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1897 The World Zionist Organization was founded Zionists believed that Palestine was rightfully the homeland of the Jews.

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Presentation on theme: "1897 The World Zionist Organization was founded Zionists believed that Palestine was rightfully the homeland of the Jews."— Presentation transcript:


2 1897 The World Zionist Organization was founded Zionists believed that Palestine was rightfully the homeland of the Jews

3 During World War I the British made three incompatible promises about the Middle East Hussein-McMahon Correspondence: Arabs were promised an independent state across the Middle East Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916: the British and French would divide the area of the Ottoman Empire and decide the boundaries of the states Balfour Declaration: Stated that the Jews could have a national home in Palestine provided they would not step of the rights of the existing inhabitants.

4 Balfour Continued: The British hoped To gain the support of Jews within the Central Powers To gain the support of Jews in the U.S.

5 In 1919, the population of Palestine was 90% Arab. British officially took control of Palestine under a League of Nations Mandate in 1920 Zionists turned toward immigration to try to change the demographics Anti-Jew riots held in Jerusalem in 1920 in response to the Balfour Declaration British introduced quotas on Jewish Immigration stop the problem Quotas were high and problem continued

6 In 1921, Palestinian protests continued Failure of the British to honor the Sykes-Picot Agreement Continuing influx of Jews In 1922, the British promised There was no intention to hand over the whole Palestine to the Jews There would be no infringements of the rights of native Palestinians

7 British tried to set up a legislative council containing both Arabs and Jews Arabs would not give the Jews a guaranteed and disproportionate voice in the government British set up a commission in 1929 to look at the causes of Palestinian violence (Peel Commission) Found that Arabs Did not accept the British Mandate, wanted indep Feared the loss of their land to the Jews Desired the withdrawal of the Balfour Dec. Wished to prohibit the sale of any more land to the Jews

8 As Hitler came to power, Jews began to flock to Palestine In 1936, Arab Revolt began Guerilla resistance against the British Wanted independence, end of land sales to Jews, and end to Jewish Immigration Peel Commission recommended that Palestine be partitioned 80% to the Arabs and 20% to the Jews Arabs resisted because the Jews would be awarded the best farmland and saw no reason to give up any part of their homeland

9 Sept 1937-Jan 1939 British lost control of Jerusalem, Nablus, and Hebron British now were the targets British Tried to restore order Civilians were used as hostages to provide cover Demolished Arab homes 10% of the Palestinian population was killed Jews 400 killed British 200 killed

10 To gain Arab support in 1939, the British Limited to Jewish Immigration to 10,000/year Limited the land purchase of Jews Promised to set up an Arab state of Palestine within 10 years Anti-Semitism of the Nazis appealed to the Palestinians Zionists decided that British power was waning and would seek the support of the USA in the future Some appealed to Hitler to push the British out so they could set up their own homeland

11 Arabs were assured by Roosevelt and Truman that no post-war settlement of Palestine would be made Without full consultation with the Arabs Against the interests of the Arabs

12 In January of 1944, the Jewish National Military Organization (Irgun Zvai Leumi) called upon Jews of Palestine to drive out the British and install a Jewish Government British police stations were attacked Nov the British Minister in Cairo was murdered With the end of the war, there were large numbers of European Jews seeking a new homeland U.S. and Europe did not want them unless they were wealthy, famous, or well qualified

13 Arab League promised to prevent the formation of an exclusively Jewish state in Palestine (March 1945) In April of 1946, David Ben-Gurion demanded the right of 1.2 million Jews to settle in Palestine Hagganah had grown into a semi- professional army, together with Irgun; a terrorist campaign against the British and the indigenous Arab population began

14 Most famous atrocity was the blowing up of the British Military HQ in the King David Hotel on July 22, Nearly 100 killed July 30, 1946 the Morrison Plan was published 40% Arab 17% Jewish 43% including Jerusalem under direct British control Jews rejected the plan as offering too little of Palestine

