2Chapter overview • The components of physical fitness page 157 • Tests to measure physical fitness page 162• Training methods page 185• Training principles page 214Now that you’ve finished … answersNo need to add much to these points.
3The components of physical fitness Back tochapter overviewThe components of physical fitnessPage 157
4Health-related components of physical fitness The health-related components of physical fitness are:• cardiorespiratory endurance• muscular strength• muscular endurance• flexibility• body composition.
5Skill-related components of physical fitness The skill-related components of physical fitness are:• power• speed• agility• coordination• balance• reaction time.Developing both the health-related and skill-related components of physical fitness will improve efficiency of movement and should, therefore, improve overall performance.Personal reflectionConsider your current level of fitness across the health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. Does your fitness level help or hinder you in the physical activity you are studying?
6Measuring components of physical fitness The many reasons for measuring physical fitness include to:• evaluate progress• make comparisons with others• develop accurate training programs• set realistic, achievable fitness goals• identify baseline and follow-up fitness levels• assess individual strengths and weaknesses• identify medical problems• motivate athletes to improve results.
7Tests to measure physical fitness Back tochapter overviewTests to measure physical fitnessPage 163
8Health-related components of physical fitness DefinitionSuitable testCardiorespiratory enduranceThe ability of the heart, lungs and circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients efficiently to working muscles and remove waste products. Usually found by measuring the maximum rate of oxygen consumed during exercise, or max VO2 (maximum oxygen uptake)PWC170• Multistage fitness test (beep test)• Astrand–Rhyming cycle ergometer test• Cooper’s 12-minute run• 2.4-km run or 1.6-km run• Step testsMuscular strengthThe greatest maximal force or tension that a muscle group can exert against a resistance in one maximal contraction• One-repetition maximum test• Dynamometers (back, leg and hand)Muscular enduranceThe ability to sustain or repeat a muscular effort for a relatively long period of time• Push-up test• Sit-up test• Pull-up test• Flexed-arm hang testBody compositionThe proportions of various body tissues (fat, muscle, bones, organs) and their influence on body mass• Body mass index• Skinfold tests• Waist–hip ratio• Girth measurementsFlexibilityThe range of movement that can be performed in and around a joint• Goniometers• Sit-and-reach test• Shoulder rotation test• Ankle extension test• Leighton flexometer
9Skill-related components of physical fitness DefinitionSuitable testPowerThe product of strength and speed: the ability to move the body or an object quickly• Standing long jump test• Vertical jump test• Margaria–Kalamen power testSpeedThe rate of change in position• Sprint tests (20–60 m)AgilityThe ability to change the direction or position of the body (parts of the body or the whole body) rapidly and efficiently• Burpee test• Figure 8 agility run• Shuttle run test• Illinois agility runCoordinationA smooth flow of movement when performing a physical task, apparent when the nervous and muscular systems work together smoothly• Alternate ball toss• Hand wall toss• Catch testBalanceWhen the body is in a stable position or state of equilibrium. May be static (the body is stationary) or dynamic (the body is moving)• One-foot balances• Stork stand balance test• Static and dynamic balance boardsReaction timeThe time that it takes to respond to a stimulus• Ruler reaction time test• Computer reaction time test
10Personal data sheet for measuring physical fitness components NameMarcus GallowayAge17Date of pre-training testing5 FebruaryDate of post-training testing30 MarchComponentTest(s) conductedPre-training test result and ratingPost-training test result and ratingEvaluationHealth-related components of physical fitnessCardiorespiratory endurance2.4 km run11.10 min(Fair)10.56 minNo changeMuscular strengthLower back strength dynamometer158(75%)169(85%)ImprovedMuscular endurancePush-up test36(Good)41(Superior)FlexibilitySit and reach test5(Below average)4Body compositionWaist–hip ratio.88
11Personal data sheet for measuring physical fitness components NameMarcus GallowayAge17Date of pre-training testing5 FebruaryDate of post-training testing30 MarchComponentTest(s) conductedPre-training test result and ratingPost-training test result and ratingEvaluationSkill-related components of physical fitnessPowerStanding long jump232(70%)236(75%)ImprovedSpeedSprint tests over 20–60m4.93 sec(Good)5.00 secNo changeAgilityShuttle run test9.7 sec10 sec(50%)DeterioratedCoordinationCatch19(70–80%)BalanceStork stand37 sec39 secReaction timeRuler reaction time test15 cm(Fair)17.8 cm
14Continuous traininglong, slow, distance training that involves the whole body or large muscle groups, such as running, swimming or cycling.involves working for a minimum of 20 minutes, at a uniform intensity within the aerobic training zonedevelops an athlete’s aerobic training threshold, improving their ability to use oxygen during exercise.
