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The African Market Garden (TIPA) Advantages and Constraints an Integrated Horticultural production package Lessons learned and Perspectives for the Future.

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Presentation on theme: "The African Market Garden (TIPA) Advantages and Constraints an Integrated Horticultural production package Lessons learned and Perspectives for the Future."— Presentation transcript:

1 The African Market Garden (TIPA) Advantages and Constraints an Integrated Horticultural production package Lessons learned and Perspectives for the Future

2 2 Horticultural production Irrigation contributes to: Increased productivity Independent of erratic rainfall increased impact of other yield-enhancing technologies (fertilizer, improved seed, IPM) Stabilizing production enhanced food security reducing financial risk of applying fertilizer This leads to better integration into markets

3 3 Horticultural production Grow Horticulture crops with Irrigation. High returns: –Per unit area from high value crops –Year round cash flow –Intntl and local Market: Urban population SSA grows 4%pyear; demand fresh vegetables Nutrition: –Vitamin A deficiency

4 4 Horticultural production Current production systems are Inefficient with labor, water and energy Exacerbate soil erosion/degradation Little productive due to socio economic constraints, limited access to credit, markets and technologies and lack of institutional support

5 5 The African Market Garden

6 6 Platform for introduction of new improved varieties to optimize cropping calendar

7 7 Labor saving (60%) Kalale Watering can 12m hr/day Drip Irrigation 120m hr/day

8 8 Economics Operational costs AMG 20% lower

9 9 Economics Revenues can be up to 50% higher Due to –Drip irrigation: improved soil moisture conditions and no adverse effects of over/under-watering –Use of improved ICRISAT/AVRDC selected varieties for year-round production –Use of fertilizer/pesticides

10 10 Economics Set up costs 500m 2 AMG 50% higher

11 11 Economics Profit AMG 500-1,000 $ per 500 m² Double that of traditional irrigated gardens Payback period 500 m² : 13 months 1000 m² : 8 months Woltering L, Ndjeunga J, Pasternak D The Economics of African Market Garden and Watering Can Irrigation Methods in Niger. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics: Working paper series, Socioeconomics and policy, Patancheru, India, Vol (XXX), (55) (in press)

12 12 Economics However AMG requires 1.Investment 2.Land ownership 3.Professional attitude 4.Market Access Educated Experienced Vegetable producers

13 13 AMG models How to reach the poor farmers? 1.Investment: - Share costs 2.Land Ownership: - Target farmer groups that own land 3.Professional attitude- Provide cost-effective training/follow up 4.Market Access- Joint marketing and purchase of inputs Target: Producer groups to benefit from economies of scale

14 14 AMG models Cluster and Communal AMG system –No need for individual reservoirs, boreholes or pumps –Easy access for training and monitoring –Mutual learning among producers –Joint marketing and purchase of inputs CLUSTER of 500m2 plots COMMUNAL management of 5,000 m²

15 15 AMG models: Cluster One large water source, but producers have individual control of water and fertilizer Target: Group of independent vegetable producers Pressure provided by Dam elevated above field (rice fields)

16 16 AMG models: Cluster Yelou- Gaya Region (Niger) 5 ha Pressure provided by artesian borehole (4-5 m head)

17 17 Yelou- Nov 2009 Yelou- Gaya Region (Niger)

18 18 AMG models: Cluster Keur Yarba (Senegal) Pressure provided by underutilized water towers borehole (7-10 m head)

19 19 AMG models: Communal 20-m3 concrete reservoir serves an area of 5,000 m2 Community provision of basic services (Water, fertilizer and chemical spray) Field subdivided to individual producers Target: Group of well-organized vegetable producers

20 20 AMG models: Communal Dunkassa- Kalale Region (Benin)

21 21 AMG models: Communal Tanka- Dallol Baleyara (Niger)

22 22 AMG models Great benefits from collective action, yet Organisation is key for sustainability: Contributions to common cash for purchase inputs or to strengthen group (credit to members). Legalize status of Land Internal rules and regulations

23 23 AMG models The development of the AMG models was driven by decreasing set up costs while achieving higher profits /unit land

24 24 Alternative Energy AMG requires only 1-meter pressure for operation it can draw on low-capacity renewable energy sources like solar, artesian wells or gravity from low elevation

25 25 artesian wells Artesian Wells in Niger Koutoumbou- Gaya region Estimated 100 m3/hr Damana- Baleyara area 5-8 m3/hr Diginessa- Ouallam 10 m3/hr Wankam- Baleyara 5-8 m3/hr Kolo Bangou- Baleyara area 5m3/hr

26 26 Alternative Energy Irrigation with Solar energy independent of fuel availability and price fluctuations Low maintenance fit well in rural settings Self regulator; solar radiation is the main driver of both pump speed and evapotranspiration of crops

27 27 Alternative Energy Solar energy Assume: Water need 80 m3/day for 200 days/year Sandy soil, water at 5m depth Labor 125CFA/hr (0.27 $/hr) Fuel 0.12 L to move 1m3 at 1 US$/liter Compare hand pump (4yr lifetime), motor pump (5yr), solar pump (8yr)

28 28 Alternative Energy Solar energy Compatible with Communal AMG Reservoirs serve as battery (energy stored in form of water elevated above field)

29 29 Alternative Energy Solar energy Benin Micro Irrigation project Project Donor/partner: SELF (Solar Electric Light Fund) Video: v=Ca6qw5x_n-M

30 30 Alternative Energy Solar energy Benin Micro Irrigation project

31 31 Options for dissemination AMG in West Africa Go for Producer groups to benefit from economies of scale Provide minimum 2 years of technical support Utilize existing infrastructure/resources and alternative energy Niger groundwater resources: renewable 3 billion m 3 /year and fossil 2000 billion m3– development is restricted by lack of energy/high cost of energy

32 32 Requirements for large scale dissemination AMG Private sector development for provision of irrigation equipment, seeds, knowledge, etc AMG service centers Conducive institutional environment: credit available, long repayment periods, subsidies and tax regulations Capacity building

33 33 Research focus Improved vegetable varieties, processing and storage techniques for smallholder producers Bio pesticides/fertilizer solutions Socio economic evaluations AMG vs traditional systems Low cost alternatives for pumps (alternative energies), reservoirs and other components of AMG

34 34 The way ahead Effective large-scale dissemination of the AMG will require the establishment of service centers that give the following services: Planning Supply of equipment and materials (fertilizers, pesticides, seeds, plants plastics etc) Training and follow up

35 35 Merci Thank you


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