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1 ITNS and CERIAS CISSP Luncheon Series: Physical (Environmental) Security Presented by Scott L. Ksander.

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Presentation on theme: "1 ITNS and CERIAS CISSP Luncheon Series: Physical (Environmental) Security Presented by Scott L. Ksander."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ITNS and CERIAS CISSP Luncheon Series: Physical (Environmental) Security Presented by Scott L. Ksander

2 2 Physical Security From (ISC)2 Candidate Information Bulletin: The Physical (Environmental) Security domain addresses the threats, vulnerabilities, and countermeasures that can be utilized to physically protect an enterprises resources and sensitive information. These resources include people, the facility in which they work, and the data, equipment, support systems, media, and supplies they utilize.

3 3 Physical Security From (ISC)2 Candidate Information Bulletin: The candidate will be expected to know the elements involved in choosing a secure site, its design and configuration, and the methods for securing the facility against unauthorized access, theft of equipment and information, and the environmental and safety measures needed to protect people, the facility, and its resources.

4 4 Introduction Threats to physical security include: Interruption of services Theft Physical damage Unauthorized disclosure Loss of system integrity

5 5 Introduction Threats fall into many categories: Natural environmental threats (e.g., floods, fire) Supply system threats (e.g., power outages, communication interruptions) Manmade threats (e.g., explosions, disgruntled employees, fraud) Politically motivated threats (e.g., strikes, riots, civil disobedience)

6 6 Introduction Primary consideration in physical security is that nothing should impede life safety goals. Ex.: Dont lock the only fire exit door from the outside. Safety: Deals with the protection of life and assets against fire, natural disasters, and devastating accidents. Security: Addresses vandalism, theft, and attacks by individuals.

7 7 Physical Security Planning Physical security, like general information security, should be based on a layered defense model. Layers are implemented at the perimeter and moving toward an asset. Layers include: Deterrence, Delaying, Detection, Assessment, Response

8 8 Physical Security Planning A physical security program must address: Crime and disruption protection through deterrence (fences, security guards, warning signs, etc.). Reduction of damages through the use of delaying mechanisms (e.g., locks, security personnel, etc.). Crime or disruption detection (e.g., smoke detectors, motion detectors, CCTV, etc.). Incident assessment through response to incidents and determination of damage levels. Response procedures (fire suppression mechanisms, emergency response processes, etc.).

9 9 Physical Security Planning Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Is a discipline that outlines how the proper design of a physical environment can reduce crime by directly affecting human behavior. Concepts developed in 1960s. Think: Social Engineering

10 10 Physical Security Planning CPTED has three main strategies: Natural Access Control Natural Surveillance Territorial Reinforcement

11 11 Physical Security Planning Natural Access Control The guidance of people entering and leaving a space by the placement of doors, fences, lighting, and landscaping Be familiar with: bollards, use of security zones, access barriers, use of natural access controls

12 12 Physical Security Planning Natural Surveillance Is the use and placement of physical environmental features, personnel walkways, and activity areas in ways that maximize visibility. The goal is to make criminals feel uncomfortable and make all other people feel safe and comfortable, through the use of observation.

13 13 Physical Security Planning Territorial Reinforcement Creates physical designs that highlight the companys area of influence to give legitimate owners a sense of ownership. Accomplished through the use of walls, lighting, landscaping, etc.

14 14 Physical Security Planning CPTED is not the same as target hardening Target hardening focuses on denying access through physical and artificial barriers (can lead to restrictions on use, enjoyment, and aesthetics of the environment).

15 15 Physical Security Planning Issues with selecting a facility site: Visibility (terrain, neighbors, population of area, building markings) Surrounding area and external factors (crime rate, riots, terrorism, first responder locations) Accessibility (road access, traffic, proximity to transportation services) Natural Disasters (floods, tornados, earthquakes)

16 16 Physical Security Planning Other facility considerations: Physical construction materials and structure composition »Be familiar with: load, light frame construction material, heavy timber construction material, incombustible material, dire resistant material (know the fire ratings and construction properties).

17 17 Physical Security Planning Mantrap: A small room with two doors. The first door is locked; a person is identified and authenticated. Once the person is authenticated and access is authorized, the first door opens and allows the person into the mantrap. The person has to be authenticated again in order to open the second door and access a critical area. The mantrap area could have a weight sensing floor as an additional control to prevent literal piggybacking.

