures from throughout the Spanish speaking world... we have teachers from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru and Venezuela. Our teachers are bilingual, trilingual, and in some cases quadra-lingual.
Conclusion: 5 Essential Elements 1. Elaborate on the benefits of bilingual education 2. Promote the development of heritage language competence 3. Use the target language 4. Recognize linguistic diversity 5. Update regularly
References Alberta Education. (1999). Common curricular framework for bilingual programming in international languages, kindergarten to grade 12. Western Canada protocol for collaboration in basic education. Edmonton: Alberta Education. Archibald, J. (2010). Multilingual minds and brains. Paper presented at the CBE Bilingual Teacher Professional Day. Cho, G., Shin, F., & Krashen, S. (2004). What do we know about heritage languages? What do we need to know about them? Multicultural Education, 11(4), 23-26. Corbeil, J.-P., & Blaser, C. (2008). The evolving linguistic portrait, 2006 Census: Sharp increase in population with a mother tongue other than English or French [Electronic Version], from http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/language/allophone.c fm http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/language/allophone.c fm Cummins, J. (2003). Bilingual education: Basic principles. In J.-M. Dewaele, A. Housen & L. Wei (Eds.), Bilingualism: Beyond basic principles (pp. 56- 66). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89(05), 585- 592. Eaton, S. E. (2002). 101 ways to market your language program: A practical guide for language schools and programs. Calgary: Eaton International Consulting Inc. Edwards, V., & Newcombe, L. P. (2006). Back to basics: Marketing the benefits of bilingualism to parents. In O. García, T. Skutnabb-Kangas & M. E. Torres-Guzmán (Eds.), Imagining multilingual schools: Languages in education and globalization (pp. 137-149). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Genesee, F. (2003). Rethinking bilingual acquisition. In J.-M. Dewaele, A. Housen & L. Wei (Eds.), Bilingualism: Beyond basic principles (pp. 204-228). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Genesee, F., & Gándara, P. (1999). Bilingual education programs: A cross-national perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 55(4), 665-685. Montecel, M. R. (2002). Successful bilingual education programs: Development and the dissemmination of criteria to identify promising and exemplary practices in bilingual education at the national level.. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(1), 1-21. Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (2005). The evolving sociopolitical context of immersion education in Canada: Some implications for program development. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(2), 169-186. Tse, L. (2001). Resisting and reversing language shift: Heritage language resilience among U.S. native biliterates. Harvard Educational Review, 71(4), 676-708.