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Exit x Click on an indicator to find out more What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Click on.

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Presentation on theme: "Exit x Click on an indicator to find out more What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Click on."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exit x Click on an indicator to find out more What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Click on the central section for an introduction to this topic Click on the outside sections to explore transports impacts on our lives Transport Policy Social Impacts

2 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

3 x Exit Home Forward What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Our Relationships Education Where we live Transport Policy Social Impacts What does it mean for Transport? Transport policy should aim to maximise positive impact on economy, society and environment and minimise negative impacts, using relevant evidence in options appraisal. This toolkit shows a variety of ways in which transport impacts on our lives, and the types of evidence which can be used in appraisals. The next slides demonstrate some of the transports impacts on wellbeing. Why Social Impacts? Understanding the broader impacts of changes to transport services, regulation and infrastructure enables us to make better decisions with regards to policy option generation and development. The UK government recognises that measuring the impacts of transport policy in terms of economic impact is only a partial appraisal of the difference we are making

4 x Exit Home Forward Back Wellbeing Good psychological functioning Engagement and autonomy Psychological Resources Optimism, Resilience Self-esteem External Conditions Transport infrastructure Service provision User experience Health & Prosperity By improving user experience we can contribute to social engagement The feedback from creating engaged, autonomous individuals is improved physical health & prosperity Psychological resources will be a factor in determining individual transport choices. Life satisfaction and happiness will feedback to enhance psychological resources Effective use of transport can increase social engagement, employment, health and enjoyment of environment, making the UK a desirable place to live Click on the arrows to show the links 5a 5a Reardon and Abdallah (2013) Transport Policy Social Impacts

5 x Exit Home Journey Quality Psychological state Noise Physical Fitness Green Space Stress levels Congestion Value of time Accessibility Accidents Local travel Air Quality Health Environment Where we live Our Relationships Personal Finance What we do Productivity Social participationQuality of Life Affordability Severance Reliability Work/Life Balance Clinical Health Economy Commuting Active Travel Transport Impacts Life Satisfaction Click on the buttons to highlight the relevant transport impacts and the influence these have on our lives Back Education Forward Transport Policy Social Impacts

6 x Exit Home Back What should we focus on? Transport policy makers decide what areas they should focus on. Priorities may shift across time but UK transport has core principles that have remained fairly constant, e.g. - improving road safety - increasing rail capacity By what means do we deliver our policies? Policies can be achieved by employing new technologies and new innovations, e.g. - road safety can be delivered with improvements to vehicle design - rail capacity can be delivered with changes to carriage layout Why are we focussing on these policies? Policy should be developed with an eye on the bigger picture. We should take a step back and ask ourselves why the policy we have chosen is positive for wellbeing and whether it takes into account social impacts. Enhancing local or national wellbeing is a specific reason for why something should be done How will we get there? There are a variety of tools at the disposal of transport policy makers e.g. legislation, grants, incentives or behavioural insights Behavioural Insights provides a mechanism for how policy can be changed in a cost- effective manner For how much? The intentions of transport policy makers will always be constrained by budget. We may wish to be ambitious with transport projects but delivering Value for Money is a core principle for all policy makers. Costs-Benefit analysis is a significant factor in the feasibility and desirability of a policy intervention Transport Policy Development What about wellbeing? Forward Transport Policy Social Impacts

7 Click on the ROAMEF boxes to find out more about how and how social impacts can be incorporated into policy development Once a policy has been implemented, monitoring seeks to check progress against planned targets. Through reports and evidence it ensures that outputs (including social impacts) are successfully delivered and If we want to develop policies that create positive social impacts we should be considering wellbeing when developing the policy rationale. It is a chance to think about WHY the policy is worthwhile for society Developing objectives is an opportunity to consider social impacts. Review sources of evidence and think about what sort of policy is going to deliver maximum wellbeing benefit at minimum cost to the taxpayer Appraisal is an established area of transport policy development. WebTAG uses Green Book principles to ensure transport policy options consider social impacts as part of a range of economic costs and benefits The process of evaluation will highlight lessons learned and feedback from stakeholders with regards to the success and impacts of the intervention outcomes. Feedback can also occur at other points in the cycle Evaluation is the assessment of policy effectiveness during and after implementation. It seeks to measure outcomes in order to assess whether the anticipated benefits have been realised. DfT Monitoring & Evaluation StrategyMonitoring & Evaluation Strategy Home Back x Exit Rationale Appraisal Monitoring Evaluation Feedback Objectives Transport Policy Development ROAMEF Transport Policy Social Impacts

8 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

9 Transport supports us in what we do It helps us choose where we work & how we spend our time how we spend our time The key questions Giving choices in leisure and social life? Giving choices in leisure and social life? Providing access to services? Providing access to services? x Exit Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Education Getting people to work? Getting people to work? Forward Home What we do Our Relationships What we do Transport Policy Social Impacts How can transport systems and services promote well-being through…

