2 Acids, Bases, and pHThe pH scale: Chemist devised a measurement system called the pH scale to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in a solution.
3 AcidsAcidic solutions contain higher concentrations of H+ ions that pure water and have a pH value below 7Strong acids tend to have pH values that range from 1 to 3.The hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach to help digest food is a strong acid.
4 BasesA base is a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solutionBasic, or alkaline, solutions contain lower concentrations of H+ ions than pure water and have pH values above 7Ammonium is a strong base
6 BuffersThe pH of the fluids inside human cells must be kept between 6.5 and If the pH is lower or higher, it will affect the chemical reactions that take place with cells.Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pHEasy Balance?
7 Carbon CompoundsCarbon is so interesting that a whole branch of chemistry is set aside just to study carbon compounds. (Organic chemistry)Carbon has 4 valence electronsCarbon can also bond with another carbon atom!!!No other element comes close to matching carbons versatility…
10 Macromolecules (biomolecules) Many of the molecules of living cells are so large that they are known as macromolecules (giant molecule)There are four groups of macromolecules in living thingsCarbohydratesLipidsNucleic acidsProteins
11 Carbohydrates (Carbs) Carbohydrates are compounds made-up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen usually in the ratio of 1:2:1Living things use carbs as their main source of energy.Single sugar molecules: monosaccharidesMonosaccharides form polysaccharides
16 Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA) Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from monomers known as nucleotides.NucleotidesSugarPhosphateNitrogenous base
23 ProteinsSome proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processesSome form bone and muscleOthers work as doors or elevators that transport substances into or out of cells.Enzyme: insulin???