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FILM STUDIES TERMS Cinematography & Direction. GENERAL TERMS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY o Shot: A continuous, unedited piece of film of any length. o Scene: A.

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Presentation on theme: "FILM STUDIES TERMS Cinematography & Direction. GENERAL TERMS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY o Shot: A continuous, unedited piece of film of any length. o Scene: A."— Presentation transcript:

1 FILM STUDIES TERMS Cinematography & Direction

2 GENERAL TERMS OF CINEMATOGRAPHY o Shot: A continuous, unedited piece of film of any length. o Scene: A series of shots that together form a complete episode or unit of the narrative. o Storyboard: Drawn up when designing a production. Plans text and shows how each shot relates to sound track. o Montage: The editing together of a large number of shots with no intention of creating a continuous reality. A montage is often used to compress time, and shots are linked through a unified sound – either a voiceover or a piece of music. o Parallel action: narrative strategy that crosscuts between two or more separate actions to create the illusion that they are occurring simultaneously.

3 CAMERA ANGLES Low Angle Camera: shoots up at subject. Used to increase size, power, status of subject High Angle Camera: shoots down at subject. Used to increase vulnerability, powerlessness, decrease size Close-up or Extreme Close-up: The subject framed by the camera fills the screen. Scenes like these can have connotations of intimacy. Medium Close-up: Generally including two or three characters framing the shoulder or chest and the head. If framing a single character, then the shot includes the waist up (or down). Medium Shot: Generally includes a character’s waist, hips or knees up (or down) and it is used to place the character in relation to his surroundings. Long Shot: Character is placed in full frame. Extreme Long Shot: Where surroundings and character have as much importance, if not more.

4 LOW ANGLE Connotations power, mystery, mischief. EX: Reservoir Dogs Quintin Tarantino

5 HIGH ANGLE Connotations of powerlessness, decrease and size. EX: The Hobbit Peter Jackson

6 CLOSE-UP OR EXTREME CLOSE-UP Connotations of intimacy

7 MEDIUM CLOSE-UP AND MEDIUM

8 LONG SHOT CHARACTER IS PLACED IN FULL SCREEN. EXTREME LONG SHOT WHERE THE CHARACTER AND THE SURROUNDINGS HAVE THE SAME IMPORTANCE.

9 SHOTS Long Shot: Overall view from a distance of whole scene often used as an establishing shot - to set scene. Person - will show whole body. Medium or Mid Shot: Middle distance shot - can give background information while still focusing on subject. Person - usually shows waist to head. Close Up: Focuses on detail / expression / reaction. Person - shows either head or head and shoulders. Tracking shot: single continuous shot made with a camera moving along the ground Reverse shot: shot taken at a 180 degree angle from the preceding shot (reverse-shot editing is commonly used during dialogue, angle is often 120 to 160 degrees) Subjective Shot or First Person (P.O.V. Shot): Framed from a particular character's point of view. Audience sees what character sees. Bridging Shot: Used to link a jump in time. (calendar pages, train wheels, leaves changing) Aerial Shot: Typically made from a helicopter.

10 SUBJECTIVE & REVERSE SHOTS

11 REVERSE SHOT EX: Frisco Jenny

12 CAMERA MOVEMENTS Pan: Camera moves from side to side from a stationary position Tilt: Movement up or down from a stationary position Tracking: The camera moves to follow a moving object or person

13 EDITING The way things are put together.

14 EDITING – THE WAY SHOTS ARE PUT TOGETHER o Cut: The ending of a shot. If the cut seems inconsistent with the next shot, it is called a jump cut. o Jump Cut: Cut where there is no match between the 2 spliced shots. o Cross-cutting: Cutting between two different sets of actions that could be occurring simultaneously. o Continuity Cuts: Cuts that take us seamlessly and logically from one scene or sequence to another. o Match cut: The exact opposite of a jump cut. Similar to continuity cuts. o Fade in or out: The image appears or disappears gradually. Often used as a division between scenes. o Dissolve: One image fades in while another fades out so that for a few seconds, the two are superimposed.

15 EDITING AND CUTS Cut: The ending of a shot. If the cut seems inconsistent with the next shot, it is called a jump cut. o Jump Cut: Cut where there is no match between the 2 spliced shots. o Cross-cutting: Cutting between two different sets of actions that could be occurring simultaneously. o Continuity Cuts: Cuts that take us seamlessly and logically from one scene or sequence to another. o Match cut: The exact opposite of a jump cut. Similar to continuity cuts. Fade in or out: The image appears or disappears gradually. Often used as a division between scenes. Dissolve: One image fades in while another fades out so that for a few seconds, the two are superimposed.

16 SOUND Soundtrack: Consists of dialogue, sound effects and music. Should reveal something about the scene that visual images don't. Score: musical soundtrack Sound effects: all sounds that are neither dialogue nor music Voice-over: spoken words laid over the other tracks in sound mix to comment upon the narrative or to narrate.

17 LIGHTING & COLOR Color (B&W or Color): Images were initially painted or stenciled in (EX: The yellow dress in “The Great Train Robbery”) before color was introduced to film. This technology added an aspect of realism and a pattern of emotion or mood. Not to be confused with filter. Contrast: The ratio of dark to light in an image. o High Contrast: If the difference between light and dark is large. o Low Contrast: If the difference between light and dark is small. Depth of Field: The distance in which elements in an image are in sharp focus. Depth of field is used to emphasize importance in a frame or scene. o Deep Focus: Uses all planes in a frame to be in focus. Deep focus is used to emphasize importance in all aspects of the scene or frame. o Shallow Focus: Uses only one plane in focus to emphasize importance. (EX: Portraits with blurry backgrounds.)

18 CONT. Backlighting: Where the main source of lighting is behind the subject, creating a silhouette and is directed toward the camera. Framing: The way in which the subjects and objects are framed within the shot. Size and volume within the frame speak as much as dialogue. Think positions of power and vulnerability. Key Lighting: The main light on a subject that is usually placed at a 45 degree angle. Key lighting provides all or most of the lighting in the scene.

19 CONTRAST – HIGH & LOW

20 DEPTH OF FIELD – DEEP AND SHALLOW Uses all planes to be in focus. Connotations of equal importance. Uses only one plane in focus to emphasize importance.


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