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Computer Network Chapter 4. I think there is a world of market for maybe five computers Thomas J. Watson Chairman IBM, 1943.

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Presentation on theme: "Computer Network Chapter 4. I think there is a world of market for maybe five computers Thomas J. Watson Chairman IBM, 1943."— Presentation transcript:

1 Computer Network Chapter 4

2 I think there is a world of market for maybe five computers Thomas J. Watson Chairman IBM, 1943

3 Why Use Networks? Network Group of computers and devices Connected by transmission media Stand-alone computer Not connected to other computers Uses local software and data Advantages of networks over standalone computers Device sharing by multiple users Saves money and time Central network management

4 Types of Networks Network models Peer-to-Peer Client/server

5 Peer-to-Peer Network Figure 1-1 Resource sharing on a simple peer-to-peer network

6 Client/Server Networks Figure 1-2 Resource sharing on a client/server network

7 Networks are everywhere » Computers » Printer » Copier » Fax » Scanner » Personal Digital Assistants » Cell Phones » Radios » RFID (Radio Frequency ID)

8 Introduction Today people are often linked by wires or air (wireless) carrying voice and computer signals via the telephone system. Data communications dominate the world. Computer Network: The linkage of computer systems by means of communication lines or channels (e.g., fiber optic, microwave, satellite, telephone line, 802.11)

9 Computer Network At least two computers need to be connected Copper Fiber Optics Microwaves Infrared Satellites

10 Data Communications Telecommunications Data Processing = Data Communications +

11 Data Communication Electronic transfer of information from one computer to another. Data Text Pictures Graphics Video Voice

12 Network Components (Examples) Introduction 1-12 Fibers Coaxial Cable LinksInterfacesSwitches/routers Ethernet card Wireless card Large router Switch

13 Why network? Resource sharing –Files, Applications, Printer, Fax Communication Medium –Email, Collaboration, videoconferencing E-business –Supply-chain, inventory, B2C

14 Business Applications of Networks A network with two clients and one server.

15 Business Applications of Networks (2) The client-server model involves requests and replies.

16 Home Network Applications Access to remote information Person-to-person communication Interactive entertainment Electronic commerce

17 Communication Lines/Channels Fiber optic Microwave Satellite Telephone Line etc.

18 Impact of Data Communications 1.It enables information to be accessed and transmitted quickly. – Automatic Data Collection or Polling (i.e. Chuck E. Cheese) –menu update, get info from POS 2.It allows the storing of information in a centralized database that may be shared by a few users in a small computer network or by thousands of users in a large computer network. 3.It facilitates centralized management and decentralized operations (e.g., restaurant chain).

19 Impact of Data Communications It links business processes performed by independent computer systems to improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness It links a business to its customers Communication devices, such as cell phones, personal digital assistants, etc.

20 Local Area Network LAN is linkage of computers in a specific geographical area (usually within an office or building) such as in hotels, restaurants, or country clubs using transmission medium such as twisted pair wire or coaxial cable.

21 Why Local Area Network (LAN)? Increased processing and transfer requirements in many graphics-intensive applications now require significantly higher transfer rates (data, audio, image, video) Decreased cost of storage space leads to program and file bloat, increased need for transfer capacity Watch this video

22 Basic LAN Hardware Computers/Server(s) Resources Cables Connectors (Hubs) Network Interface Cards (Ethernet) ADVANCED Bridges Routers


24 Full versus half duplex Half duplex: communication can happen in both directions but one at a time (like walkie-talkie) Full duplex: communication can happen in both directions at the same time (like a phone)

25 Client Is any network entity that can request resources from the network. Workstations can be clients but not all clients are workstations For example, a printer can request resources from the network, it is a client, not a workstation.

