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Central Place Theory Concepts and ideas.

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Presentation on theme: "Central Place Theory Concepts and ideas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Central Place Theory Concepts and ideas

2 Who put forward the theory?
Walter Christaller (1933) A German economist

3 What is the purpose of the theory?
To explain the correlation between the size, location, spacing, number and functions of central places within an urban system (urban hierarchy) in a region.

4 What is a central place? A place or settlement at an accessible / central location where central goods and services are provided to the surrounding areas (hinterland).

5 What are central place functions?
Goods/services centrally located  distributional / dispersed  to customers who are scattered in the surrounding hinterlands. Range + market threshold govern the size and order of urban centres dist

6 Main features of CPT Systematic rules and regularities are observed.
Deduction method is used. The theory works under specified conditions (assumptions). To help us understand the urban hierarchy. 3 different orders identified: k=3, 4 and 7.

7 Assumptions of CPT Isotropic plain Equal access in all directions
Even distribution of population (densities) and purchasing power) Concept of centrality Minimization of distance travelled by consumers Maximization of market areas by suppliers High-order/low-order centres/functions Long and stable history of settlement Isolated state

8 Concepts of CPT What are the main concepts of CPT?
How are urban centres classified and spatially organized according to Christaller?


10 Classification of urban centres
Classification is based on functions Urban centres fall into discrete classes = orders Determined by range of goods, market threshold & spatial competition between central places

11 Causeway Bay Range of goods Threshold population Order Size
Number of central place of the same category Spacing between central places

12 Order of goods/services
Higher order = longer range + larger threshold  functional hierarchy i.e. large urban centres have more functions; small urban centres have less functions. A hierarchy of central places will emerge (7 levels) No. of centre will increase by a constant ratio of k-value.

13 Spatial organization Not haphazard but orderly systems
Regularity in size and spacing Equally spaced Surrounded by hexagonally shaped hinterlands.

14 Size of hinterland Same order = same size
Lower order  smaller hinterland Higher order  larger hinterland (= more population)  support more functions Increase in hinterland area follows k-value

15 Spacing Similar order = scattered evenly Lower order  close together
Higher order  widely-spaced Smallest settlements  denser network Larger settlements  less dense network Increase in distance apart also follows k-value.

16 Range of goods order of a good / service
frequency of want and hence purchase price or value of the article durability the price-quality of the good standard of living the price-willingness of consumers the length of the journey transport cost to price ratio transport development subjective economic distance the spatial distribution of population

17 Different orders of central places
Lower-order centres High-order centres

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