10 x Exit Forward Home Employment Many people need reliable and affordable transport to get to work. People in employment are happier, healthier and wealthier than those who are unemployed. But commuting may be stressful because of:… Ambience Crowding / Congestion Lack of passenger / user information Lack of service provision Reliability issues Access to Services Transport gives access to vital services like schools and hospitals, and gives people choices on where they shop and spend leisure time. The impacts of the journey depend on… Journey purpose Affordability Congestion, parking Regularity of service Access e.g. in rural areas or for older people What we do Social Engagement Transport is fundamental to maintaining ties to family, friends and wider society. Some people are at particular risk of not being able to access or afford transport, to avoid isolation… Elderly people Parents with children Unemployed People with disabilities Back

11 x Exit Employment 75% of people travel for less than 30 mins to get to work and only 5% commute for more than 1 hour Diary studies show commuting to work as a low point in the day, with stress and irritability carrying over to the workplace WebTAG appraisal considers transport User Benefits, the Value of Time for journeys made and Journey QualityUser Benefits Value of TimeJourney Quality Social Engagement People with disabilities, who are not working, have the lowest wellbeing and may also have problems accessing transport Unemployment is a factor in low levels of wellbeing 3 Transport provides opportunities to gain employment and match skills to jobs 3 Transport policy considers Equalities analysis to capture transport impacts on user groups who are more vulnerable to social isolationEqualities Access to Services 81% of the English population can access centres of employment in a reasonable time by walking or using public transport. For hospitals it is only 29%, making it more likely for these users to have to rely on private transport Accessibility indicators are being used to examine the link between access to transport and the impact this has on our life transitions (moving home, getting a job) Accessibility indicatorslife transitions WebTAG appraises transport schemes for accessibility specificationsaccessibility Home What we do Research Resources Back

12 x Exit Home What we do Research Resources Employment 75% of people travel for less than 30 mins to get to work and only 5% commute for more than 1 hour Diary studies show commuting to work as a low point in the day, with stress and irritability carrying over to the workplace WebTAG appraisal considers transport User Benefits, the Value of Time for journeys made and Journey QualityUser Benefits Value of TimeJourney Quality Social Engagement People with disabilities, who are not working, have the lowest wellbeing and may also have problems accessing transport Unemployment is a factor in low levels of wellbeing 3 Transport provides opportunities to gain employment and match skills to jobs 3 Transport policy considers Equalities analysis to capture transport impacts on user groups who are more vulnerable to social isolationEqualities Access to Services 81% of the English population can access centres of employment in a reasonable time by walking or using public transport. For hospitals it is only 29%, making it more likely for these users to have to rely on private transport Accessibility indicators are being used to examine the link between access to transport and the impact this has on our life transitions (moving home, getting a job) Accessibility indicatorslife transitions WebTAG appraises transport schemes for accessibility specificationsaccessibility Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from the ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collectsinformation on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

13 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

14 The - Environment - plays a significant role in our health and wellbeing The key questions Maintaining/Improving air quality? Maintaining/Improving air quality? What role can transport systems and services play in… Increasing environmental awareness and enjoyment? Increasing environmental awareness and enjoyment? Reducing damage to environmental resources? Reducing damage to environmental resources? x Exit What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Environment Transport Policy Social Impacts

15 x Home Exit Forward Air Quality Transport produces a quarter of the nations PM 10 emissions, almost half NO x emissions and more than half of CO emissions. This can lead to… Respiratory problems and premature death Isolation for people who feel unable to go outside Negative impacts on the natural environment Environmental Awareness Many people say the natural environment – access to green spaces – is important for their happiness and life satisfaction. Local features which can have an effect include … Walkability & Bikeability Natural habitats e.g. forests, beaches Type of road and level of traffic Environmental Resources The environment acts as a sink for the outputs of transport including; airborne pollutants and waste products. As such, ecosystems provide services to society… Provision of resources Regulation of climate Support of natural cycles A focus for cultural and spiritual beliefs Environment Back

16 x Exit Home Air Quality Comparing localities, an increase of 10μg/m 3 in mean NO x (Nitrogen Oxides) concentration corresponds to a drop of nearly half a point of life satisfaction (controlling for key characteristics) deaths per year associated with PM 10 (particulate matter) in the UK 5 5 WebTAG appraisal considers transport Air Quality, as both a net environmental impact and a distributive social impactnet environmental impact distributive social impact Environmental Awareness Proximity to green space is known to increase house prices by up to 20% Over 70% of trips to green spaces are made by active travel, helping people to benefit directly from health and environmental impacts Natural Capital in an area has an influence on the individual wellbeing of residents 9 9 Environmental Resources By 2050 the UK aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 80% from the 1990 level. Current GHG emissions from transport are 28% lower than the 1990 level. As a proportion of all domestic GHG, transports share has increased from 16% to 22% in this period The ecosystem services methodology, which takes into account the services provided by the environment, will form part of DfTs appraisal framework Environment Research Resources Back