15Fartlek traininginvolves some exercise at a uniform pace, interspersed with short sprints.after each sprint the athlete returns to the steady pace to recover before the next burst of speed.helps to improve VO2 max.
16Long-interval training Long-interval training incorporates periods of work interspersed with periods of rest (light active rest, such as walking).The intensity and effectiveness of long-interval training can be varied by manipulating:• the duration of each training period• the intensity of the training• the duration of the rest interval• the number of training and rest intervals in each session.A work–rest ratio of 1:1 would be used, and each exercise interval would typically be 2–5 minutes at a sub-maximal pace. Generally, between four and eight repetitions would be completed.
18Short-interval training uses periods of activity followed by periods of rest.intervals generally range between 10 seconds and 2 minutes, with a work–rest ratio of approximately 1:3.other situations may require work – rest ratios of 1:5 or 1:10 to allow for ATP and PC replenishment within the muscle.the recovery periods allow the anaerobic energy systems to refuel and ensure that every effort is made at 100 per cent.
19Short-interval training programs based on training distances Major energy systemTraining distances (metres)Approximate training time (min:sec)Sets per workoutRepetitions per setWork–relief ratioType of relief intervalRunSwimAlactacid50100–250:10<:20531081:41:3Complete rest recovery (e.g. walking, flexing)Alactacid or lactic acid2004000:30–0:451:20–1:30421:2Work–relief (e.g. light to mild exercise, jogging)Anaerobic: glycolysis or aerobic600800125–1501:45–2:152:30–3:0011:1Work–reliefComplete rest recovery of work–reliefSource: Data from EL Fox and DK Mathews, Interval Training: Conditioning for Sport and General Fitness, Saunders, Philadelphia, 1974
20Strength trainingPower is the explosive aspect of strength, and it can be developed by improving maximum strength and/or the speed of coordinated muscle contractions.Strength training uses a variety of techniques that vary the amount and frequency of the force being applied.Strength training also employs different types of muscle contractions, depending on the type of exercise, the equipment and the type of strength development being sought.A muscle will strengthen only if it has been forced to work beyond its customary intensity—if it is overloaded. Muscles can be overloaded by progressively increasing the:• intensity (by decreasing the number and length of rest periods)• resistance or amount of weight lifted• number of repetitions at a particular weight• number of sets of an exercise• speed of an action.
21Three different types of muscular contractions occur during different types of strength training: isotonic, isometric and isokinetic.(c) Isokinetic
22Resistance training: elastic Resistance training with elastic resistance methods uses bands or tubes. As the elastic band is stretched, the resistance increases.Resistance depends on how far the band is stretched. This allows for more flexibility in the type and direction of movement.Tension is present through the full motion, so muscles are exercised smoothly, reducing the chance of injury.IntegrationIdentify movements in a variety of sports where the use of elastic resistance training may be of benefit.
23Resistance training: hydraulic resistance Hydraulic resistance training involves either exercising in water, where each effort is opposed by the fluid, or by exercising using machines that use water resistance technology.It uses isokinetic contractions, where a joint is moved through its full range of motion at a fixed speed. Resistance is applied at the same rate, to all moving parts of the body.
24Resistance training: weights Involves using force to resist the effects of gravity, most often through isotonic contractions (moving joint)Repetition maximum (RM) refers to the maximum number of repetitions that can be completed with a given resistance: 1 RM is the maximum load that can be lifted just once; 10 RM is the maximum load that can be lifted 10 times, but not 11 timesA common example of progressive resistance exercise:set 1—ten repetitions using a load that is half the load of 10 RMset 2—ten repetitions using a load that is three-quarters the load of 10 RMset 3—ten repetitions using a load of 10 RM.
