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# Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence
Chapter 13 Artificial Intelligence

Thinking Machines A computer can do some things better --and certainly faster--than a human can: Adding a thousand four-digit numbers Counting the distribution of letters in a book Searching a list of 1,000,000 numbers for duplicates Matching finger prints

Thinking Machines BUT a computer would have difficulty pointing out the cat in this picture, which is easy for a human. Artificial intelligence (AI) The study of computer systems that attempt to model and apply the intelligence of the human mind. Figure A computer might have trouble identifying the cat in this picture.

Thinking Machines Artificial: humanly contrived often on a natural model Intelligence: the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria Clearly, intelligence is an internal characteristic. How can it be identified?

In the beginning… In 1950 Alan Turing wrote a paper titled Computing Machinery And Intelligence, in which he proposed to consider the question “Can machines think?” But the question is “loaded” so he proposed to replace it with what has since become known as the Turing Test.

The Turing Test The important question for Turing wasn’t “Can machines think?” but “How will we know if they can?” The Turing test is used to empirically determine whether a computer has achieved intelligence.

The Imitation Game The 'imitation game' is played with three people:
a man (A) a woman (B) and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. The object of the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the man and which is the woman.

The Imitation Game The interrogator is allowed to put questions to A and B. It is A's object in the game to try and cause C to make the wrong identification. The object of the game for the third player (B) is to help the interrogator.

The Imitation Game We now ask the question:
'What will happen when a machine takes the part of B in this game?' Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman?

The Turing Test Figure In a Turing test, the interrogator must determine which respondent is the computer and which is the human

The Turing Test There are authors who question the validity of the Turing test . The objections tend to be of 2 types. The first is an attempt to distinguish degrees, or types of equivalence.

The Turing Test Weak equivalence: Two systems (human and computer) are equivalent in results (output), but they do not arrive at those results in the same way. Strong equivalence: Two systems (human and computer) use the same internal processes to produce results.

The Turing Test The Turing Test, they argue, can demonstrate weak equivalence, but not strong. So even if a computer passes the test we won’t be able to say that it thinks like a human. Of course, neither they nor anyone else can explain how humans think! So strong equivalence is a nice theoretical construction, but impossible in reality.

The Turing Test The other objection is that a computer might seem to be behaving in an intelligent manner, while it’s really just imitating behaviour. This might be true, but notice that when a parrot talks, or a horse counts, or a pet obeys our instructions, or a child imitates its parents we take all of these things to be signs of intelligence. If a parrot mimicking human sounds can be considered intelligent (at least to some small degree) then why wouldn’t a computer be considered intelligent (at least to some small degree) for imitating other human bevaviour?

Turing’s View “I believe that in about fifty years time it will be possible to programme computers with a storage capacity of about 109 to make them play the imitation game so well that an average interrogator will not have more than 70 per cent chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning.”

Can Machines Think? No machine has passed the Turing Test, yet.
Loebner Prize established in 1990 \$100,000 and a gold medal will be awarded to the first computer whose responses are indistinguishable from a human's Let’s look at one of the more difficult tasks for AI…

Aspects of AI Knowledge Representation Expert Systems Neural Networks
Semantic Networks Search Trees Expert Systems Neural Networks Natural Language Processing Robotics

Knowledge Representation
The knowledge needed to represent an object or event depends on the situation. There are many ways to represent knowledge. One is natural language. Even though natural language is very descriptive, it doesn’t lend itself to efficient processing.

Semantic Networks Semantic network: A knowledge representation technique that focuses on the relationships between objects. A directed graph is used to represent a semantic network (net).

Semantic Networks Figure A semantic network

Semantic Networks The relationships that we represent are completely our choice, based on the information we need to answer the kinds of questions that we will face. The types of relationships represented determine which questions are easily answered, which are more difficult to answer, and which cannot be answered. eos

Search Trees Search tree: a structure that represents all possible moves in a game, for both you and your opponent. The paths down a search tree represent a series of decisions made by the players.

Search Trees Figure A search tree for a simplified version of Nim

Search Trees Search tree analysis can be applied nicely to other, more complicated games such as chess. Because Chess trees are so large, only a fraction of the tree can be analyzed in a reasonable time limit, even with modern computing power.