15 Feb. 15, 1947 the British invited the United Nations to solve the problem British Mandate was to expire in 1948 The United Nations appointed a special committee on Palestine which was not recognized by the Palestinians August of 1947 the UN proposed Partition of Palestine. Half to Jews Jews made up one-third of the population and owned 6% of the land) Economically, Palestine would be a unit British would administer for 2 more years under the UN During that time 150,000 Jews were to be admitted

16 Reasons for the UN Plan: Feeling of guilt towards the Jews Large numbers of dispossessed European Jews seeking a new homeland Western countries did not want to take Zionists portrayed Palestine as the only refuge for Hitlers victims Truman wanted the Jewish vote in New York and pressured the British to allow 100,000 Jews to immigrate U.S. pressured nations to vote for partition by withholding economic aid

17 Jews outwardly accepted the settlement, Arabs refused to accept the settlement Arabs were blocked from taking the issue to International Court UN voted in November of U.S. and Soviets pressured smaller countries to support the plan Plan passes abstain

18 Following UN intervention, Jews prepared for armed conflict David Ben-Gurion instructed Hagganah to go on the offensive and push Palestinians out of the territory proposed by the UN Palestinians began to fight for their land in December 1947 –resented the impending loss of half of their homeland Riots broke out across Arab lands against Jews The Arab League proclaimed jihad against the Jews Israelis began to import fighter aircraft from Czechoslovakia

19 February, Jews drove out Arabs from part of Jerusalem and moved settlers in to take their place In the Spring, Hagganah implements Plan Dalet Occupy areas allocated to the Jews but also Jewish settlements outside of that area April 15 th, Irgun deliberately massacres 250 people (mostly women and children) Dayr Yasin Massacre Bodies were mutilated and disposed in wells The Jews broadcast their actions to create an exodus of Arab inhabitants Jews seized their land, houses, and possessions

20 May 15 th, David Ben Gurion declared the independence of the state of Israel Promised equality of political rights to all regardless of religion, race, or gender Hagganah was transformed into the Israeli army Unlimited Jewish immigration was announced David Ben Gurion was Prime Minister and Minister of War The U.S. recognized the new state of Israel 11 minutes into its existence

21 On the same day, the Egyptian air force bombed Tel Aviv (no deaths) and Iraqi troops crossed the Jordan Most of the fighting took place on territory that was to be part of Palestine In May, after 4 weeks of fighting, the Swedish proposed a truce Neither side accepted the Swedish proposal David Ben Gurion had to fight off challenges to his power Truce ended because Syria and Egypt were unwilling to extend it

22 Second war lasted from July 6-19 and led to a crushing Arab defeat Israel took over much of western Galilee Second truce was imposed by the United Nations In October, the Israelis invaded Negev Controlled by Egypt but awarded to Israel in the partition plan October, The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem was elected by the National Palestinian Council to be the head of the government of all of Palestine All Arab nations recognized this action except King Abdullah of Jordan (his enemy)

23 King Abdullah held his own conference announcing… Palestine and Trans Jordan was a single entity- Arab Hashemite Kingdom Palestinians would be elected to the parliament in Amman King Abdullah wanted control over the Palestinian lands Israel was willing to work with him October 21 st - Israel prohibited non-Jewish Palestinians from visiting or living in certain areas of Israel without a permit Allowed the Israeli military to expel Palestinians from these areas

24 January of 1949, Israeli law stated that all meat coming into the country had to conform to the Jewish religious laws. State was taking on a religious character

25 Arab armies were poorly equipped British withheld spare parts Jews were well supplied by the Czechs, Zionists in the USA, and Europe Arab forces were inexperienced and poorly coordinated Rivalries between Arab leaders Jews had their government and army in existence and were prepared for war Palestinians were suffering from British repression of which had hurt their leadership

26 Israel seized more land than had been awarded by the UN Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan Israel held 78% of Palestine Nearly 1million Arabs fled to Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon where they lived in refugee camps Dec. 1948, UN passes a resolution that allows refugees wishing to return to their homes and live in peace should be permitted to do so. Compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return Israel ignored