25Weight training exercises for major muscle groups Exercise for the muscle groupChestFlat dumbbell press, flat dumbbell fly, incline dumbbell press, machine press, ‘pec deck’ machineBicepsSeated biceps curl (both arms), biceps curl with a twist, alternate arm curl, double-arm cable curlTricepsLying dumbbell extension, seated one-arm triceps overhead extension, one-arm triceps kickback with a twist, triceps pushdown machine, pulley single-arm triceps kickback, overhead triceps extension on pulley, dipsShoulderLateral shoulder raises, seated dumbbell press, chin-ups, seated shoulder press, lateral side cable pulleyBackUpright row (dumbbell or machine), single or double bent-arm dumbbell row, lateral pull-down (in front and behind head, narrow and wide grip), seated pulley rowAbdominalsKnee-raised crunches, alternate knee in crunches, side crunches, static contractions with crunches, abdominal machineQuadricepsVariety of squats, leg-extension machineHamstringsHamstring curl machineCalfCalf raises (standing or seated, weighted or not, toe in or out, machine or free)
26Overload techniquesTechniqueExplanationBlitzingBlitzing is the practice of working a muscle or muscle group with different exercises from different angles on one training day.Forced repetitionsForced repetitions are exercises in which a partner gently supports the athlete through the point where the muscles are weakest.CheatingCheating is where other muscles are used to assist in lifting the weight over the weakest point. The aim is to move past the weak point and overload the strongest part of the muscle. For example, in a very heavy arm curl, the trunk is bent slightly forward and the muscles of the small of the back are used to lift through the weakest point.Negative repetitionsNegative repetitions use eccentric isotonic contractions after the muscle is fatigued. For example, after the biceps muscle is tired from performing biceps curls, a partner assists by lifting the weight and allowing further lowering (eccentric contractions) of the weight by the athlete. The extra work is known as a negative repetition.Pre-exhaustionPre-exhaustion refers to exercising to isolate and fatigue a muscle, and then once more using the muscle (along with other muscles) in a more complex exercise so that it works further, for example, performing leg extensions to tire the legs and then doing squats.Rest pauseRest pause refers to fatiguing a muscle by overloading it to such a degree that only 1 RM can be performed. The athlete then pauses for 10 seconds before performing the exercise again and again. Caution is required, and this intense technique should be used only by experienced lifters.Pyramid trainingPyramid training is the practice of increasing resistance up to the optimal weight, and then decreasing resistance.Source: Adapted from ML Foss and SJ Keteyian, Fox’s Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport, 6th edn, WCB/McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1998
27Overload techniques Technique Explanation Up and down the rack Up and down the rack is similar to pyramid training. It uses light to heavy weights arranged on a weight rack. The athlete works up the rack (increasing weights) and then back down it (decreasing weights).Compound trainingCompound training combines exercises of a muscle group and its counteracting muscle group with minimal rest between. It can be done in:• super sets—exercise the muscle, then the counteracting muscle (for example, a biceps curl followed by a triceps extension), or complete a different exercise with the same muscle group (for example, a bench press followed by a dumbbell fly)• tri sets—work the same muscle three times (for example, complete three different exercises for the deltoids)• giant sets—carry out super sets with more than two exercises and no rest in between.Hybrid exercises (compound repetitions)Hybrid exercises involve a greater range of motion because more than one joint is involved. Instead of doing three or four different exercises, athletes can complete just one hybrid exercise that uses many joints.Triple dropTriple drop involves decreasing the weight of a set of repetitions so that more repetitions can be done. The weight is usually reduced three times, or until complete fatigue is reached.
28Pyramid training is the practice of increasing resistance up to the optimal weight, then decreasing resistance, such as this example of a squat workout.