18 18 Physical Security Planning Automatic door lock configuration: Fail safe: If a power disruption occurs, the door defaults to being unlocked. Fail secure: If a power disruption occurs, the door defaults to being locked.

19 19 Physical Security Planning Windows can also be used to promote physical security. Know the different types of glass: Standard Tempered Acrylic Wired Laminated Solar Window Film Security Film

20 20 Physical Security Planning Consider use of internal partitions carefully: True floor to true ceiling to counter security issues Should never be used in areas that house sensitive systems and devices

21 21 Internal Support Systems Power issues: A continuous supply of electricity assures the availability of company resources. Data centers should be on a different power supply from the rest of the building Redundant power supplies: two or more feeds coming from two or more electrical substations

22 22 Internal Support Systems Power protection: UPS Systems »Online UPS systems »Standby UPS System Power line conditioners Backup Sources

23 23 Internal Support Systems Other power terms to know: Ground Noise Transient Noise Inrush Current Clean Power EMI RFI

24 24 Internal Support Systems Types of Voltage Fluctuations Power Excess »Spike »Surge Power Loss »Fault »Blackout Power Degradation »Sag/dip »Brownout »Inrush Current

25 25 Internal Support Systems Environmental Issues Positive Drains Static Electricity Temperature

26 26 Internal Support Systems Environmental Issues: Positive Drains Contents flow out instead of in Important for water, steam, gas lines

27 27 Internal Support Systems Environmental Issues: Static Electricity To prevent: »Use antistatic flooring in data processing areas »Ensure proper humidity »Proper grounding »No carpeting in data centers »Antistatic bands

28 28 Internal Support Systems Environmental Issues: Temperature Computing components can be affected by temperature: »Magnetic Storage devices: 100 Deg. F. »Computer systems and peripherals: 175 Deg. F. »Paper products: 350 Deg. F.

29 29 Internal Support Systems Ventilation Airborne materials and particle concentration must be monitored for inappropriate levels. Closed Loop Positive Pressurization

30 30 Internal Support Systems Fire prevention, detection, suppression Fire Prevention: Includes training employees on how to react, supplying the right equipment, enabling fire suppression supply, proper storage of combustible elements Fire Detection: Includes alarms, manual detection pull boxes, automatic detection response systems with sensors, etc. Fire Suppression: Is the use of a suppression agent to put out a fire.

31 31 Internal Support Systems American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is the organization that creates the standards that dictate how fire resistant ratings tests should be carried out and how to properly interpret results.

32 32 Internal Support Systems Fire needs oxygen and fuel to continue to grow. Ignition sources can include the failure of an electrical device, improper storage of materials, malfunctioning heating devices, arson, etc. Special note on plenum areas: The space above drop down ceilings, wall cavities, and under raised floors. Plenum areas should have fire detectors and should only use plenum area rated cabling.

33 33 Internal Support Systems Types of Fire: A: Common Combustibles »Elements: Wood products, paper, laminates »Suppression: Water, foam B: Liquid »Elements: Petroleum products and coolants »Suppression: Gas, CO2, foam, dry powders C: Electrical »Elements: Electrical equipment and wires »Suppression: Gas, CO2, dry powders D: Combustible Metals »Elements: magnesium, sodium, potassium »Suppression: Dry powder K: Commercial Kitchens »Elements: Cooking oil fires »Suppression: Wet chemicals such as potassium acetate.

34 34 Internal Support Systems Types of Fire Detectors Smoke Activated Heat Activated Know the types and properties of each general category.