27 United Nations Refugee and Works Administration for Palestinians was est. It looked after 30,000 Arab refugees who had fled Israel and couldnt return to their homes because they had been seized Palestinian refugees who had fled to areas under Arab control It provided Relief Health care Social services Education

28 No Arab state recognized the legitimacy of the State of Israel The British, Americans, and the French guaranteed the new borders of Israel and promised to sell limited arms in the region

29 Passed laws designed to make it impossible for dispossess Palestinians to ever take back their homes and land Deliberately and systematically bulldozed many Arab villages Invited Jewish settlers from all over the world Law of Return (1950): Jews everywhere had the right to live in Israel Along the border areas, some 5,000 Palestinians were killed by Israelis between

30 Most Arabs lived in the border areas of Israel. These areas were ruled by martial law until 1966 Most of the land was placed under the ownership of the Jewish National Fund which prohibits it sale or lease to non-Jews forever Government spending was spent on Jewish settlements, keeping Arab villages in a state of underdevelopment Between some 567,000 Jews were expelled from Arab states in reprisal for the expulsion of the Palestinians. Most settled in Israel

31 Egypt was under British control Britain considered the use of the Suez Canal vital Suez Canal Company was owned by mainly British and French During WW II Britain took control of Egypt and made it into a British base Egyptians began to resent British control and were humiliated Most Egyptians were poor landless peasants Land was owned by a tiny number of rich King Farouk was uninterested in the plight of his countrymen

32 USA wanted to establish Middle East Defense Organization (MEDO) to resist communism Egypt rejects MEDO and rejected British control. Initiated Guerilla attacks in on the Canal Zone 1952 Gamal Abdul Nasser led a coup to over throw King Farouk Nasser was part of a group that established the Society of Free Soldiers in 194 Fight political corruption, depose the King, end British domination Modernize Egypt, raise standard of living, Arab Unity

33 In 1953, the monarchy was abolished and a one party republic was established Communists were suppressed as was the Muslim Brotherhood Nasser will become prime minister after a power struggle Nasser wants To end British colonial rule End the existence of the state of Israel To follow a policy of non-alignment Arab Unity

34 1956, Nasser announces a socialist Arab state One party, Islam was the official religion U.S. and Great Britain agreed to finance the first part of the Aswan High Dam Hoped to form ties to keep Communism out of Egypt Nasser encouraged guerrilla bands of fedayeen to attack Israel Wanted to recover their homes from Jewish settlers Israel will retaliate by attacking groups of refugees in Egypt

35 Nasser wanted to eradicate colonialism and create Arab Unity Nasser opposed CENTO (only Pakistan and Iran joined) Nasser decided to arm Egypt because Israel and France were working around arms agreements Egypt concludes arms deal with Czechoslovakia and officially recognized the Peoples Republic of China U.S. pulls funds for Aswan High Dam Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal to finance the building of the dam

36 British believed that Egypt was trying to build a unified Arab kingdom under the influence of communism This would threaten their oil supply British, French, and Israelis discussed an attack on Egypt October 29 th 1956, Israel attacked Egypt Captured the Sinai Peninsula within a week.

37 British and French issued an ultimatum for both sides to withdraw Egypt refused the ultimatum Britain and France then bombed Egyptian airfields and landed troops at the north end of the canal Attack caused world outcry America was afraid it would push Arab states to communism, refused to support Br, Fr, and Is U.S. joined U.S.S.R demanding withdrawal Soviets were dealing with the Hungarian Revolt but threatened to use ICBMs on Britain and France

38 Consequences Nasser remained in power, his prestige increased among the Arab nations Disruption of international trade Reduced oil exports to the west Br. And Fr. Influence in Middle East reduced Eisenhower Doctrine (U.S. will use force to contain communism in Mid East) UN forces reopened the canal for shipping

39 Significance of the Suez War It was part of the continuing struggle between Israel and the Arab states Demonstrated that Israel had established itself as a state and had the ability to expand its territory Entry of the Arab-Israeli conflict into the cold war