17 x Exit Home Air Quality Comparing localities, an increase of 10μg/m 3 in mean NO x (Nitrogen Oxides) concentration corresponds to a drop of nearly half a point of life satisfaction (controlling for key characteristics) deaths per year associated with PM 10 (particulate matter) in the UK 5 5 WebTAG appraisal considers transport Air Quality, as both a net environmental impact and a distributive social impactnet environmental impact distributive social impact Environmental Resources By 2050 the UK aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 80% from the 1990 level. Current GHG emissions from transport are 28% lower than the 1990 level. As a proportion of all domestic GHG, transports share has increased from 16% to 22% in this period The ecosystem services methodology, which takes into account the services provided by the environment, will form part of DfTs appraisal framework Environment Research Resources Environmental Awareness Proximity to green space is known to increase house prices by up to 20% Over 70% of trips to green spaces are made by active travel, helping people to benefit directly from health and environmental impacts Natural Capital in an area has an influence on the individual wellbeing of residents 9 9 Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collects information on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

18 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

19 The transport choices we make will impact upon our - Health - The key questions Reducing risks to health? Reducing risks to health? What role can transport systems and services play in… Enabling choices which are good for health? Enabling choices which are good for health? Increasing opportunities for healthy activity? Increasing opportunities for healthy activity? x Exit What we do Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Health Transport Policy Social Impacts …and health is a significant factor in our wellbeing

20 x Home Exit Forward Emotional Impact Transport lets people make journeys they want to make. Knowing they have an option to travel when they want gives autonomy. Social and emotional benefits include… Sense of empowerment Visits to family and friends Access to green space Impact of Noise Noise is a major output of transport and has been shown to result in negative impacts on health and life satisfaction, including… Increased stress levels Limiting opportunities to socialise Affecting concentration at work and school Active Travel Choosing active travel, rather than sedentary, improves physical and mental health and reduces risks of developing … Cancer Heart disease Dementia Health Back

21 x Exit Home Health Active Travel Each additional hour spent driving per day is associated with a 6% increase in the likelihood of obesity Each additional kilometre walked per day is associated with a 4.8% decrease in the likelihood of obesity Small term improvements in mood can be made with exercise. Regular exercise (5 x 30mins per week) can help guard against depression Emotional Impact The car is seen to provide the psycho-social benefits of protection, autonomy and prestige The emotional impact of recreational journeys is known to be a positive influence on wellbeing. This is opposed to the negative influence of the commute Walkers and cyclists are seen to enjoy their commutes the most compared to other modes of transport Impact of Noise Road traffic noise has been linked to stress and anxiety brought about by a lack of sleep 12 Sleep disturbance is linked to further problems, such as increased cardio- vascular risk and decreased concentration levels 36 17a a Research suggests that certain levels of road traffic noise can be linked to increased risk of heart disease. Aircraft noise can be linked to increased risk of hypertension 17a 17a Noise impact is assessed in WebTAG as part of appraisalWebTAG Research Resources Back

22 x Exit Home Health Emotional Impact The car is seen to provide the psycho-social benefits of protection, autonomy and prestige The emotional impact of recreational journeys is known to be a positive influence on wellbeing. This is opposed to the negative influence of the commute Walkers and cyclists are seen to enjoy their commutes the most compared to other modes of transport Research Resources Active Travel Each additional hour spent driving per day is associated with a 6% increase in the likelihood of obesity Each additional kilometre walked per day is associated with a 4.8% decrease in the likelihood of obesity Small term improvements in mood can be made with exercise. Regular exercise (5 x 30mins per week) can help guard against depression Impact of Noise Road traffic noise has been linked to stress and anxiety brought about by a lack of sleep 12 Sleep disturbance is linked to further problems, such as increased cardio- vascular risk and decreased concentration levels 36 17a a Research suggests that certain levels of road traffic noise can be linked to increased risk of heart disease. Aircraft noise can be linked to increased risk of hypertension 17a 17a Noise impact is assessed in WebTAG as part of appraisalWebTAG Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Obesity and Active Travel – A briefing from Public Health England on the issue of creating environments that are more likely to make people use active modes of travel HEAT tool – WHO tool designed to aid the economic valuation of health benefits of walking and cycling For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

23 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

24 The key questions Contributing to economic growth? Contributing to economic growth? What role can transport services and systems play in … Influencing the value of our time? Influencing the value of our time? Supporting a flexible labour market? Supporting a flexible labour market? x Exit What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Economy Transport Policy Social Impacts Social impacts consider more than just the - Economy - …but economy and society are interdependent