35 35 Internal Support Systems Different types of suppression agents: Water Halon and halon substitutes Foams Dry Powders CO2 Soda Acid Know suppression agent properties and the types of fires that each suppression agent combats Know the types of fire extinguishers (A,B,C, D) that combat different types of fires

36 36 Internal Support Systems Types of Sprinklers Wet Pipe Systems (aka Closed Head System) Dry Pipe Systems Preaction Systems Deluge Systems

37 37 Perimeter Security The first line of defense is perimeter control at the site location, to prevent unauthorized access to the facility. Perimeter security has two modes: Normal facility operation Facility closed operation

38 38 Perimeter Security Proximity protection components put in place to provide the following services: Control of pedestrian and vehicle traffic Various levels of protection for different security zones Buffers and delaying mechanisms to protect against forced entry Limit and control entry points

39 39 Perimeter Security Protection services can be provided by: Access Control Mechanisms Physical Barriers Intrusion Detection Assessment Response Deterrents

40 40 Perimeter Security Fences are first line of defence mechanisms. (Small Joke!) Varying heights, gauge, and mesh provides security features (know them). Barbed wire direction makes a difference.

41 41 Perimeter Security Perimeter Intrusion Detection and Assessment System (PIDAS): A type of fencing that has sensors on the wire mesh and base of the fence. A passive cable vibration sensor sets off an alarm if an intrusion is detected.

42 42 Perimeter Security Gates have 4 distinct types: Class I: Residential usage Class II: Commercial usage, where general public access is expected (e.g., public parking lot, gated community, self storage facility) Class III: Industrial usage, where limited access is expected (e.g., warehouse property entrance not intended to serve public) Class IV: Restricted access (e.g., a prison entrance that is monitored either in person or via CCTV)

43 43 Perimeter Security Locks are inexpensive access control mechanisms that are widely accepted and used. Locks are considered delaying devices. Know your locks!

44 44 Perimeter Security Types of Locks Mechanical Locks »Warded & Tumbler Combination Locks Cipher Locks (aka programmable locks) »Smart locks Device Locks »Cable locks, switch controls, slot locks, port controls, peripheral switch controls, cable traps

45 45 Perimeter Security Lock Strengths: Grade 1 (commercial and industrial use) Grade 2 (heavy duty residential/light duty commercial) Grade 3 (residential and consumer expendable) Cylinder Categories Low Security (no pick or drill resistance) Medium Security (some pick resistance) High Security (pick resistance through many different mechanismsused only in Grade 1 & 2 locks)

46 46 Perimeter Security Lighting Know lighting terms and types of lighting to use in different situations (inside v. outside, security posts, access doors, zones of illumination) It is important to have the correct lighting when using various types of surveillance equipment. Lighting controls and switches should be in protected, locked, and centralized areas.

47 47 Perimeter Security Continuous lighting: An array of lights that provide an even amount of illumination across an area. Controlled lighting: An organization should erect lights and use illumination in such a way that does not blind its neighbors or any passing cars, trains, or planes. Standby Lighting: Lighting that can be configured to turn on and off at different times so that potential intruders think that different areas of the facility are populated. Redundant or backup lighting: Should be available in case of power failures or emergencies. Response Area Illumination: Takes place when an IDS detects suspicious activities and turns on the lights within the specified area.

48 48 Perimeter Security Surveillance Devices These devices usually work in conjunction with guards or other monitoring mechanisms to extend their capacity. Know the factors in choosing CCTV, focal length, lens types (fixed v. zoom), iris, depth of field, illumination requirements

49 49 Perimeter Security Focal length: The focal length of a lens defines its effectiveness in viewing objects from a horizontal and vertical view. The sizes of images that will be shown on a monitor along with the area that can be covered by one camera are defined by focal length. Short focal length = wider angle views Long focal length = narrower views

50 50 Perimeter Security Depth of field: Refers to the portion of the environment that is in focus Shallow depth of focus: Provides a softer backdrop and leads viewers to the foreground object Greater depth of focus: Not much distinction between objects in the foreground and background.

51 51 Perimeter Security Intrusion Detection systems are used to detect unauthorized entries and to alert a responsible entity to respond. Know the different types of IDS systems (electro-mechanical v. volumetric) and changes that can be detected by an IDS system.

52 52 Perimeter Security Patrol Force and Guards Use in areas where critical reasoning skills are required Auditing Physical Access Need to log and review: »Date & time of access attempt »Entry point »User ID »Unsuccessful access attempts

53 53 Physical Security Final Concept to Guide in Assessing Physical Security Issues on Exam: Deterrence Delay Detection Assessment Response

54 54 Physical Security Resources All in One Book (Shon Harris, 2005) Official (ISC)² Guide to the CISSP CBK ((ISC)², 2006)

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