Presentation on theme: "How to Use Basic Computer Applications to Achieve Higher-Order Thinking Deborah L. Lowther, Ph.D. University of Memphis."— Presentation transcript:
How to Use Basic Computer Applications to Achieve Higher-Order Thinking Deborah L. Lowther, Ph.D. University of Memphis
Topics What is the status of computers in todays classrooms? What is expected of teachers with regards to Higher-Order Thinking and using technology? What is Higher-Order Thinking? How can basic computer applications be used to achieve Higher-Order Thinking?
What is the status of computers in todays classrooms? How many computers are in our schools? – Elementary schools 6.3 students per computer – Middle and high schools 5.2 students per computer Are they being used? – Almost 60% of 7,100 8th grade and 6,600 4th grade math students indicated they never or hardly ever use computers for math (Archer, 1998 - Education Week).
Why are computers in our schools? – Job Readiness The majority of people (76%) who took a 1998 Public Opinion Poll indicate that computers should be used to prepare students for jobs. –How are computers being used? Only 40% of the 13,000 4th and 8th grade math students used computers Of those about half only used them for drill and practice. Therefore only 20% of these students are using computers in ways that will prepare them for the workforce.
What is expected of teachers with regards to Higher-Order Thinking and using technology?
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics every student should have access to a computer for individual and group work; students should learn to use the computer as a tool for processing information and performing calculations to investigate and solve problems.
National Council of Teachers of English – Students use a variety of technological and information resources to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. – Students conduct research... by: –generating ideas and questions –posing problems. –gathering, evaluating, and synthesizing data from a variety of sources
National Science Education Standards describe objects and events ask questions construct explanations test those explanations against current scientific knowledge identify their assumptions use critical and logical thinking,
National Standards for History in the Schools differentiate past, present, and future time raise questions seek and evaluate evidence compare and analyze historical stories, illustrations, and records from the past interpret the historical record construct historical narratives of their own.
What is Higher-Order Thinking? There are many names: – Critical ~ Creative ~ Reflective ~ Reasonable ~ Logical ~ Analytical And many definitions
BLOOM'S TAXONOMY From concrete to abstract knowledge comprehension application – Higher-Order analysis synthesis evaluation
CRITICAL THINKING A process of: determining the authenticity, accuracy, or value of something An ability to: seek reasons and alternatives perceive the total situation and change one's view based on evidence
CREATIVE THINKING A novel way of seeing or doing things that involves: Fluency - generating many ideas Flexibility - shifting perspective easily Originality - conceiving of something new Elaboration - building on other ideas
METACOGNITION The process of planning, assessing, and monitoring one's own thinking and learning
So ~ What is Higher-Order Thinking? hypothesizing ~ planning ~ modifying recognizing patterns ~ classifying finding sequences ~ comparing/contrasting synthesizing ~ elaborating ~ analyzing ~ evaluating In other words...higher-order thinking is any activity which requires students to process information in meaningful ways
But, there is more... Having a critical spirit is as important as thinking critically...it requires one to think critically about all aspects of life... and, to think critically about one's own thinking (metacognition)... (Norris,1985, p. 44).