29Weight training guidelines for different goals Building muscular strength• Use a resistance greater than 80 per cent of 1 RM• Complete 3–6 sets of fewer than 6 repetitions• Use 3–4 exercises per body part• Use compound exercises most often• Use training cycles that try to maximise strength and power, while minimising the probability of overtraining• Use a variety of exercisesBuilding lean body massBeginner• Use a moderate weight so as to obtain 8–12 RM• For each body part, select one isolation exercise and one compound exercise• For each exercise, perform 2–3 sets of 8–12 RM in every work-out• When more than 12 RM can be performed in the final set, increase the resistance by 2.5–5 per cent• Use one set of each exercise for the first 2–4 weeks• Exercise every second day with rests in betweenIntermediate to advanced• Use advanced overload techniques• Use split work-outs: one half of the body one day, then the other half the next• Increase the number of exercises to work each muscle from different angles• Increase the total number of sets (4–5) per exercise
30Weight training guidelines for different goals Building muscular endurance• Use a resistance that eventually causes fatigue, but allows you to perform many repetitions before you tire—usually a resistance of 15–20 RM• Vary each set between 20 seconds and 60 seconds, depending on fitness levels• Vary rest or recovery periods between exercises, depending on the desired training intensity (generally 0–10 seconds)• Monitor intensity by measuring the heart rateBuilding muscular power• Resistance should be 30–70 per cent of 1 RM• Perform 2–3 sets with 6–8 repetitions at high velocity• Allow 9–10 seconds rest between repetitions• Allow 4–6 minutes rest between sets• Allow 8–10 minutes rest between sequences
31Resistance training: isometric A contraction performed at a constant angle against an immovable loadAlthough isometric training improves strength and endurance, it is not ideally suited to many sports because it requires static contractions that very rarely occur in sports.
32Plyometric training Enhances power and explosiveness Uses an eccentric contraction to stretch a muscle group, followed by a rapid concentric contraction of the same muscle group.Focus should be on the quality of work, not the quantity.Exercises should be completed with maximal effort, and appropriate rest periods should be allowed.Should be 1–3 minutes between sets and 3–5 minutes between each exercise.
33Plyometric stabilisation tests • Static stand (hip flexed) for 10 seconds• Single-leg squat• Hop for distance—hold landing for 10 seconds• Hop down off 30 centimetre box—hold landing for 10 seconds• Repetitive jump test (maximum effort)—tuck jump for 30 seconds, checking for switch time, movement from starting position and jump countSource: Adapted from V Gambetta, ‘Plyometrics: Myths and Misconceptions’, Sports Coach, vol 20, 1998, pp. 7–12Plyometric demand rating scaleRatingRecovery timeExample1 Very low stressVery rapid recoveryJump rope or ankle bounces or other low-amplitude jumps2 Low stressRapid recovery: one day requiredTuck jumps, heel kicks, 360-degree jumps3 Moderate stressOne to two days’ recoveryStair jumps, stride jumps4 High stressSlow recovery: at least two days requiredHops, bounds or jumps for distance5 Very high stressVery slow recovery: three days requiredDepth jumps or other shock jumpsSource: Adapted from V Gambetta, ‘Plyometrics: Myths and Misconceptions’, Sports Coach, vol 20, 1998, pp. 7–12
34Plyometric stabilisation tests AdvantagesDisadvantages• Exercise is performed more explosively than with traditional weights, leading to a more rapid development of force, which promotes more muscular power.• There is an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries due to high-impact forces.• The continual acceleration throughout the exercise produces high forces during the entire range of motion, which is more sport specific.• A limited range of exercises are able to be performed.• The exercises are able to be performed at higher velocities than with traditional weight training.• Research has concluded that power is minimised at an approximate load of 30–40% of maximum; the use of one’s own body weight in plyometrics does not represent this.• The exercises enable the use of elastic energy and minimise the stretch reflex by training for a specific activity to increase power.• It is difficult to gain feedback from plyometrics; for example, the amount of force, speed, weight and so on are variables and are difficult to standardise when compared with weights.• Higher velocities of contraction lead to lower forces and therefore lower muscular strength.
35Plyometric push-up Starting position Drop down Bottom of push-up positionExtend arms
36Plyometric sit-up Starting position Leg thrust Leg lift Return to starting position
37Depth jump Starting position Step off platform Land on both feet, flexing kneesExtend body
38Flexibility trainingStatic flexibility training: stretching the muscle by moving slowly and steadily into a position beyond the point of resistance, held for 10–30 seconds.Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): muscle is stretched, but then contracted for 6–10 seconds against a resistance, which is often provided by a partner or a fixed object. Muscle is then relaxed and stretched to its maximum.Dynamic: movements replicating those required in an activity increasing muscle temperature.Ballistic stretching: using momentum to force muscles up to and past their normal range of motion – not very safe
39Flexibility screening tests Source: J Bloomfield, E Bruce and T Ackland, Applied Anatomy and Biomechanics in Sport, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Melbourne, 1994
40Skills training Usually in the form of drills or modified games Skills training varies according to the:athlete’s current skill levelathlete’s motivationpractice methods usedlength of practice sessionrequirements of the sport.