Search Trees Techniques for searching trees
Depth-first: a technique that involves the analysis of selected paths all the way down the tree. Breadth-first: a technique that involves the analysis of all possible paths but only for a short distance down the tree. Breadth-first tends to yield the best results.

Search Trees Figure Depth-first and breadth-first searches

Search Trees Even tough the breadth-first approach tends to yield the best results, we can see that a depth-first search will get to the goal sooner – IF we choose the right branch. Heuristics are guidelines that suggest taking one path rather than another one. eos

Expert Systems Knowledge-based system: a software system that embodies and uses a specific set of information from which it extracts and processes particular pieces. Expert system: a software system based the knowledge of experts in a specialized field. An expert system uses a set of rules to guide its processing. The inference engine is the part of the software that determines how the rules are followed.

Expert Systems Example: What type of treatment should I put on my lawn? NONE—apply no treatment at this time TURF—apply a turf-building treatment WEED—apply a weed-killing treatment BUG—apply a bug-killing treatment FEED—apply a basic fertilizer treatment WEEDFEED—apply a weed-killing and fertilizer combination treatment

Expert Systems Boolean variables BARE—the lawn has large, bare areas
SPARSE—the lawn is generally thin WEEDS—the lawn contains many weeds BUGS—the lawn shows evidence of bugs

Expert Systems Some rules if (CURRENT – LAST < 30) then NONE
if (SEASON = winter) then not BUGS if (BARE) then TURF if (SPARSE and not WEEDS) then FEED if (BUGS and not SPARSE) then BUG if (WEEDS and not SPARSE) then WEED if (WEEDS and SPARSE) then WEEDFEED

Expert Systems An execution of our inference engine
System: Does the lawn have large, bare areas? User: No System: Does the lawn show evidence of bugs? System: Is the lawn generally thin? User: Yes System: Does the lawn contain significant weeds? System: You should apply a weed-killing and fertilizer combination treatment. eos

Artificial Neural Networks
Attempt to mimic the actions of the neural networks of the human body. Let’s first look at how a biological neural network works: A neuron is a single cell that conducts a chemically-based electronic signal. At any point in time a neuron is in either an excited or inhibited state.

Artificial Neural Networks
A series of connected neurons forms a pathway. A series of excited neurons creates a strong pathway. A biological neuron has multiple input tentacles called dendrites and one primary output tentacle called an axon. The gap between an axon and a dendrite is called a synapse.

Artificial Neural Networks
Figure A biological neuron

Artificial Neural Networks
A neuron accepts multiple input signals and then controls the contribution of each signal based on the “importance” the corresponding synapse gives to it. The pathways along the neural nets are in a constant state of flux. As we learn new things, new strong neural pathways are formed.

Artificial Neural Networks
Each processing element in an artificial neural net is analogous to a biological neuron. An element accepts a certain number of input values and produces a single output value of either 0 or 1. Associated with each input value is a numeric weight.

Sample “Neuron” Artificial “neurons” can be represented as elements.
Inputs are labelled v1, v2 Weights are labelled w1, w2 The threshold value is represented by T O is the output

Artificial Neural Networks
The effective weight of the element is defined to be the sum of the weights multiplied by their respective input values: v1*w1 + v2*w2 If the effective weight meets the threshold, the unit produces an output value of 1. If it does not meet the threshold, it produces an output value of 0.

Artificial Neural Networks
The process of adjusting the weights and threshold values in a neural net is called training. A neural net can be trained to produce whatever results are required.

Sample “Neuron” If the input Weights and the Threshold are set to the above values, how does the neuron act? Try a Truth Table…

With the weights set to .5 this neuron behaves like an AND gate.
Sample “Neuron” v1 v2 v1*w1 v2*w2 O 1 .5 w1=.5, w2=.5, T=1 With the weights set to .5 this neuron behaves like an AND gate.

Sample “Neuron” How about now?

With the weights set to 1 this neuron behaves like an OR gate.
Sample “Neuron” v1 v2 v1*w1 v2*w2 O 1 w1=1, w2=1, T=1 With the weights set to 1 this neuron behaves like an OR gate. eos

Natural Language Processing
There are three basic types of processing going on during human/computer voice interaction: Voice recognition — recognizing human words Natural language comprehension — interpreting human communication Voice synthesis — recreating human speech Common to all of these problems is the fact that we are using a natural language, which can be any language that humans use to communicate.