25 x Home Exit Forward Value of time As journey times in both public and private transport change - whether due to faster vehicles or increased congestion - we must consider the value of time we have saved or lost. These values will be different for working and non-working journey purposes Employment Labour market geographies may be a barrier to employment. Transport can help match skills to jobs and so improve productivity. Actions on transport and the labour market which add to well- being as well as economic growth include… Getting people into employment and matching them to their preferred jobs Improving cycle routes: employees more likely to be fit and alert Flexitime and home working: raise productivity, reduce congestion and stress Economic Growth Transport is a large part of the economy. Economic growth by higher expenditure on more petrol burned by more cars in longer traffic jams is an example which does not increase wellbeing. However, transport improvements can deliver better wellbeing as well as economic growth… Better transport infrastructure to reduce congestion Vehicles with better fuel efficiencies and lower emissions reduce costs to industry and families, moving money to more productive use Improved transport can lead to growth and jobs. There are clear wellbeing benefits to having more people in employment Economy Back

26 x Exit Home Economy Productivity A 1% increase in transport stock leads to approximately a 0.2% increase in GDP International evidence shows that increased GDP in developed countries does not necessarily lead to a corresponding increase in average happiness Choosing a fuel efficient mode of transport such as an electric vehicle can save approximately 80% on the running cost of a petrol car Value of Time Time savings brought about by quicker journey times during the working day are valued as increased productive working time The value of non working time is based on the willingness to pay for travel benefits such as quicker journey times, comfort or reliability Appraisal of the time savings captures some of the wellbeing benefits e.g. productivity, impact on personal financeAppraisal Employment Geographical distance, regularity and reliability of transport can be constraints to accessing the labour market Lack of affordable transport can act as a barrier by limiting the range of a search, preventing access to interviews and forcing people to turn down job offers We know that people in work have higher subjective wellbeing scores than those who are unemployed. Transports role in matching people to the right jobs is significant for national wellbeing Research Resources Back See DfTs Economic Insights Toolkit for further exploration of transports impact on the economy

27 See DfTs Economic Insights Toolkit for further exploration of transports impact on the economy x Exit Home Economy Value of Time Time savings brought about by quicker journey times during the working day are valued as increased productive working time The value of non working time is based on the willingness to pay for travel benefits such as quicker journey times, comfort or reliability Appraisal of the time savings captures some of the wellbeing benefits e.g. productivity, impact on personal financeAppraisal Research Resources Productivity A 1% increase in transport stock leads to approximately a 0.2% increase in GDP International evidence shows that increased GDP in developed countries does not necessarily lead to a corresponding increase in average happiness Choosing a fuel efficient mode of transport such as an electric vehicle can save approximately 80% on the running cost of a petrol car Employment Geographical distance, regularity and reliability of transport can be constraints to accessing the labour market Lack of affordable transport can act as a barrier by limiting the range of a search, preventing access to interviews and forcing people to turn down job offers We know that people in work have higher subjective wellbeing scores than those who are unemployed. Transports role in matching people to the right jobs is significant for national wellbeing Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collects information on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

28 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

29 Transport enables access to –Education – – Education – which enables individuals to flourish The key questions Getting young people to sites of learning? Getting young people to sites of learning? Promoting active travel? Promoting active travel? Affecting the learning experience? Affecting the learning experience? …and how does this impact on our lives? x Exit What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Education Transport Policy Social Impacts How can transport systems and services create positive social impacts by…

30 x Home Exit Forward Impact on learning Research shows links between levels of noise from roads and airports and reduced classroom concentration levels. Transport schemes must take into account a broad set of impacts if sites of schools and colleges are affected… Noise Actual and perceived safety Severance- transport acting as an obstruction Young people and active travel Active travel should be emphasised as having considerable wellbeing benefits for young people. Once safety perceptions and protocol have been addressed, the well- being benefits form a virtuous cycle… Improved physical health Better discipline and attainment Increased levels of social interaction Travel to school DfT has encouraged using active modes of travel as well as public transport. The aim is to reduce the number who drive their children to school. This has a number of potential benefits… Improved cycling proficiency Early influence on travel behaviours and habits Free access to education for rural and remote communities Education Back

31 x Exit Home Education Travel to School Bikeability encourages better cycling uptake and proficiency for schools in England. The wellbeing benefits are associated with safety, health improvements and academic performanceBikeability Bus travel is provided free of charge by LEAs for students who live beyond the statutory distances from school. It can also be delivered at full or partial discount by local commercial providers. Transport forms part of the delivery of education; a major wellbeing influence Active Travel and Young people The travel to school initiative funded by DfT has shown that encouraging active modes of travel can have benefits for rates of obesity and local carbon emissionstravel to school initiative Wider wellbeing benefits such as stronger community cohesion and improved pupil behaviour can be derived Impacts on Learning The impacts of transport noise can be detrimental to the wellbeing of school children by affecting concentration levels and subsequently academic performance Transport appraisal takes into account the proximity of schools when examining safety, noise, air quality and severance of proposed transport schemes. School age children are known to be more vulnerable to these impacts compared to other groupsappraisal Research Resources Back