40 Causes Egypt was encouraging guerillas to attack villages across the border and Israel was retaliating Israel was looking to expand into the West Bank Egypt blocked the Straits of Tiran from Israeli shipping 1967 Nasser asked the UN to remove peacekeeping troops from the Gaza Strip Nasser was under pressure from other Arab Nations Egypt, Jordan, and Syria began to concentrate troops on their borders with Israel

41 Course of the War Israel pushed for American support of an attack Israel appointed Moshe Dayan as Defense Minister (Symbol of the Suez Campaign) In an element of surprise, Israel attacked the air force of Egypt on June 4 th, 1966 Obliterated the Egyptian Air force, ground troops would have no air support Jordanian troops attacked, Israel was able to gain East Jerusalem and moved into the West Bank Jordan accepted the UN cease-fire on June 7 th Egypt accepted the cease fire on June 8 th

42 Syria accepted the cease fire on June 9 th but Moshe Dayan wanted an opportunity to confront Syria Dayan ordered an all out assault on Golan Heights June 10 th, the Six Day War ended Results Israel acquired the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, Jerusalem and West Bank from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria

43 Results: UN Security Council Resolution 242 Demanded the withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territory it recently occupied Guaranteed freedom of navigation through all international waterways in the region A just settlement of the Palestinian refugee problem Guarantees of territory for every state in the region Arab refugees of the Gaza Strip and West Bank found themselves under Israeli rule Communist block broke off diplomatic relations with Israel U.S. backed Israel

44 The Aftermath Sporadic fighting continued along the borders Palestinians formed the Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine, Al Fatah, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization Hijacked aircraft in 1970 In 1972, attacked passengers at Lydda Airport in Tel Aviv Attacked the Israeli Olympic team in Munich in 1972 Acts were intended to bring attention to the plight of the Palestinians but much of the world opinion was outraged by the acts themselves

45 Aftermath Egyptian and Israeli forces engaged in sporadic fighting across the border War of Attrition Jordanian Crisis (August –Sept 1970) Seeing the PLO as a threat, King Hussein of Jordan attacked PLO refugee camps Prior to the attacks PLO supported groups challenged Jordanian Law, took westerners hostage, and hijacked 4 planes His attack led to the formation of Black September This group assumed responsibility for the attacks on the Israeli Olympic team Syrians threatened a tank invasion

46 The Aftermath Jordanian Crisis Nasser played a large role in negotiating an end to the crisis The strain of the negotiation caused Nasser to collapse and die on Sept. 28 th 1970.

47 Arab League supported the establishment of an organization that would represent Palestinians and strive toward the liberation of Palestine Nasser backed this idea to have a new group in the League that would be under his control This would prevent Palestinians from taking action against Israel that would drag Egypt into a confrontation

48 Arab leaders chose Ahmad al-Shuqayri as leader of the PLO (1964) King Hussein banned the PLO and Fatah from all activities including recruitment in his country Al Shuqayri had stated the East and West Bank Jordan and Israel all were part of Palestine Jordan had a population made up of 60% Palestinian Al Shuqayri seemed much too tame for Syria who wanted militant action against Israel. Syrias support turned to a smaller Palestinian organization…Al-Fatah Syria also wanted to oust King Hussein

49 Syrias sponsorship of Fatah was an effort to reestablish itself as the main player in the Arab revolutionary struggle Syria was controlled by the Baath Party Baath party mixed Arab nationalism and Arab Socialism. It was opposed to Western Imperialism and called for unity in the Arab world under one state By 1965, 39 random bombings had taken place Israel was concerned about its security It wasnt clear where the attacks were coming from Jordan was concerned about an Israeli retaliation Both Hussein and Nasser feared the outbreak of hostilities Syria was trying to paint both Egypt and Jordan as soft on Israel

50 In Dec. of 1967 members of the PLOs executive committee demanded that Al Shuqayri resign He refused and asked for support from Nasser Nasser refused to back him and he resigned 1968 PLO Charter stated that armed struggle would be the only way to liberate Palestine Fatah and the PLO would merge in 1969 and Yassir Arafat was named the leader Arafat was involved in the battle of Karameh which helped propel him into the leadership position Karameh was a Palestinian refugee camp and Fatah Headquarters that was attacked by Israel in 1968 after an attack on an Israeli Bus. Israel won the battle but suffered many casualties. Arafat wanted to shape the PLO into a unified political and military organization