42Specificity Training should be specific to the: task requirements energy systems required in the taskmuscle groups and fibres required in the taskcomponents of fitness involved in the task.Personal reflectionHave you thought about the specific requirements of your sport? Should you adjust your training?
43F.I.T.TFrequency: how often training should occur as well as how many sets and reps in a session.Aerobic system: 3–5 daysAnaerobic system: 3 daysIntensity: how hard a program/session/set or rep should be.Aerobic work: 75–85% of max hrAnaerobic work: above 85% of max hr*Also applies to the amount of resistanceTime: how long a program or session should go for.• 12–15 weeks for aerobic gains• 10 weeks for anaerobic (speed) gains• 5 weeks for strength gains.Training sessions should go for 30–60 minutes.Type: what type of exercise should be undertaken.Relates to the principle of specificity
44Progressive overloadAthletes must exercise at a level beyond what they are accustomed to for training to have an effect.This can be achieved by:increasing the frequency of trainingincreasing the intensity of trainingincreasing the distance covereddecreasing the time allocated to complete repetitions, sets or sessionsdecreasing the recovery time between repetitions, sets or sessionsincorporating more muscle groups into training activities or increasing a joint’s range of motion.
45Progression and maintenance of exercise training
46RecuperationTo achieve equilibrium, the body has two responses after exercise; repair and adaptAthletes must allow the body enough rest time for these responses to occurWithout adequate rest the athlete will become sick or injured
47Reversibility The effects of fitness training can be reversed. Athletes developing their aerobic system can expect significant decreases in VO2 max about two weeks after they stop training. Reductions in muscular strength take longer to occur.
48VarietyAthletes who do not have a varied fitness regime can quickly become bored and lose motivation.Variety must, however, be balanced with the need for specificity.
49Diminishing returnsAs athletes progress, the gains will be more gradual.
50Now that you’ve finished … Back tochapter overviewNow that you’ve finished …Answers
511. Describe a fitness test designed to test one of the skill-related components of physical fitness. Component: Power Test: Standing long jump. Participant stands with feet together behind a line (positioned close to the long jump pit), bends knees, swings arms up and jumps as far as possible. The recorder marks the landing point of the heel of the back foot (closest to the starting line) and records the best of 3 attempts.
522. Investigate why some sporting organisations do fitness testing in and out of the competitive season.The more testing that is conducted, the greater the knowledge gained about the participant’s fitness. Improvement and deterioration can be identified, highlighting weaknesses and strengths. If tests are taken from season to season, an athlete and their coach/teacher can decide if the correct response is being achieved and make necessary changes to the training plan or program.
533. Discuss the value of including both aerobic and anaerobic training in team sports. Aerobic and anaerobic training thresholds indicate the maximum effect possible without an increase in lactic acid. Training all athletes, regardless of their position on a team, to have efficient aerobic and anaerobic systems will improve their ability to tolerate lactic acid. Furthermore, even anaerobic-based physical activities may require athletes to have an efficient aerobic capacity as they are required to repeat movements over a long period of time. For example, a netball goal shooter makes agile, short and sharp movements to find the best position in the goal circle, which taxes the anaerobic system; however, he/she will need to do these for an hour, therefore taxing the aerobic system.
54Monitoring changes in heart rate recovery (over time) 4. Imagine that you are about to start a twelve-week personal training program designed to improve your aerobic capacity. Discuss the methods that could be used to measure your improvement.Pre- and post-fitness testing, focusing on the fitness components being trained.Monitoring changes in heart rate recovery (over time)Monitoring changes to perceived exertion levels after sessions (over time)
555. List sports that would benefit from: a. isometric training – gymnastics: the rings b. isotonic training – softball: the pitch c. isokinetic training – swimming: the freestyle stroke d. all of the above – waterpolo: gripping the ball (isometric), throwing ball (isotonic), eggbeater kick (isokinetic).
