Presentation on theme: "The Management Package. The AMG can be described as an analogue to a computer where the water supply and irrigation systems are the hardware and the crop."— Presentation transcript:
The AMG can be described as an analogue to a computer where the water supply and irrigation systems are the hardware and the crop management package is the software. One can not operate without the other. The agriculture management package includes the following parameters: Land preparation Nursery management Irrigation and fertigation Adapted varieties Pest and disease control The management of the traditional horticulture production system using watering cans was compared with a system irrigated with watering cans but given the management package of the AMG and with the AMG including low pressure drip irrigation integrated with the management package
AMGIM FP (Farmer practice) Lettu ce OkraEggpl ant Irrigation method dripwat. can Water applied (L m -2 day -1 ) 8812 10 Irrigation intensity (mm/hr)4.2300 Manure (kg m -2 )441.53.21 NPK (g m -2 )100 0010 Urea (kg)Lettuce: 10 Okra: 42 Eggplant: 52 61525
Everyone says that water savings is the major advantage of drip irrigation Everyone says that water savings is the major advantage of drip irrigation This may be so in Israel and in water expensive countries However in Africa where more than 80% of producers practice watering can irrigation, by far the major advantage of drip irrigation is: Labor saving
Selection of adapted vegetables varieties Most vegetable varieties produced in West Africa are imported from Europe and are not necessarily adapted to the climate and growing conditions of the SAHEL ICRISAT together with AVRDC have been engaged since 2001 in selection, purification and breeding of a series of open pollinated vegetable varieties adapted to the Sahel
Selection of tomatoes for the rainy season. 25 varieties were tested
Xina was selected and so far underwent six cycles of purification
Tomatoes for Regional Exports There is a very big market for dry season tomatoes in the tropical countries of West Africa. (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin) Burkina Faso is now leading regional exports of tomatoes, supplying 40% of Ghana tomatoes Petomech is the current variety for export. However shelf life of this variety is relatively short and the fruit is small ICRISAT/AVRDC is developing an open pollinated tomato variety with very firm fruit and a shelf life greater than 20 days
Onions Violet de Galmi is the dominant onion variety in WASAT This variety was created by CIRAD in the mid sixties The variety was not maintained and it deteriorated. Small farmers started to produce their own seeds thus in practice creating hundreds of Violet de Galmi lines In 2003 ICRISAT assembled 45 five lines of Violet de Galmi from across Niger These were evaluated in the field Two lines were selected: Line #13 for very high yields but with somewhat short storage life and line #28 with very good storage life, good quality and reasonable yield. These two lines are being purified In addition the two lines were crossed and we are now selecting from this cross lines for high yield, long storage life and improved quality.
Seeds of 45 lines of Violet de Galmi onions were collected all over Niger. One line gave high yield. A second gave long storage life
Lettuce for Year Round Production-a Success Story Lettuce varieties currently produced in WASAT originated in Europe. These varieties bolt (flower) readily as a response to high temperatures. Non bolting lettuce can be produced only during the three cooler months of the year. In other seasons farmers harvest leaves from flowering stalks. These leaves are bitter and hard Furthermore local lettuce growers produce their own seeds This resulted in deterioration of the original lettuce varieties In a short period of time we were able to select four bolting tolerant quality varieties. The Maya variety was especially bred for the Sahel by the later Dr. Globerson
Fifteen varieties of lettuce were tested for bolting tolerance. Four were selected bolting tolerance. Four were selected
Four lettuce varieties Queensland Aviram Noga Maya
Organization TIPA cluster and communal systems are based on a multitude of individual drip irrigated parcels located one beside the other. Water is supplied to all parcels from a single source. Usually donors pay all investment costs but producers are requested to pay operation costs (water, manure, fertilizers, sprays, guard, and general maintenance, amortization). The payment for all the above can be carried out from dues collected from members of a group. This requires a high level of organization of all producers.
Women obey better to group regulations and are therefore more easy to organize than men. The Communal system in which irrigation, fertigation and crop spray is provided by the community can be better operated by women then by men groups Based on experience it is estimated that 30% of the revenues from vegetables (and fruit) should be set aside for operation costs whereas 70% can go to the individual farmers pockets. In Tanka-Niger where each woman cultivates a 600m² parcel, average monthly revenue is $240/woman. After setting aside $60 for operations, each woman brings home $180/month-six times the average income in the region
Upscaling TIPA Starting 2002 TIPA dissemination in West Africa SAT was carried out within the framework of pilot projects. Technical support to the various pilot projects was given mostly by ICRISAT in collaboration with National Agriculture Research Institutes (NARs) and the Israeli Embassy in Dakar. Starting 2011 TIPA will face serious upscale in many West Africa countries particularly in Niger, Benin and Senegal. In Niger and Benin about 12 new sites are expected per country and for Senegal 50 sites of 5 ha each are planned. This upscaling will require a new mode of organization to facilitate dissemination
The Service Center The Service Center is a facility that will be established at the heart of the region targeted for TIPA dissemination. It will provide most services needed to guarantee sustainability of the TIPA sites. These are: Planning of TIPA sites and supporting installation Training of trainers in all relevant aspects of low pressure drip irrigation and horticulture production Field training of producers in the above aspects Regular follow up of field activities Training in organization and marketing support Supply of spare parts Supply of quality vegetables seeds and fruit trees plants If needed supply of chemicals including soluble fertilizers
Provision of mobile courses (Kanadim) Facilitating training in ISRAEL or at ICRISAT Adaptive research Demonstration Provision of other services if and when needed The first TIPA Service Center will probably be launched in Senegal within the framework of a new project aiming at the establishment of 50 sites each on a 5 hectares field. It is mostly through its support of these Services Centers that MASHAV can turn TIPA into the flag project of Israel in Africa.
Thank you Dov Globerson for the lettuce Thank you