51 In August of 1970, Hussein, Nasser, and Golda Meir agreed to bring the war of attrition to a temporary halt PLO was shocked and felt betrayed by Egypt and Jordan Felt the best way to end the cease-fire would be to overthrow King Hussein King Hussein attacked the PLO in Sept. of 1970 PLO was forced to flee Jordan and established itself in Lebanon Nasser dies during negotiations and Anwar Sadat replaces him

52 Sadat wanted to regain the Sinai Peninsula and re-establish control over the Suez Canal Also had far reaching economic goals. War of Attrition had left Egypt bankrupt Wanted to move Egypt closer to the U.S. Proposed that Israel withdraw from the canal zone as a first step for Israel to fulfill Resolution 242 Promised to restore diplomatic relations with the U.S. and sign a peace agreement with Israel Israel rejected the proposal

53 Sadat asked the Soviets to remove all of its advisors and technicians in July of 1971 This was done to satisfy the U.S. Sadat and President Assad of Syria then began to plan for war against Israel Felt this was the only way to get Israel to the negotiating table. Sadat wanted to take back the canal and the Sinai Assad wanted to regain the Golan Heights Israel didnt recognize the warning signs until it was too late

54 On Oct. 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched Operation Badr against Israel This was the day of a Jewish religious celebration, Yom Kippur Israel faced heavy losses since Egypt and Syria were well equipped with Soviet weapons Israel appealed to the U.S. for help and weapons U.S. airlifted weapons after the Soviets resupplied Egypt Israel counterattacked against Syria and was closing in on the Syrian capital of Damascus Israel was also having success against Egypt in the Sinai

55 In response to the U.S. helping Israel, OPEC stopped shipping oil to the U.S. and any country that supported Israel They dropped their Oil shipments by 25% causing a world shortage During the 3 rd week of October, the superpowers got involved U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev met in Moscow to draft a plan to end the war

56 All sides initially rejected calls for a cease fire but later changed their minds when the U.S. and Soviets threatened to intervene Ceasefire was agreed on Oct. 22 nd, 1973 Consequences of the 1973 Arab armies were not defeated, first time since 1948 Arab states emerged more united than ever Middle East countries will now use oil as a bargaining tool. European Economic Community affirmed that the rights of Palestinians must be considered in any settlement of the Arab-Israeli conflict

57 Consequences Sadat emerged as an international statesman and Egypt increased political status in the region Israel technically won the war but public confidence in the government was shaken Moshe Dayan (Defense Minister) and Golda Meir (Prime Minister) were forced to resign in April of 1974 Yitzhak Rabin took over leadership of the Israeli government

58 International attempts to resolve tensions in the region generally failed Secretary of State Henry Kissinger became a key figure He knew that Sadat was willing to work with Israel Kissinger was concerned about OPEC and decided to take multiple visits to the Middle East Kissinger also suggested to the Palestinians that any partial withdrawal done by Israel might lead to a more comprehensive withdrawal in the future (shuttle diplomacy)

59 Kissinger would help convince Israel to withdraw from the Suez and Sinai Peninsula In 1974 at the Arab League meeting the PLO was declared the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people Yassir Arafat began to have hope that a separate Palestinian state would happen It would be made up of the West Bank and Gaza Strip Arafat was asked to address the UN General Assembly This was a change in direction for the UN which had supported partition

60 On Nov. 22, 1974 the UN passes Resolution 3236 Reaffirmed the inalienable rights of the Palestinian people in Palestine to the right of self determination and the right to national independence Invited the PLO to participate in the UN as an observer PLO had been legitimized by the United Nations

61 Rabins government was the first Likud Government since 1948 Its Prime Minister was Menachem Begin Begin was considered to be a hardliner among the Arab states Ideological background of the party indicated that giving up any land to the Palestinians would be a betrayal of Israels sovereignty Jimmy Carter became president in the U.S. in 1976 He traveled to Syria to test the waters of a peace agreement He found out that Syria didnt support the idea of an independent Palestine only a Syrian controlled PLO

62 Carters hope for peace seemed to be shattered when Begin compared Arafat to Hitler In 1977, Sadat announced that he was willing to go to Israel and address the Knesset Sadat was denounced by some Arab states and the PLO as a traitor He traveled to Jerusalem in November of 1977 and addressed the Knesset No breakthrough took place but a groundbreaking meeting took place.