Since teachers are expected to use computers to engage students in Higher-Order Thinking.... How do we do it? Competent Teachers Effective Instructional Strategies Effective Integration Methods
Begin with a Competent Teacher... one who is Technologically Competent understands the relationship between computer functions and learning. This teacher ~
This teacher also creates and facilitates a student-centered learning environment that: uses collaborative problem-solving that requires higher-order thinking utilizes multiple resources and real-world data depends on technology as a tool - not as the focus of learning And...meets or exceeds The Standards
Use Effective Instructional Strategies Recall - Used to learn facts for verbatim recall –Repetition –Mnemonics Integration - Used to make information more easily remembered –Paraphrasing –Generating questions or examples Organizational - Used to structure information –Outlining –Categorizing Elaboration - Used to go beyond existing information –Generating mental images –Predictions –Analogies Generative Strategies
Use Effective Integration Methods NTeQ iNtegrating Technology for iQuiry Computer Functions Specify Problem Data Manipulation Specify Objectives Results Presentation At Computer Before Computer After Computer SupportingEvaluation A c t i v i t i e s
NTeQ Lesson Plan 10 - Steps Specify Objectives Identify Computer Functions Specify Problem Determine Data Manipulation Determine Results Presentation Plan Activities While at Computer Plan Activities Prior to Computer Plan Activities After Computer Plan Supporting Activities Determine Assessment
Using a Problem-Based Approach –Objectives attained during process –Lessons may have multiple problems –Use meaningful problems –Problem solving requires a hands-on involvement Note Problem Solving Generative Learning Strategies Higher-Order Thinking
The ~ KISS ~ Approach Keep it Simple Sweetheart Begin with what students are to learn Create a problem for students to solve Plan activities that require higher-order thinking Select Computer tool - if appropriate
What are the Functions of Basic Computer Applications? Databases Spreadsheets Word Processors Authoring/Presentation Communications Browsers Sort Match Calculate
Database Functions Store data in records Sort data (alpha or numeric) Match data Merge data Create specialized reports
Spreadsheet Functions Perform Calculations Sort data Create Charts/Graphs
Word Processing Functions Edit and format text Create Outlines Create Columns Generate Tables Insert Graphics
Browser Functions Searches by Key Words Bookmarks web sites HyperLinks to text, virtual tours, etc. Provides Interactive Feedback
Authoring/Presentation Functions Displays Text Supports Navigation Creates Animation Inserts or Creates Graphics and Sound, Inserts Video
Considerations for using Basic Applications Databases Use with information that has repetitive patterns and can be easily described. Spreadsheets Use with sets of numbers that have repetitive patterns which can be described with at least two variables (Row & Column). Word Processing Use with information that can be paraphrased or organized in meaningful ways. Browser Use to access information or to engage in interactive learning. Authoring/Presentati on Use to display information that can be enhanced by interactivity. Communications Use when interactivity with others will enhance learning
The ~ KISS ~ Approach Lets See an Example Begin with what students are to learn Create a problem for students to solve Plan activities that require higher-order thinking Select Computer tool - if appropriate
What Students Learn Some Examples Planets Periodic table Wars Scientists or mathematicians Civil Rights leaders Historical landmarks Animal classification US Presidents Authors and their works Weather patterns US cities or states Endangered species Active volcanoes Food groups
Planets in Our Solar System Primary Learning objective –Location and Characteristics of each planet Primary Problem How would your life be different if you lived on another planet?
Sample Secondary Problems ? On earth, you become one year older every 365 days. On which planet would you be the oldest ~ youngest? ? On which planet would you weigh the most ~ least? ? What modifications would your body need to survive on Mars?
Plan activities that require higher-order thinking Analyze what students will need to do to solve the problem. On earth, you become one year older every 365 days. On which planet would you be the oldest ~ youngest? Use as many of the following as possible: hypothesizing ~ planning ~ modifying recognizing patterns ~ classifying finding sequences ~ comparing/contrasting synthesizing ~ elaborating ~ analyzing ~ evaluating
Sample Activities that require Higher-Order Thinking On earth, you become one year older every 365 days. On which planet would you be the oldest ~ youngest? Collect Planet information planning ~ analyzing ~ synthesizing ~evaluating Design Planet database planning ~ synthesizing ~ analyzing ~ modifying Use Planet database to identify planet on which students would be oldest ~ youngest recognizing patterns ~ analyzing comparing/contrasting ~ classifying ~ finding sequences
Sample Activities that require Higher-Order Thinking On which planet would you weigh the most ~ least? Collect Planet information planning ~ analyzing ~ synthesizing ~evaluating Design Planet spreadsheet planning ~ synthesizing ~ analyzing ~ modifying ~ calculating ~ charting Use Planet spreadsheet to identify planet on which students would weigh the most ~ least comparing/contrasting ~ analyzing
Sample Activities that require Higher-Order Thinking What modifications would your body need to survive on Mars? Collect Planet information planning ~ analyzing ~ synthesizing ~evaluating Design Planet Database planning ~ synthesizing ~ analyzing ~ modifying Use Planet database to determine similarities/differences between Earth and Mars recognizing patterns ~ comparing/contrasting ~ finding sequences ~ classifying ~ analyzing Use HyperStudio to create a stack that describes the needed modifications. planning ~ classifying ~ comparing/contrasting synthesizing ~ elaborating ~ evaluating
Summary Computer access is no longer a problem Computers are not being used to support Higher-Order Thinking or prepare students for the work force Todays standards require students to think critically and use technology as a tool
Summary Three components are needed to use technology to support Higher-Order Thinking: Technologically Competent Teachers Use of Effective Instructional Strategies Use of Effective Integration Strategies Key Point ~ Use computer functions to assist students with processing information at a higher-order thinking level