32 x Exit Home Education Travel to School Bikeability encourages better cycling uptake and proficiency for schools in England. The wellbeing benefits are associated with safety, health improvements and academic performanceBikeability Bus travel is provided free of charge by LEAs for students who live beyond the statutory distances from school. It can also be delivered at full or partial discount by local commercial providers. Transport forms part of the delivery of education; a major wellbeing influence Active Travel and Young people The travel to school initiative funded by DfT has shown that encouraging active modes of travel can have benefits for rates of obesity and local carbon emissionstravel to school initiative Wider wellbeing benefits such as stronger community cohesion and improved pupil behaviour can be derived Impacts on Learning The impacts of transport noise can be detrimental to the wellbeing of school children by affecting concentration levels and subsequently academic performance Transport appraisal takes into account the proximity of schools when examining safety, noise, air quality and severance of proposed transport schemes. School age children are known to be more vulnerable to these impacts compared to other groupsappraisal Research Resources Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual well-being in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collects information on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

33 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

34 Individual wellbeing is largely influenced by our ability to form and maintain - Relationships - Encouraging community involvement? Encouraging community involvement? The key questions Developing social capital? Developing social capital? What role do transport systems and services play in… Guarding against isolation? Guarding against isolation? …and how does this impact on society? x Exit What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Our Relationships Transport Policy Social Impacts

35 x Home Exit Forward Isolation Research shows that people who have fewest social contacts with family, friends and community are less happy and find life least worthwhile. Isolation is also linked to poor health. Transport can facilitate or hinder development of relationships through… Availability, affordability and reliability of services Number of cars on the road Air quality & noise levels Family & Community Involvement People with longer journeys to work are less engaged in family life and civil activities. Participation in community groups and time spent with family are both known to be beneficial for wellbeing. Social Capital Some communities show more cohesion, mutual trust and reciprocity than others, and there is evidence that this supports higher life satisfaction and better health outcomes. Transport can play a part in building social capital by enabling people to … Visit family & friends Volunteer locally Engage in recreation and social activity with others Our Relationships Back

36 x Exit Home Our Relationships Social Capital Defined as the social interactions that inspire trust and reciprocity among citizens Happiness is higher on average for residents in areas which also show high social capital Social capital can be demonstrated (and developed) by voluntary groups such as hospital car schemes, cycle groups offering free safety checks and repairs, walk to school groups 11a 22a 11a22a Family & Community Involvement An increase in commute duration leads to significant decreases in time spent with family and friends for men. The same commute time increase for women results in a decrease in time spent with friends and also having to shift priorities to maintain family time 33b 33b With each additional ten minutes spent on the daily commute, involvement in community affairs is reduced by ten percent Isolation Losing access to transport is associated with a detachment from social networks and leisure activities. This detachment is more common amongst the single, divorced or widowed than it is amongst couples Residents on the light- and medium-traffic streets were found to consider part or the entire street as their territory. Territory of those on a heavy traffic street is within their immediate home and does not extend onto the street, thus reducing social contact Research Resources Back

37 Family & Community Involvement An increase in commute duration leads to significant decreases in time spent with family and friends for men. The same commute time increase for women results in a decrease in time spent with friends and also having to shift priorities to maintain family time 33b 33b With each additional ten minutes spent on the daily commute, involvement in community affairs is reduced by ten percent Isolation Losing access to transport is associated with a detachment from social networks and leisure activities. This detachment is more common amongst the single, divorced or widowed than it is amongst couples Residents on the light- and medium-traffic streets were found to consider part or the entire street as their territory. Territory of those on a heavy traffic street is within their immediate home and does not extend onto the street, thus reducing social contact x Exit Home Our Relationships Research Resources Social Capital Defined as the social interactions that inspire trust and reciprocity among citizens Happiness is higher on average for residents in areas which also show high social capital Social capital can be demonstrated (and developed) by voluntary groups such as hospital car schemes, cycle groups offering free safety checks and repairs, walk to school groups 11a 22a 11a22a Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collects information on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

38 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

39 Levels of - Personal Finance - play a role in our travel behaviour The key questions Incentivising travel choices which are better Incentivising travel choices which are better for health/environment? Creating affordable travel for leisure? Creating affordable travel for leisure? Not deterring people from work? Not deterring people from work? x Exit What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Personal Finance Transport Policy Social Impacts How can transport systems and services improve wellbeing by…

40 x Home Exit Forward Cost of Travel to Work Cost and convenience of travel are important factors in choosing between jobs, including moving from benefit to employment. The financial and psychological benefits from working are limited for some people by … Costs of travel to interviews or starting work High costs of commuting No available public transport to suit working hours Season tickets dont give savings for part time staff Affordable Travel Choices for Leisure Travelling for enjoyment is important for personal wellbeing and the economy (shopping trips, family visits, trips to countryside, holiday)… Those with higher incomes can choose how much to travel Poorer people travel less Concessions for older people and people with disabilities increase their options (but are not limited to those with low incomes) Cost of Travel Transport is the largest spending area in household budgets: 14% on average in the UK. Disposable income constrains peoples choices on mode and amount of travel, with consequences for health, emissions, accidents, congestion personal wellbeing. Economic factors and transport policies affect the incentive to choose … Time and distance travelled Vehicle or walk/cycle Car or public transport Personal Finance Back