26 Server A computer that provides resources to the clients on the network. Servers are typically powerful computers

27 Switch

28 Hub vs. Switch Hubsends signals to all computers connected Switch– sends signals to intended computer(s)

29 LANs share Files (databases) Resources (Printers, fax) Programs (Fidelio, MS Office) Working together Communication

30 WAN (Wide Area Network ) Communications Hardware WAN=Connection of at least two LANs Down-line processor/ Multiplexer Front-end Processor PBX(Private Branch Exchange) Watch Video

31 WAN Connection Types Private Lines – Frame Relay Dial-Up Satellite Down Line Processor or Multiplexer Front-end Processor PBX Switchboard Shared Lines – DSL – Cable

32 WAN in Hospitality Global Reservation System Central Reservation System Property Management System

33 Miami NYC LA Boston

34 Hotel Marriott NYCHotel Marriott Miami Dial-up (max 56Kbps) ISDN (128Kbps) DSL (1.5Mbps) Cable (3.5Mbps)

35 Hotel Marriott NYCHotel Marriott Miami T-1 (1.5Mbps) Frame Relay (1.5Mbps) T-3 (43Mbps) OC3 (155Mbps) ATM (622Mbps)

36 Hotel Marriott NYC 802.11b (11Mbps) 802.11g (54Mbps) 802.11a (54Mbps) 802.11n (<100Mbps)

37 A Small LAN

38 Wireless LAN Advantages 1.Wireless LANs are simple to set up. It literally can take 10 minutes for a simple wireless network to be setup. 2.Wireless LANs are cheap to create. 3.When it is not possible to wire, Wireless LANs come into rescue. Disadvantages 1.Security is the biggest down side of wireless LANs.


40 HP Server IBM Server

41 Network Hardware: Repeaters Extend the length of transmission media

42 Server Types File Server: holds and distributes files Print Server: handles printing jobs from clients Proxy Server: performs a function on behalf of other computers Application Server: hosts a network application (i.e. Marriotts central reservation system, Marsha) Web Server: handles web pages and other web content (i.e.,, Mail Server: hosts and delivers electronic mail. Fax Server: sends and receives faxes electronically. Voice over IP Server: Handles calls on Internet Protocol

43 Physical Media Coaxial Cable Thinnet (BNC Connector and RG-58) Twisted Pair Cable Category 1 – Category 6 RJ-11 and RJ-45 Connectors Fiber Optic Cable

44 Coaxial Cable Contains a center conductor, made of copper, surrounded by a plastic jacket Teflon type covering plenum-rated coating does not burn easily Coax is not used in LANs today but still used widely by TV cable operators

45 Thin Ethernet Thinnet 10Base-2 Thin coaxial cable– smaller than thick coaxial cable

46 A Stripped-back Thinnet

47 Thinnet

48 Connectors With thinnet, you use BNC (BayoNet Connector) connectors to attach stations to the network. BNC Connector locks securely with a quarter- twist motion A T-connector is used to connect backbone devices

49 Male and Female BNC Connectors


51 F type connector Popular with TV Cable and Cable Modems

52 Twisted-pair cable Consists of multiple, individually insulated wires that are twisted together in pairs Sometimes a metallic shield is placed around pairs shielded twisted pair (STP) Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)

53 Why twisted? Electromagnetic signals create interference crosstalk Twisting the cables in pairs reduce intereference Most common cable

54 Twisted-pair Cheaper Easy to work with Transmission rates are good

55 Fiber Optic Cable A glass or plastic fiber that carries light along its length. This cable is the fastest and most expensive transmission medium in the world today

56 Advantages of Fiber Optic Cable Superior System Performance Greatly increased bandwidth and capacity Lower signal loss Immunity to Electrical Noise Immune to noise (electromagnetic interference [EMI] and radio-frequency interference [RFI] Lower bit error rates Signal Security Difficult to tap Light weight

57 Topology Arrangement of workstations in a shared medium environment Logical arrangement (data flow) Physical arrangement (cabling scheme)

58 Network Topologies The manner in which workstations are connected together physically and logically is referred to as a NETWORK TOPOLOGY. 4 Types: Bus (Video)Video Ring (Video)Video Star (Video)Video Hybrid


60 BUS Topology Information transfer Terminators Setup is simple Expansion Repair Cost


62 STAR Topology Central network connector (switch) Less than 100m. Expansionswitch- uplink Troubleshooting Costcable


64 Ring Topology Information flows one way Close together Expansion Troubleshooting Cost


66 Hybrid Topology

67 Why Hybrid (Tiered)? Reliabilityless service interruption Capacity- not easily saturated Cost – low cost networks can build up Needs- not every department need the same equipment (accounting vs. graphics)


69 Network Management Network management is a systematic approach to planning, organizing, and controlling networks. The five basic functions of network management are: 1.Fault management 2.Configuration management 3.Performance management 4.Security Management 5.Accounting Management

70 Chapter 4

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