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Research By: Dr. Ritta Baena Visual Effects By: John Baena

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1 Research By: Dr. Ritta Baena Visual Effects By: John Baena
Heart Failure Research By: Dr. Ritta Baena Visual Effects By: John Baena

2 The Function of the Heart
The heart is a pump that pumps blood to the whole body. The heart is divided into a right side and left side. Each side is further divided into two parts, the artrium ( at the top) and ventricle ( at the bottom) The right side of the heart pumps the deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and remove the carbon dioxide from the blood. The oxygenated blood is returned from the lungs to the left part of the heart which pumps the oxygen rich blood to the whole body.

3 Normal Heart Function Play Animation

4 The Function of the Heart
Heart is a muscular organ with 4 chambers pumping blood as required by the body. The contraction of the muscles fibers of the heart is controlled by electricity that flows in distinct pathways.

5 The Electrical Impulse of the Heart
Play Animation

6 Locations of the Heart Sounds
Heart Monitor Play Animation Continue

7 Heart Rate Normal Adult Heart Rate is 60-100beats/min
A normal person’s heart rate may vary in response to exercise, and stimuli such as pain or anger. Abnormal heart rate is when it is inappropriately fast called Tachycardia or slow called bradycardia or when electrical impulse travel an abnormal pathway.

8 Heart Performance A Normal heart performance during exercise
B Normal heart performance at rest C Heart Failure D Cardiogenic shock

9 What is heart failure? Z Z Z
Heart failure is when the heart can not meet the bodies requirements, thus the heart fails due to many causes. Heart failure ranges from stage 1-4. Stage 1 there is no limitation on the heart during exercises, any metabolic demand or other forms of stress. This is the mildest form of heart failure. Severe heart failure is at rest Z Z Z

10 Stages of Hear Failure Class Patient Symptoms Class I (Mild)
No limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea (shortness of breath). Class II (Mild) Slight limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but ordinary physical activity results in fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea. Class III (Moderate) Marked limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but less than ordinary activity causes fatigue, palpitation, or dyspnea. Class IV (Severe) Unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of cardiac insufficiency at rest. If any physical activity is undertaken, discomfort is increased.

11 Common Cause of Heart Failure
The most common cause of heart failure In adults is due to coronary artery diseases. The coronary artery is the artery that supplies the heart with oxygen and glucose in order to function as a pump from the left side of the heart. In children it can be from a variety of conditions from congenital to infection etc

12 Symptoms of Heart Failure
The patients normal come in with: difficulty breathing at rest or with exercise this is mostly to be right heart failure due to fluid in the lungs and the lungs are unable to expand to normal requirements and fluid in their legs( worst towards the end of the day due to gravity and in the mornings it mostly settles horizontally ie the back) mostly due to left side heart failure.

13 Types of heart failure Acute- sudden
Chronic- gradual impairment of the heart. This can further be divided into Right heart failure, left heart failure and biventricular heart failure

14 Symptoms of heart failure
Shortness of breath called dyspnea: from walking stair or simple activities. Trouble breathing at rest. Breathless at night that wakes you up (Paroxymal Nocturnal Dyspnea) Unable to lie flat and require two or more pillow. (Orthopnea) Fluid in the ankles called edema Weakness and fatigue Palpitation Coughing-fequent coughing drycough cough with production of a mucus or pink, blood-tinged sputum Exercise intolerance

15 Causes of heart failure
High blood pressure Damage heart Valves are damage Illicit Drugs Cardiomyopathy Infects Bacterial or viral Congenital

16 Test Echocardiogram ECG
Blood test for sodium, creatnine, urea, liver function and Thyroid functions-TSH Chest x-ray

17 Treatment It depends on the cause of the heart failure. It is always advisable to talk to your doctor. It may vary from simple restrictions of salt, nutritional food to heart implants and or replacement. Salt restriction Regular exercise with doctors advise Fluid restriction Regular weight checks to see if you are retaining fluid Medication normal combination treatment of pills such as ACE Inhibitors, Diuretics, Beta Blocker, Digitalis Surgery- Pacers( for stage III/IV NYHA) Ventricular Assist Device: RVAD ( Right ventricular assist device) LVAD (Left Ventricular assist device ) BiVAD (Biventriculat assist device) Heart transplant

18 Heart Pace Maker Play Animation

19 Ventricular Assist Device

20 Heart Transplant

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