63 In September of 1978, President Carter invited Begin and Sadat to Camp David for talks It was a bad tempered affair between Begin and Sadat Sadat threatened to return to Egypt after days of discussion Camp David Accords were signed on Sept. 17, 1978 Called for Jordan, Egypt, Israel, and the Palestinian people to resolve issues in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip over a period of 5 years

64 Camp David Accords Continued Israel would withdraw from the Sinai in exchange for free passage through the Gulf of Suez and the Canal The territorial issues would not be settled. Sadat was considered a traitor and was assassinated by his own army in October of 1981 Arab League and the PLO suspended diplomatic relations with Egypt Accords brought peace between Egypt and Israel for over 30 years but key issues were unresolved Gaza Strip, West Bank, Golan Heights, and East Jerusalem remained under Israeli control

65 Following the defeat of the PLO in Lebanon, it was forced to move its headquarters to Tunis On Dec. 8, 1987, an Israeli Army vehicle crashed into a truck in Gaza Killed 4 Palestinian workers and wounded 7 Funerals turned into a protest against Israel Israeli army fired upon the protesters, killing one This began the first Intifada (shaking off) of Israeli presence Despite military superiority, the Israelis were unable to control the Intifada

66 Radical Islamic groups, Hamas and Islamic Jihad were formed Their aims included the establishment of an Islamic State in Palestine through Jihad Norway 1993: A meeting between Israel and the PLO resulted in the Declaration of Principles (Oslo Accord) This was the first step in allowing for Israel to withdraw from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, Yassir Arafat, and Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres won the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts in 1994 Sept peace accords were signed at the White House creating three zones in the West Bank and proposed how they would be controlled Also agreed that elections would be held to create the Palestinian Authority

67 Radicals were furious on both sides Rabin was assassinated on Nov. 4, 1995 Shimon Peres became the new Prime Minister and began implementing the peace accord Jan Palestinian elections were held and Arafat was the clear winner, seemed as if a Palestinian state was in the process of being created Israel assassinated Yahya Ayyaash a Hamas bomb expert Suicide bombings increased and Peres launched Operation Grapes of Wrath in April of Attacked Hezbollah camps and Lebanese Roads

68 Peres was defeated by Benjamin Netanyahu in the next election, he condemned the Oslo agreements Allowed Israeli settlers to occupy land in the West Bank 1997 Hebron Agreement: Israel would withdraw from the West Bank and Palestinians would reduce terrorist attacks In 2000, Likud party leader Ariel Sharon insisted on visiting the Temple Mount, one of Islams holiest sites

69 Protesters tried to block his access and the Israeli army fired upon them, killing 4 The second Intifada broke out with extreme violence Arafats decision to support the Intifada led to the rejection of the Oslo process Ariel Sharon became prime minister in Feb. of 2001 and adopted a hardline approach Arafat was unable to control the extremist elements Was unable to move Israel out of the Gaza and the West Bank Arafat died in Nov. of 2004 and was succeeded by Mahmoud Abbas

70 Abbas was unable to provide sound leadership In the elections of 2006, Hamas gained control of the Palestinian Authority This strengthened Israels determination not to surrender land Fatah would not accept the result of the election In 2007, the Hamas government collapsed Hamas continued to fire rockets at Israel Smuggled weapons from Egypt Israel invaded Gaza in 2009 killing 1,000 Palestinians.

71 Looking at document 4.2, explain the reasoning behind the partition plan of Make sure you look at all 15 points Discuss how the Israeli Information Service justifies the formation of Israel. What are some of their appeals?

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