56Chest press – chest muscles Lat pulldown – back muscles 6. Imagine you have been approached by a friend who is going to open a new gym. Recommend a range of equipment that would help the gym’s customers develop strength. Give reasons for each.Chest press – chest musclesLat pulldown – back musclesShoulder press – shoulder musclesBicep curl – biceps musclesTricep press – triceps musclesLeg press – quadriceps, gluteus and hamstring musclesLeg extension – quadriceps musclesLeg curl – hamstring musclesCalf raise – calf musclesBack extension – lower back musclesAb curl – abdominal muscles
577. Analyse the use of flexibility training to improve performance in a team sport of your choice. Example: rugbyThe more flexible a rugby player, the less likely they will be of becoming injured. The general running up and down the field, passing of the ball and quick manoeuvring requires general muscle flexibility. In particular, kicking the ball requires a high degree of dynamic flexibility. Not only will working on hamstring flexibility for the kicking action prevent injury, it may increase the length of a kick. Finally, rugby players regularly place their bodies under strain when tackled. Good flexibility is essential for injury prevention in these circumstances.
588. The table below shows a type of training session 8. The table below shows a type of training session. Discuss what training method is being employed and why.Work10 x 40 m5 x 80 m4 x 100 mRest30 seconds1 minute1.5 minutesThe above training session is an example of short-interval training. This is because there are short periods of activity followed by periods of rest to develop speed.
599. Explain the intensity component of the FITT principle. Applying intensity to a training programThe intensity of a training program is the overall level of exercise difficulty. Athletes should exercise at a rate sufficient to tax the energy system being developed:aerobic system—athletes should aim for an intensity somewhere between 75 and 85 per cent of their maximum heart rate.anaerobic system—athletes should aim for an intensity somewhere above 85 per cent of their maximum heart rate.Applying intensity to a training sessionThe intensity of a training session is the difficulty of a set or repetition. It is expressed differently depending on the training method being applied. For example, the intensity of interval training is expressed as a percentage of the athlete’s maximum heart rate. Intensity when referring to strength training refers to a percentage of an individual’s repetition max.
6010a. Describe the principles of training. SpecificityThe type of exercise used in training should be specific to the task, energy systems, muscle groups and fibres, and components of fitnessFITTThe frequency, intensity, time and type of training must be stated every session.Progressive overloadAthletes must exercise at a level beyond what they are accustomed to for training to have an effect.RecuperationAthletes must rest for adequate periods of time to prevent injury, illness and loss of motivation.ReversibilityThe training effect can be lost if training is not maintained.VarietyTraining programs must include a variety of activities to maintain athlete motivation.Diminishing returnsAs athletes progress, the gains will be more gradual.
6110b. Analyse how any four of these principles can be applied to a program designed to develop muscular hypertrophy.SpecificityFrequencyIntensityTimeOverloadVarietyMuscular strengthResistance training: Muscle contractions should involve both concentric and eccentric contractionsWhere possible, actions should mimic that of the event/sport.Untrained athletes: 1–2 sessions per week. 2–3 sets per session.Advanced athletes: 3–5 sessions per week, per muscle group, split sessions. 3–6 sets per session.Untrained athletes: 8–12 RM slow/moderate movement speedAdvanced athletes: 2–6 RM, slow/moderate movement speedThe number of sets will guide the time for each session. However, the amount of rest is constant.Untrained athletes: 2–3 min between setsAdvanced athletes: 3–5 min between setsGradual decreases of 2–10% or RM, meaning that the lower the RM, the heavier the weight.Machines, free weights, elastic bands, person’s own body weight, pulleys/levers and sport-specific machines; i.e., swimming resistance bench.
6211. Explain the dangers athletes are likely to face if they do not allow for proper recuperation in an anaerobic training program.If athletes do not give their body adequate time to repair and respond to exercise, they run the risk of over-training and damaging the body. Over-training occurs when an athlete does more work than can be physically tolerated. The body is not able to adapt, which results in tissue damage and not enough time to repair it. This in turn affects performance, which has a flow-on effect on motivation. Athletes who are not performing at their best can lose motivation. Overuse injuries occur when excessive and repetitive force is placed on the bones and connective tissues of the body.