1Lecture # 31 Industrial Sector: Problems & Solutions Recap of lecture # 30Topic: Introduction to Economy of PakistanEconomic history of PakistanStructure of EconomySectors: Agriculture, IndustryIndustriesPrerequisites of Economic DevelopmentEconomic FactorsStock of capitalLabor and Manpower
2Cont. Power Transport and Communications National Highway & road links Railway Tracks map of PakistanEducation & TrainingNon Economic Factors: Social Culture FactorPolitical FactorAdministrative FactorsToday’s topic:Industrial Sector: Problems & Solutions
3Pakistan Economic Structure : Primary Sector Primary Sector: Pakistan’s primary sector plays a major role in the country’s economy. Primarily an agrarian economy, Pakistan produces a range of agricultural products. Around 43% of the country’s labor is engaged in the primary sector, which in turn contributes 20.8% to the country’s economy in 2009.Pakistan is the second largest producer of Chickpea and the third largest producer of mango in the world according to the 2005 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
4Cont.Some other major agricultural products of Pakistan include onion, cotton, rice, tangerines, oranges, apricot, sugarcane, date palm, Clementine and wheat. Dairy farming is also a large industry in Pakistan. In fact, Pakistan is the fifth largest milk producer in the world.Although Pakistan has a considerable livestock population, it spends around $40 million a year on formula milk import.
5Cont.Categorized as semi-industrialized, Pakistan’s economy has grown tremendously since its independence in Punjab and Karachi states constitute the major share in the economic growth of the country.The first decade of the 21st century has experienced wide-ranging economic reforms particularly in manufacturing and financial services sector, leading to improvement in the country’s economic outlook.
6Pakistan Economic Structure: Secondary Sector Secondary Sector : Pakistan’s manufacturing sector provides employment to 20.3% of the country’s labor force (est. 2005). Some major manufacturing industries include cotton textile and apparel manufacturing, carpets, rugs, rice, chemicals, sports goods and leather goods.Some other popular industries are construction materials, mineral, paper products, food processing and beverages. Around 51.4% of country’s exports include textile and apparel. The secondary sector experienced a growth of 5.4% in However, electricity shortage remains the biggest challenge in ensuring development of Pakistan’s secondary sector.
7Pakistan Economic Structure: Services Sector Services Sector: The services sector of Pakistan mainly includes industries such as finance, insurance, transport, communications and storage that account for 24% of the country’s GDP. Wholesale and retail trade has 30% share in the GDP.With increase in the country’s software exports, the IT industry is emerging as a flourishing service industry. Despite union unrest, the Pakistani government is actively engaged in privatization of banking, telecommunications and utilities to produce more jobs in the country.***
8Problems of Industrial Sector British Policy at the time of Partition, only 34 units given to Pakistan out of 921.Controversial Industrial StrategyShortage of Capital3. Limited MarketsLack of Technical Know-HowLack of InfrastructureLack of Industrial ResearchUnbalanced Industrial Structure8. Labor Unrest9. Nationalization10. Lack of Specialization
9Controversial Industrial Strategy The slow growth in industrial sector is mainly due to rapid changes in the industrial development strategies. The planners have not yet been able to solve the central issues such as:Sectorial balance between agricultural and industrial sectorBalanced regional developmentGrowth versus distribution strategySmall scale verses large scaleCapital intensive verses labor intensivePublic sector versus private sectorRural versus urbanNationalization of industriesImport substitution versus export promotion
10Lack of CapitalIn Pakistan, the saving and investment is very low. Private foreign investment and foreign aid has other adverse effects. There is inadequate facility of industrial credit in the country and the expansion of industries are handicapped.
11Limited MarketsLimited domestic market ad increasing foreign competition is another obstacle in the way of industrial development. The purchasing of the common man in the country is low, due to low wages and unemployment.Therefore, the demand for industrial goods in the country is not conducive to industrial growth. Market is also limited due to low quality and lack of standardization.
12Lack of Technical Know-How Another problem in the way of rapid industrialization is the lack of skilled labor. Modern machinery needs trained technical men and laborers. Our labor is uneducated and untrained and does not work hard.
13Lack of Infrastructure The transport system of Pakistan is still underdevelopment. The existing system does not cope with the industrial and commercial requirements. Sources of power like electricity, coal, gas, and oil have not yet been fully developed. The power capacity available is not sufficient to cover the need of growing industrial sector.
14Lack of Industrial Research Lack of industrial research is also a problem. Which is responsible for high production cost. Industrial research discovers new techniques of production and introduces new varieties of products.Due to lack of industrial research, improvement in production techniques has not been made possible and as such production costs of our industrial products are high and we are unable to compete with producers from other countries.
15Unbalanced Industrial Structure There is no balance in consumer goods and capital goods industry. The taxation system favors the consumer goods industries. It gives no protection to intermediate and capital goods industries. The result is that capital goods industries are still underdeveloped.
