3 IS BILINGUAL ACQUISITION EXCEPTIONAL? Bishop & Mogford 1989Chapters:Children with AutismChildren with Down’s SyndromeChildren with William’s SyndromeHearing-Impaired ChildrenChildren with Visual ImpairmentHearing children of deaf parents
8 ROAD MAP lessons from research: brief review of Canadian Immersion programslessons from research:1. value of content-based L2 instruction2. age3. time4. students with learning challenges+5. simultaneous bilingualismopportunities & challenges
13 1. CONTENT-BASED LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IS EFFECTIVE meaningful content & communicative use of language to promote L2/L3 acquisition:promotes acquisition of authentic language proficiencypedagogically efficient – 2 for the price of 1takes advantage of children’s natural language learning abilitiesresearch evidence …
14 Research evidence (Genesee, 2004) English language developmentacademic achievementFrench proficiency
15 ENGLISH LANGUAGE OUTCOMES Speaking, Listening, Reading, Writing Immersion Students = Non-immersion studentsStudents in enriched immersion score better than students in all-English programs on English language tests
16 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT mathematics, science, other Immersion Students = Non-immersion students
18 BUT… content-based instruction alone is not optimal Immersion students have significant gaps in their grammatical and communicative competencelanguage arts instruction is importantfocus-on-form can enhance French language competence (Lyster, 2007)
19 THE CHALLENGE…to develop curriculum and pedagogical strategies that promote L2 learning – a curriculum that integrates content and language instruction systematically and explicitly (Cloud, Genesee, & Hamayan, 2000)
20 2. EARLY L2 INSTRUCTION IS GOOD early exposure takes advantage of young students’ natural language learning abilityearly socio-cultural opennesspedagogy and learning styles are compatible in early grades: learner-centered & interactive
21 BUT…early start does not guarantee higher levels of achievement than delayed startdelayed L2 exposure can be equally effective sometimes (Genesee, 2004):late immersion = early immersion sometimesolder students are faster learnersolder learners have well developed L1 literacy skills that can transfer & facilitate L2 literacy development
22 THE CHALLENGEto develop coherent grade-to-grade curriculum that ensures continuous language development (Cloud, Genesee, & Hamayan, 2000; Met, 1998)
23 OPTIONSschools and parents have choices – early or delayed focused on L2possibility of late L3 instruction, even immersion (Cenoz & Genesee, 1998)
24 3. TIME on TASKlanguage acquisition is complex – extended exposure to L2 in immersion is goodmore time in school creates more time outside school for L2 learning: expanding students’ repertoires through authentic language use in the communityBUT: no simple relationship between time & learning in school….
25 TIME & acquisition of majority language time does not matter so much for Englishlanguage acquisitionearly total immersion = partial immersionearly total immersion = delayed immersionImmersion students = non-Immersion studentsHow is this possible?Immersion in English outside schoolAND
26 COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY (from Cummins, 2000)
27 TIME & acquisition of minority languages time mattersmore time in French greater proficiency in French, generally:total immersion > partial immersionmore support for L1 of minority language students greater L1 and English language competenceWHY? transfer of minority language literacy skills to English and French literacy
28 BUT… time is not a psycholinguistic variable: two-year late immersion = early total immersion sometimessimply providing extended immersion experience is not enoughtime must be translated into effective learning opportunities (Cloud, Genesee, & Hamayan, 2000)educators must have a long term*, coherent plan for spending time – how to link language learning to content over time
29 4. IMMERSION FOR ALL?Research on majority language students has shown that it is effective and suitable for students (Genesee, 2004):with academic challengeswith poor L1 skillsfrom disadvantaged socio-economic familieslearning typologically different languages (Hebrew, Japanese, Mohawk)Little research evidence on students with severecognitive, perceptual and socio-emotional challenges
30 WHAT ABOUT CHILDREN WITH LANGUAGE or READING ACQUISITION DIFFICULTIES? SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST (APRIL 2002)…. I am a psychologist working in English schools in a very French environment. We are sometimes challenged with children who have been diagnosed with SLI and that come from unilingual French homes. My knowledge of the problematic was leading me to believe that adding yet another language on a child having difficulty mastering his mother tongue could be putting too much pressure and setting the child up for failure.
31 Immersion students with poor L1 skills ☼ Bruck (1984)anglophone immersion students with L1 deficits = anglophone control students☼ Erdos, Genesee & Savage (2008)strong correlation between L1 and L2 reading skills and precursors of reading
32 French-English bilinguals with LI* FRENCH-ENGLISH BILINGUALS with LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT Paradis, Crago, Genesee & Rice (2003)French-English bilinguals with LI*(8 years old)Fr monos with L I Eng monos with L I* Not in bilingual programs
33 RESULTSbilingual children with impairment had same patterns of impairment as monolingual children with impairment – in both English & Frenchbilingual children with impairment had same severity of impairment as monolingual children with impairment – in both English & Frenchchildren with language impairment were bilingual
34 5. SIMULTANEOUS BILINGUALISM myth of the monolingual brain
35 EVIDENCE: MONOLINGUAL MILESTONES word first vocabulary word grammar/segmentation babbling words spurt comb. communicat’n(7 mths) (10-12 m) (12mths) (18mths) (24mths) (beyond)bilingual milestones are the samebilingual milestones are the same
36 Educational Implications 3rd language children and their parents should not be discouraged from using the heritage language at homeeven if the child is suspected of having a language learning impairmentthey should be encouraged to use it in ways that reinforce literacy skillsthis provides a foundation for the acquisition of academic language and literacy in English & French
37 LAST WORDS Immersion education is effective it is suitable for diverse learner groupseffectiveness depends on many variables –“devil is in the detail”research findings can guide our efforts in planning effective immersion programsneed more emphasis on professional development so that instruction continues to evolve with our growing understanding of what makes immersion work
40 Handbook of Language Development, 324-342. Oxford, Eng.: Blackwell. REFERENCESCenoz, J., & Genesee, F., (1998). Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.Christian, D., & Genesee, F. (2001). Bilingual education. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Inc.Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000). ). Dual Language Instruction: A Handbook for Enriched Education. Portsmouth, NH: Heinle & Heinle.Genesee, F. (2004). What do we know about bilingual education for majority language students. In T.K. Bhatia & W. Ritchie (Eds), Handbook of Bilingualism and Multiculturalism, pp Malden, MA: Blackwell.Genesee, F., & Nicoladis, E. (2006). Bilingual acquisition. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (eds.),Handbook of Language Development, Oxford, Eng.: Blackwell.Genesee, F., Paradis, J., & Crago, M. (2004). Dual language development and disorders. Boston: Brookes.Johnson, R.K., & Swain, M. (Eds., 1997), Immersion education: International perspectives. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press.Lindholm-Leary, K., & Borsato, G. (2006). Academic achievement. In F. Genesee, K. Lindholm-Leary, W. Saunders, & D. Christian (Eds) Educating English language learners, pp NY: Cambridge University Press.Lyster, R. (2007). Learning and teaching languages through content: A counterbalanced approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Met. M. (1998). Curriculum decision-making in content-based language teaching. In J. Cenoz& F. Genesee (Eds), Beyond bilingualism: Multilingualism and multilingual education,p Clevedon, Eng.: Multilingual Matters.
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