Voice Synthesis There are two basic approaches to the solution:
Dynamic voice generation Recorded speech Dynamic voice generation: A computer examines the letters that make up a word and produces the sequence of sounds that correspond to those letters in an attempt to vocalize the word. Phonemes: The sound units into which human speech has been categorized.

Voice Synthesis Figure Phonemes for American English

Voice Synthesis Recorded speech: A large collection of words is recorded digitally and individual words are selected to make up a message. Telephone voice mail systems often use this approach: “Press 1 to leave a message for Nell Dale; press 2 to leave a message for John Lewis.”

Voice Synthesis Each word or phrase needed must be recorded separately. Furthermore, since words are pronounced differently in different contexts, some words may have to be recorded multiple times. For example, a word at the end of a question rises in pitch compared to its use in the middle of a sentence. eos

Voice Recognition The sounds that each person makes when speaking are unique. We each have a unique shape to our mouth, tongue, throat, and nasal cavities that affect the pitch and resonance of our spoken voice. Speech impediments, mumbling, volume, regional accents, and the health of the speaker further complicate this problem.

Voice Recognition Furthermore, humans speak in a continuous, flowing manner. Words are strung together into sentences. Sometimes it’s difficult to distinguish between phrases like “ice cream” and “I scream”. Also, homonyms such as “I” and “eye” or “see” and “sea”. Humans can often clarify these situations by the context of the sentence, but that processing requires another level of comprehension. Modern voice-recognition systems still do not do well with continuous, conversational speech. eos

Natural Language Comprehension
Even if a computer recognizes the words that are spoken, it is another task entirely to understand the meaning of those words. Natural language is inherently ambiguous, meaning that the same syntactic structure could have multiple valid interpretations.

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
Syntax is the study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. So a syntactical analysis identifies the various parts of speech in which a word can serve, and which combinations of these can be assembled into sensible sentences.

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
A single word can represent multiple parts of speech. Consider an example: Time flies like an arrow. To determine what it means we first parse the sentence into its parts.

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
‘time’ can be used as a noun, a verb, or an adjective. ‘flies’ can be used as a noun, or a verb. ‘like’ can be used as a noun, a verb, a preposition, an adjective, or an adverb. ‘an’ can be used only as an indefinite article. ‘arrow’ can be used as a noun, or a verb.

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
The table below summarises the various possibilities. The a priori total number of syntactical interpretations is: 3 * 2 * 5 * 1 * 2 = 60 adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
This number can be reduced by applying syntactical rules. For example, articles are used to “indicate nouns and to specify their application” so ‘arrow’ must be a noun, not a verb. This cuts the number of possible sentences in half. adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
Other grammar rules will reduce this number further, but how far? Rather than eliminate combinations, it may be easier to build a list of reasonable possibilities. Consider the ways in which ‘time’ can be used: Adjective Noun Verb (intr)

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
An adjective is “the part of speech that modifies a noun” so when ‘time’ is an adjective, ‘flies’ must be a noun. A sentence needs a verb, so if ‘flies’ is a noun, ‘like’ must be the verb. If ‘time’ is an adjective there is only ONE possible meaning. adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow skip

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
When ‘time’ is a noun there appear to be 10 possibilities, but there can only be one verb so there are only 5. adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow

Natural Language Comprehension (syntax)
A sentence can have only one verb, so when ‘time’ is a verb there are only 4 possible combinations of the other parts. adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow The syntactical analysis reveals a total of 10 possible ways these words can form a sentence.

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
A syntactical analysis provides a structure, a semantic analysis adds meaning. Consider the first case in the syntactical analysis. adjective adverb article noun preposition verb time flies like an arrow What would the words mean under this syntactical interpretation?

