2 Who put forward the theory? Walter Christaller (1933)A German economist
3 What is the purpose of the theory? To explain the correlation between the size, location, spacing, number and functions of central places within an urban system (urban hierarchy) in a region.
4 What is a central place?A place or settlement at an accessible / central location where central goods and services are provided to the surrounding areas (hinterland).
5 What are central place functions? Goods/services centrally located distributional / dispersed to customers who are scattered in the surrounding hinterlands.Range + market threshold govern the size and order of urban centresdist
6 Main features of CPT Systematic rules and regularities are observed. Deduction method is used.The theory works under specified conditions (assumptions).To help us understand the urban hierarchy.3 different orders identified: k=3, 4 and 7.
7 Assumptions of CPT Isotropic plain Equal access in all directions Even distribution of population (densities) and purchasing power)Concept of centralityMinimization of distance travelled by consumersMaximization of market areas by suppliersHigh-order/low-order centres/functionsLong and stable history of settlementIsolated state
8 Concepts of CPT What are the main concepts of CPT? How are urban centres classified and spatially organized according to Christaller?
10 Classification of urban centres Classification is based on functionsUrban centres fall into discrete classes = ordersDetermined by range of goods, market threshold & spatial competition between central places
11 Causeway Bay Range of goods Threshold population Order Size Number of central place of the same categorySpacing between central places
12 Order of goods/services Higher order = longer range + larger threshold functional hierarchyi.e. large urban centres have more functions; small urban centres have less functions.A hierarchy of central places will emerge (7 levels)No. of centre will increase by a constant ratio of k-value.
13 Spatial organization Not haphazard but orderly systems Regularity in size and spacingEqually spacedSurrounded by hexagonally shaped hinterlands.
14 Size of hinterland Same order = same size Lower order smaller hinterlandHigher order larger hinterland (= more population) support more functionsIncrease in hinterland area follows k-value
15 Spacing Similar order = scattered evenly Lower order close together Higher order widely-spacedSmallest settlements denser networkLarger settlements less dense networkIncrease in distance apart also follows k-value.
16 Range of goods order of a good / service frequency of want and hence purchaseprice or value of the articledurabilitythe price-quality of the goodstandard of livingthe price-willingness of consumersthe length of the journeytransport cost to price ratiotransport developmentsubjective economic distancethe spatial distribution of population
17 Different orders of central places Lower-order centresHigh-order centres