41 x Exit Home Personal Finance Cost of Travel Transport takes 13% of household expenditure in urban areas, 15% in rural. For households where someone is working, transport takes 15% of the budget, but 11% for retired households. People in the lowest income decile spend 9% on transport; the top decile spend 15% Personal financial incentives mean car ownership and use is cheaper than public transport for some families, regardless of emissions Transport schemes are appraised according to personal affordability criteria to ensure low income groups are consideredpersonal affordability Affordable Travel Choices for Leisure The department provides the Bus Service Operator Grant to deliver concessionary bus travel for older people, disabled people, the unemployed and children These groups have limited income and/or mobility so often rely on public transport to engage in society and maintain levels of wellbeing Cost of Travel to Work Travel behaviour is influenced by; our own attitudes, habits, societal norms and external factors (such as the cost of transport) Influencing behaviour of transport users requires an appreciation of the cost of transport. However, cost is just one factor amongst many that must be reviewed to understand the potential for behaviour changebehaviour change Cost of travel to work is a necessity which constrains the rest of the household budget, sometimes leading to stress and debt Research Resources Back

42 Cost of Travel Transport takes 13% of household expenditure in urban areas, 15% in rural. For households where someone is working, transport takes 15% of the budget, but 11% for retired households. People in the lowest income decile spend 9% on transport; the top decile spend 15% Personal financial incentives mean car ownership and use is cheaper than public transport for some families, regardless of emissions Transport schemes are appraised according to personal affordability criteria to ensure low income groups are consideredpersonal affordability Cost of Travel to Work Travel behaviour is influenced by; our own attitudes, habits, societal norms and external factors (such as the cost of transport) Influencing behaviour of transport users requires an appreciation of the cost of transport. However, cost is just one factor amongst many that must be reviewed to understand the potential for behaviour changebehaviour change Cost of travel to work is a necessity which constrains the rest of the household budget, sometimes leading to stress and debt x Exit Home Personal Finance Research Resources Affordable Travel Choices for Leisure The department provides the Bus Service Operator Grant to deliver concessionary bus travel for older people, disabled people, the unemployed and children These groups have limited income and/or mobility so often rely on public transport to engage in society and maintain levels of wellbeing Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collects information on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

43 What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Transport Policy Social Impacts

44 Transport systems and services have a big impact on - Where we live - The key questions Ensuring road safety? Ensuring road safety? Linking communities? Linking communities? Helping people feel safe in public areas? Helping people feel safe in public areas? x Exit What we do Health Personal Finance Economy Environment Where we live Our Relationships Education Forward Home Where we live Transport Policy Social Impacts How can transport systems and services improve wellbeing by…

45 x Home Exit Forward Perceived Safety Peoples behaviour is affected by their perceptions of the safety of cycling, walking home from public transport and travelling by car, rail and plane, whether or not these match the actual rate of transport related accidents or crime. Fear of going out at night can add to isolation and low wellbeing. Mitigations include … Local initiatives on traffic calming Pedestrian and cycling infrastructure Lighting and monitoring of public transport and access routes Road Safety Road traffic accidents cause injuries and loss of life with clear immediate damage to wellbeing, and in some cases lasting impact through disability and bereavement. They also affect behaviour by making people afraid to walk and cycle. WebTAG captures this by measuring … Longer term wellbeing impacts The demographic characteristics of victims The wider costs of dealing with an accident Where we live Linking Local Communities Communities depend on good local communications, including footpaths, bus services, safe crossing points, and some parking. New roads and railway lines may create barriers between two local areas, including blocking foot and cycle routes. Implementation of transport schemes should take into account … Change in traffic speed and volume Provision of suitable crossing points Location of key destinations Back

46 x Exit Home Where we live Road Safety A serious accident resulting in personal injury or death is associated with a significant negative impact on wellbeing for an individual and their associated network Road traffic accidents are experienced disproportionately by the poor and vulnerable in society 29 This is considered as part of webTAG appraisal 29 webTAG Wellbeing effects remain for around 20 years following road traffic accidents experienced by children Perceived Safety Those who live on roads with heavier traffic are more worried than those on quieter ones due to a perception of traffic danger. This results in lower levels of reported happiness Parental perceptions of issues regarding safe pedestrian and cycling conditions are negatively associated with 10- to 12- year-old childrens walking or cycling to local destinations Groups such as women and people with disabilities feel more at risk using public transport compared to other groups. The main concern for these groups is visibility of transport staff and police 33a 33a Linking and Severing Local Communities Understanding transport impacts on community severance is important for wellbeing. Access to social networks, local services and green spaces could all be affected WebTAG appraisal analyses the impact that changes in traffic flow, traffic speeds and physical modifications to the road or rail network have on user groupsWebTAG Research Resources Back