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
time flies (not house flies) enjoy an arrow (watching it, chasing it, eating it) ‘time’ adjective “of, relating to, or measuring time” ‘flies’ noun “two-winged insect” ‘like’ verb “find pleasant or attractive” ‘an’ article ‘arrow’ noun “missile having a straight thin shaft with a pointed head at one end and often flight-stabilizing vanes at the other”

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
‘time’ adjective “of, relating to, or measuring time” ‘flies’ noun “two-winged insect” ‘like’ verb “find pleasant or attractive” ‘an’ article ‘arrow’ noun “missile having a straight thin shaft with a pointed head at one end and often flight-stabilizing vanes at the other” time flies (not house flies) enjoy an arrow (watching it, chasing it, eating it)

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
time flies (not house flies) enjoy an arrow (watching it, chasing it, eating it) ‘time’ adjective “of, relating to, or measuring time” ‘flies’ noun “two-winged insect” ‘like’ verb “find pleasant or attractive” ‘an’ article ‘arrow’ noun “missile having a straight thin shaft with a pointed head at one end and often flight-stabilizing vanes at the other”

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
time flies (not house flies) enjoy an arrow (watching it, chasing it, eating it) ‘time’ adjective “of, relating to, or measuring time” ‘flies’ noun “two-winged insect” ‘like’ verb “find pleasant or attractive” ‘an’ article ‘arrow’ noun “missile having a straight thin shaft with a pointed head at one end and often flight-stabilizing vanes at the other”

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
time flies (not house flies) enjoy an arrow (watching it, chasing it, eating it?) ‘time’ adjective “of, relating to, or measuring time” ‘flies’ noun “two-winged insect” ‘like’ verb “find pleasant or attractive” ‘an’ article ‘arrow’ noun “missile having a straight thin shaft with a pointed head at one end and often flight-stabilizing vanes at the other”

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
This interpretation sounds absurd to us, but as our analysis showed, it’s a perfectly logical interpretation of the words. This is problem is referred to as a lexical ambiguity. It arises because words have multiple syntactical and semantic associations. In this case there are many syntactically and semantically valid interpretations. skip

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
Consider the cases in which ‘time’ is a verb. The Free Dictionary lists 5 meanings: 1. To set the time for (an event or occasion). 2. To adjust to keep accurate time. 3. To adjust so that a force is applied or an action occurs at the desired time: timed his swing so as to hit the ball squarely. 4. To record the speed or duration of: time a runner. 5. To set or maintain the tempo, speed, or duration of: time a manufacturing process.

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
Not only are there 4 syntactical interpretations of the sentence when ‘time’ is a verb, each of those must be analysed under 5 semantic interpretations. Let’s explore a few: 4. To record the speed or duration of: time a runner. As a transitive verb, ‘time’ requires an object, so ‘flies’ is a noun. We’ve seen one meaning, here’s another of the 12 listed in The Free Dictionary : 5. Baseball A fly ball.

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
So, when you measure the length of time it takes a fly ball to travel its route, use the same techniques that you use when you time an arrow. This interpretation isn’t as odd as it might seem. We know that the paths taken by fly balls and arrows are all parabolic arcs, so it makes sense to time them the same way.

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
Consider the interpretations in which ‘time’ is a noun and ‘flies’ is a verb. (These are the parts of speech we would usually map onto them in this context.) The Free Dictionary lists 29 distinct meanings for the noun ‘time’. Consider the first one: a. A nonspatial continuum in which events occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future. This is a normal sense of what we mean by ‘time’ but which meaning of the verb ‘flies’ should be used?

Natural Language Comprehension (semantics)
The Free Dictionary lists only one definition: “Third person singular present tense of fly.” In this context, ‘fly’ can only be an intransitive verb, for which there are 14 different nuances. The most commonly used of these is “To engage in flight.” But can that be the meaning intended in our saying? How does a computer program decide? It’s easy to see why NLC is difficult for computers. eos

Natural Language Comprehension
A natural language sentence can also have a syntactic ambiguity because phrases can be put together in various ways. I saw the Grand Canyon flying to New York. Is it possible that the Grand Canyon flew to New York?

Natural Language Comprehension
Referential ambiguity can occur with the use of pronouns. The brick fell on the computer but it is not broken. Since ‘it’ is the subject of the second clause, its referent is the subject of the first clause – ‘the brick’! Are you happy knowing that no harm came to the brick? eos

Robotics Mobile robotics: The study of robots that move relative to their environment, while exhibiting a degree of autonomy. In the sense-plan-act (SPA) paradigm the world of the robot is represented in a complex semantic net in which the sensors on the robot are used to capture the data to build up the net. Figure The sense-plan-act (SPA) paradigm

Subsumption Architecture
Rather than trying to model the entire world all the time, the robot is given a simple set of behaviours each associated with the part of the world necessary for that behaviour Figure The new control paradigm

Subsumption Architecture
Figure Asimov’s laws of robotics are ordered. eof

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