16Labor UnrestThe rapid growth of the large-scale manufacturing sector in Pakistan led to the existence of a substantial labor force employed in this sector. However, the standard of living of the labor force and the real wage did not increase.This led to trade union movements and strikes. This resulted in tension between entrepreneurs and laborers which disturbed industrial production and efficiency.
17NationalizationThe nationalization of industries in 1972 inflicted heavy damages to private industrial sector in Pakistan. The total investment in private sector dropped from Rs.1358 million in to Rs.650 million in The pace of industrialization is still slow. The privatization, the decontrol, and other fiscal and monetary concessions.
18Lack of Specialization A very peculiar feature of industries in Pakistan is that all the process of production are done on a single unit with a result that the benefit of specialization is not available to reduce the cost and improve the quality.For example, the motor car industry must be split into spare-parts industry, assembling industry, tyre and tube industry, etc. All these industries are called subsidiary to the car industry.***
19Solution of Industrial Problems Clear strategy for industrial sectorProvision of industrial financeProvision of infrastructureDevelopment of capital goods industryIndustrial researchFiscal incentivesTechnical education and training
20Clear Strategy for Industrial Sector For revival and growth of industrial sector, the controversial issues have to be solved once for all. Unless the danger of nationalization of industries is removed and the lost confidence is restored, the progress in the industrial field will remain slow.
21Provision of Industrial Finance Establishing a well-organized capital and money market in the country can solve the problem of lack of capital for the industrial sector. The Government of Pakistan established Pakistan Industrial Credit and Investment corporation (PICIC) in 1957 to provide loans to the private sector.Moreover, an Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP) was established in Recently, Investment Corporation of Pakistan (ICP), National Development Finance Corporation (NDFC) Equity Participation Fund (EPF) and Bankers Equity Limited (BEL) are also helping in the industrial development.
22Provision of Infrastructure Industrialization requires adequate amount of transportation, communication, and energy facilities to be provided by the government.The government of Pakistan should issue open route permits to transporting agencies so that their number may increase and a competition ensues among them. This will improve the quality of service and reduce the fare.
23Cont.Roads should be constructed in the rural areas so that the villages may be linked with national highways and the railway stations. Railway services should be provided to the maximum possible areas and their rolling stock should be enhanced to increase their capacity of handling a large volume of goods.Speedy development of hydro-electricity is required to increase the power capacity of the country. In the meantime, steps should be taken distribute the existing capacity on the basis of requirement of industrial units and their important in the economy.
24Development of Capital Goods Industry It is required to establish well-equipped workshops in large number so that the idle period of machines may be reduced to the minimum.It is also necessary to establish a number of tools and machine manufacturing plants to meet the demand of spare parts industry.
25Industrial ResearchIndustrial research discover new techniques of production and introduces new varieties of products. This results in lower cost of production. More laboratories must be establish in the country for industrial research in order to improve production techniques and invent new varieties of products.The government of Pakistan in 1953 established Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) at Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar.
26Fiscal IncentivesTaxes of various types increases the production cost and in many cases discourages production. Tax holidays may be give to infant industries and those established in undeveloped areas.
27Technical Education and Training To improve the productivity in the industrial sector, it is essential to establish technical training institutions to give training to the laborers. The government made necessary arrangements and helped in the establishment of Pakistan Industrial Technical Assistant Centre (PITAC), other vocational and commercial institutions including Pak-German and Pak-Swedish Institutes of Technology.This is going to provide technical assistance to industrialists, to helping the dissemination of modern knowledge and improved techniques among artisans and craftsmen.***
28Pakistan Economic Review Pakistan economic review projects that because of strong economic policies taken up by Pakistan government manufacturing and financial services sectors have flourished since fiscal 2008.Export of goods is a major concern for Pakistan economy. From 1999, exports of Pakistan have increased from $7.5 billion to $18 billion in financial year
30Cont.Some important import items of Pakistan are petroleum and petroleum products, automobiles, medicines, industrial machinery, construction machinery, trucks, electronics, civilian aircraft, computers, pharmaceutical products, computer parts, food items, toys, defense equipment, iron and steel.Economic review of Pakistan has been focusing in recent times on how to deal with economic recession.
31Cont.Government of Pakistan has initiated a number of procedures to address regional economic imbalances. Economic indicators look positive in present situation. Discount rate of central bank has been improved to 1.5 percentage points.This will help in dealing with high inflation rate in Pakistan. Pakistan economic review projects that government encourages foreign investments in various fields of real estate, telecommunications, software, energy, fertilizer, aerospace, textiles, steel, ship building, arms manufacturing, cement and automotive.****
33Cont. Lack of Technical Know-How Lack of Infrastructure Lack of Industrial ResearchUnbalanced Industrial StructureLabor UnrestNationalizationLack of Specialization Solution of Industrial ProblemsClear strategy for industrial sectorProvision of industrial finance
34Cont.Provision of infrastructureDevelopment of capital goods industryIndustrial researchFiscal incentivesTechnical education and trainingPakistan Economic Review****
35QuotationIf we wish our state's growth to continue, then our future will increasingly be with industries that require a highly skilled and technically proficient workforce.Jay WeatherillThank you