47 Road Safety A serious accident resulting in personal injury or death is associated with a significant negative impact on wellbeing for an individual and their associated network Road traffic accidents are experienced disproportionately by the poor and vulnerable in society 29 This is considered as part of webTAG appraisal 29 webTAG Wellbeing effects remain for around 20 years following road traffic accidents experienced by children Linking and Severing Local Communities Understanding transport impacts on community severance is important for wellbeing. Access to social networks, local services and green spaces could all be affected WebTAG appraisal analyses the impact that changes in traffic flow, traffic speeds and physical modifications to the road or rail network have on user groupsWebTAG x Exit Home Where we live Research Resources Perceived Safety Those who live on roads with heavier traffic are more worried than those on quieter ones due to a perception of traffic danger. This results in lower levels of reported happiness Parental perceptions of issues regarding safe pedestrian and cycling conditions are negatively associated with 10- to 12- year-old childrens walking or cycling to local destinations Groups such as women and people with disabilities feel more at risk using public transport compared to other groups. The main concern for these groups is visibility of transport staff and police 33a 33a Back Research Resources ONS Wellbeing Wheel of wellbeing – bringing together the measures considered significant for national and individual wellbeing in the UK Subjective wellbeing data – 4 measures of wellbeing included in the annual population survey. Available from ONS Longitudinal Evidence Understanding Society – This study provides detailed national coverage of wellbeing measures alongside commuter behaviour and car ownership English Longitudinal Study of Ageing – Measures of wellbeing are collected alongside travel behaviour, travel availability and health indicators for over 50s Millennium Cohort Study – DfT has funded questions to be asked on cycling ability and frequency for a cohort born in 2000 Insights Tools Behavioural Insights toolkit – A resource that is designed to give transport policy makers an insight into enabling behavioural choices Economic Insights toolkit – Raises awareness of the relevant economic issues for transport policy. There are synergies between economic growth agenda and wellbeing Other Resources Survey Question Bank – Questionnaire searches allow us to identify wellbeing related questions in various surveys held in the UK data archive National Travel Survey – A nationally representative cross-sectional study that collects information on personal travel For queries on wellbeing research resources contact; <<< Close

48 x Exit Home Back References 2 Kahneman, D. and Krueger, A. (2006) Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 20:1 p 3–24. 1 Koslowsky, M et al. (1995), Commuting Stress: Causes, Effects, and Methods of Coping. Plenum Press: New York. 3 Luechinger, S., Meier, S., and Stutzer, A. (2008) Why does unemployment hurt the employed? Evidence from the life satisfaction gap between the public and the private sector. Discussion paper No. 3385, Institute for the Study of Labour (IZA). 5 Health Development Agency (2005) Making the Case: Improving Health Through Transport, London: HDA. 4 MacKerron, G., and Mourato, S. (2009) Life Satisfaction and Air Quality in London, Ecological Economics (68), pp Defra (2007) An Introductory Guide to Ecosystem Services. Defra publications, Available from: 7 Nef. (2008) Well-being evidence for policy: A review. Available from: [accessed 01/08/12] 8 Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. and Gowdy, J. (2007) Environmental degradation and happiness. Ecological Economics. 60:3 p Engelbrecht, H-J (2009) Natural capital, subjective well-being, and the new welfare economics of sustainability: Some evidence from cross-country regressions. Ecological Economics. 69:2 p Frank, L., Andresen, M. and Schmid, T. (2004) Obesity Relationships with Community Design, Physical Activity, and Time Spent in Cars, American Journal of Preventive Medicine Vol. 27 (2), pp Mutrie, N. (2000) The relationship between physical activity and clinically defined depression. In SJH Biddle, KR Fox, & SH Boutcher (eds) Physical Activity and Psychological Well-being, pp London, UK: Routledge. 11a Sherwood, K., Lewis, G. (2010) Accessing health care in a rural area: an evaluation of a voluntary medical transport scheme in the English Midlands Available from: 5a Reardon, L. and Abdallah, S. (2013) Well-being and Transport: Taking Stock and Looking Forward. Transport Reviews: Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal

