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Executive Branch: Chapter 7

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1 Executive Branch: Chapter 7

2 Section 1: The President and Vice President
Requirements for Pres: 3 rules At least 35 years old. Native-born American citizen. Resident of the US for at least 14 years

3 Times are changing: st female VP (G. Ferraro) J. Jackson ran a close second for the dem. candidate Joe Lieberman was 1st Jewish candidate President Obama

4 Electing the President
-Every 4 yrs -divisible by the number 4. -Constitution did not provide for a direct popular election. *Electoral College- each state appoints electors who vote for one of the major candidates. -Each state has as many electoral votes as the total of US Senators and Reps (538 electors). -In almost every state it is a “winner take all” system. -Candidate must win at least 270 electoral votes –Formal electoral election is in Dec.

5 Terms for Office -President- 4 yr. terms – FDR 3rd term 1940, 4th term 1944. -1951 *22nd Amendment- limits Pres to 2 terms or max 10 yrs. -VP- little authority given to VP. -Shall preside over Senate & vote in case of tie. -9 VP’s have become Pres due to death or resignation -8 Pres have died while in office.

6 Should VP becomes Pres or remain VP while doing Pres job?
*1947 Presidential Succession Act- indicates the line of succession after the VP. If both Pres & VP die or leave office. Speaker of the House, then Pres Pro tempore, then Secretary of State & other members of the Cabinet. *Twenty-fifth Amendment- says that if the Pres dies or leaves office, the VP becomes Pres then the new Pres picks his VP - Houses must approve. -Also gives the VP the right to fill in for Pres if disabled & unable to do job until he gets better. -25th has been used 3 times.

7 Section 2: The President’s Job
Constitutional Powers -Main job is to execute or to carry out the laws passed by Congress. -See pg. 171 for other powers.

8 *State of the Union– Constitution says that the Pres must keep Congress informed. Most important is the *State of the Union Address– given once a year. -In it the Pres comes before Congress to discuss the most important issues facing the nation and describes the new program of leg. He would like them to take up.

9 Roles of the President Chief executive- carries out laws. Has 14 cabinet departments and approx. 3 million civilians working for the fed. Govt. (Pres appoints members with senate approval). -Issues *executive orders- a rule or command that has the force of law. *Pardons- a declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment. -May also issue a *reprieve- an order to delay a person’s punishment until a higher court can hear the case, or grant *amnesty- a pardon toward a group of people.

10 Chief Diplomat- directs foreign policy.

11 3. Commander in Chief- of the armed forces.
-Gives him the ability to back up foreign policy decisions with force, if necessary. -Congress and Pres share power to make war -Congress can declare, but only the Pres can order soldiers to move. Congress passed the *War Powers Resolution- where the Pres must notify Congress within 48 hours of the sending troops. States that troops can be sent home after 60 days, unless Congress allows them to stay longer or declares war.

12 4. Legislative Leader -Only Congress can introduce bills, but in practice, Congress expects the executive branch to propose the legislator it would like to see enacted. -Every Pres has a legislative program.

13 5. Head of State- Pres aid's diplomacy by greeting visiting Kings and Queens, PMs and other leaders.
-Pres also carries out ceremonial functions.

14 6. Economic Leader- plans the fed. Govt. budget every year.

15 Party Leader- considered his political party leader and supports fellow party members who are running for offices. Also helps the party raise $.

16 Section 3: Making Foreign Policy
The President and Foreign Policy *Foreign Policy- a nation’s overall plan for dealing with other nations. -Basic goal is *National Security- the ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm. -Second key goal is international trade. -Third goal is promoting world peace. -Fourth is to promote democracy around the world.

17 Creating Treaties and Executive agreements
*Treaties- formal agreement b/t the govts. of 2 or more countries. -Senate must approve a treaty by 2/3 vote. -Pres can bypass Senate by making an *executive agreement- b/t the Pres and another leader. Appointing Ambassadors *Ambassador- is and official rep of a country’s govt. (Pres appoints about 150 that Senate must approve.) *Foreign Aid- can be $, food, military, help, or other supplies.

18 International Trade *Trade sanctions- or efforts to punish another nation by imposing trade barriers. *Embargo- an agreement among a group of nation’s that prohibits them from trading with a target nation. *Tariffs- taxes on imported goods. Military Force- President may use the military to carry out some foreign policy decisions.

19 Section 4: Presidential Advisors & Executive Agencies
*Executive office of the Pres (EOP)- these people are often referred to as a Pres administration. Most important parts of EOP are: *White House Office *Office of Management & Budget *National Security Council *Office of Homeland Sec. *Council of Economic Advisors

20 *Cabinet- group of presidential advisors that include the heads of the 14 top-level executive departments.

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