49 14 Building Research Establishment (2000) The UK National Noise Attitude Survey. Available from Last Accessed 5 April x Exit Home Back References 12 Song, Y., Gee, G., Fan, Y. and Takeuchi, D. (2007) Do physical neighbourhood characteristics matter in predicting traffic stress and health outcomes. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 10:2 p Stansfeld, S. et al. (2005) Aircraft and road traffic noise and childrens cognition and health: a cross-national study. The Lancet. 365:9475 p Gee, G. and Takeuchi, D. (2004) Traffic Stress, Vehicular Burden and Well-Being: A Multidimensional Analysis. Social Science and Medicine. 59:2 p Hiscock, R., Macintyre, S., Kearns, A. and Ellaway, A. (2002) Means of Transport and Ontological Security: Do Cars Provide Psycho-Social Benefits to Their Users?, Transportation Research Part D Vol. 7 (2), pp Gatersleben, B. and Uzzell, D. (2007) Affective Appraisals of the Daily Commute: Comparing Perceptions of Drivers, Cyclists, Walkers, and Users of Public Transport, Environment and Behaviour (39), pp Church, A. et al. (2000) Transport and social exclusion in London. Transport Policy. 7 p Social Exclusion Unit (2003) Making the Connections: Final Report on Transport and Social Exclusion. 19 Easterlin, R. (1974) Does economic growth improve the human lot? In David PA and Reder MW (eds) Nations and Households in Economic Growth: Essays in Honor of Moses Abramovitz. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 20 European Commission, (2007) Panorama of Transport. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 18 Eddington, R. (2006) The Eddington Transport Study. HMSO. Available from 22a Kingham, S., Ussham, S. (2007) An assessment of the benefits of the walking school bus in Christchurch, New Zealand Available from: 17a WHO (2011) Burden of disease from environmental noise: Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe. World Health Organization and JRC European Commission. Available from

50 References Home Back 23 Welsch, H. (2007) Macroeconomics and life satisfaction: Revisiting the misery index. Journal of Applied Economics (X), pp x Exit 26 Appleyard, D. (1981) Livable Streets, London: University of California Press. 27 Hart, J. (2008) Driven To Excess: Impacts of Motor Vehicle Traffic On Residential Quality Of Life In Bristol, UK. MSc Dissertation, Bristol: University of The West of England. 24 Leyden, K. (2003) Social Capital and the Built Environment: The Importance of Walkable Neighbourhoods, American Journal of Public Health Vol. 93 (9), pp Putman, R, (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York: Simon & Schuster. 28 ETSC (2007) Social and Economic consequences of road traffic injury in Europe. Available from: [accessed 26/07/12] 29 Peden, M. et al. (2004) World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention. World Health Organization. Geneva. Available from: [accessed 16/08/12] 30 Arnberg, F., Rydelius, P-A., Lundin, T. (2011) A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident. Child and adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. 5:8 p Timpero, A., Crawford, D., Telford, A. and Salmon, J. (2004) Perceptions about the Local Neighbourhood and Walking and Cycling Among Children, Preventive Medicine (38), pp Currie, G. et al. (2009) Investigating links between transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being in Melbourne Preliminary results. Transport Policy 16 p 97– Andrews, G., Parkhurst, G., Shaw, J. and Susilo, Y. (2011) The grey escape: How and why are older people really using their free bus pass? In: 43rd Universities Transport Study Group Conference, Milton Keynes, UK, 5th-7th January a Passenger Focus (2012) National Passenger Survey. Available from: survey-introduction 33b Christian, T. (2012) Automobile commuting duration and the quantity of time spent with spouse, children and friends. Preventive Medicine, 55, p

51 36 Babisch, W. (2006) Transportation Noise and Cardiovascular Risk: Updated Review and Synthesis of Epidemiological Studies Indicate that the Evidence has Increased, Noise Health [serial online] Vol. 8 (30), pp References Home Back x Exit 34 Ettema, D. et al (2011) The road to happiness? Measuring satisfaction of Dutch car drivers with their travel using the satisfaction with travel scale (STS). Paper submitted for presentation at the 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board 35 Duarte, A et al (2010) New approaches in transportation planning: happiness and transport economics. Netnomics, Volume 11, Number 1, April 2010, p5-32(28) 37 Jenkins, J (2011) Three out of four people work within 30 minutes of home. Press Release, Office for National Statistics 38 DfT (2011) Accessibility Statistics Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/accessibility-statistics DfT (2011) UK transport greenhouse gas emissions Factsheet https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/3085/41.pdf 40 CSD (2012) Understanding the Contribution Parks and Green Spaces can make to Improving Peoples Lives. Available from: 41 Energy Saving Trust (2012) Electric Vehicles – Running Costs Available from: 42 Clark, A. (2010). Work, Jobs and Well-being Across the Millennium. In E. Diener et al (Eds.), International Differences in Well-Being. Oxford: OUP 43 Jivraj, S, Nazroo, J and Barnes, M (2012) Change in Social Detachment in Older Age in England. ElSA wave 5 Report Available from: 44 Helliwell, J.F (2001) Social Capital, the Economy and Well-Being in The Review of Economic Performance and Social Progress 2001: The Longest Decade: Canada in the 1990s Available from: 45 ONS (2012) Family Spending, Available from: edition/index.html 46 Pearlin, L. et al (2005) Stress, Health, and the Life Course: Some Conceptual Perspectives Available from: 47 HMT (2011) The Green Book: Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government. London: TSO. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/179349/green_book_complete.pdf.pdf


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