Presentation on theme: "Biggest Pitfalls and Best Practices: Life Safety Healthcare Engineering Consultants What Should I Know About the Life Safety Chapter?"— Presentation transcript:
Biggest Pitfalls and Best Practices: Life Safety Healthcare Engineering Consultants What Should I Know About the Life Safety Chapter?
Life Safety Compartmentation Healthcare Engineering Consultants Life Safety Building Compartmentation Drawings Blue – smoke barrier Green – 1 hour fire wall (hazardous area) Red – 2 hour fire wall Note: The 2009 IBC now requires stencils to mark smoke and fire walls
Life Safety Compartmentation Healthcare Engineering Consultants Smoke Barrier Compartmentation Requirements Extends from floor to deck above Barrier penetrations protected by smoke dampers Smoke dampers not required in ducted penetrations where QRS sprinklers are installed All penetrations sealed with appropriate materials Doors are labeled 20-minute or 1-3/4 solid core type Doors are self-closing Positive latching not required ½-hour smoke compartment must be at least two layers of ½ or more sheetrock (existing, one sheet on each side) 1-hour compartment for new construction, 5/8 on each side
Life Safety Compartmentation Healthcare Engineering Consultants 1-hour Fire Barrier Compartmentation Requirements Extends from floor to deck above Transfer air grilles protected by fire dampers All penetrations sealed with appropriate materials Doors are labeled 45-minute or 1-hour Doors are self-closing Positive latching is required 1-hour smoke compartment must be at least two layers of 5/8 sheetrock (X-type, one layer on each side) or equivalent
Life Safety Compartmentation Healthcare Engineering Consultants 2-hour Fire Barrier Compartmentation Requirements Extends from floor to deck above All duct penetrations protected by fire dampers All penetrations sealed with appropriate materials Doors are labeled 1.5 hour Doors are self-closing Positive latching is required 2-hour smoke compartment must be at least four layers of 5/8 sheetrock or equivalent (X-type, two layers on each side)
Life Safety Compartmentation Healthcare Engineering Consultants Smoke and Fire Door Requirements Undercut to floor not more than ¾ Vertical gap between doors not more than 1/8 Warpage to frame less than ½ All fire doors and frames must be labeled Smoke doors must be labeled or 1-3/4 solid core construction Doors must be self-closing Positive latching is required for fire doors; not for smoke doors Door tampering is not permitted; will alter the rating Field installed protective plates >16 not permitted on fire doors (exceptions exist for doors to hazardous rooms)
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Interim Life Safety Measures Requirement Standard LS from the Joint Commission Accreditation Manual: The hospital protects occupants during periods when the Life Safety Code is not met or during periods of construction
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants The Interim Life Safety Measures Process Includes the Following Steps: 1. Is an ILSM evaluation required? Y or N 2.If Yes, does the ILSM evaluation require the implementation of ILSM? Y or N 3.If Yes, which interim measures apply? 4.Implement and document the required measures Note: An interim life safety measures policy must be written and address each of the four steps listed above
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Step 1: Is an ILSM evaluation required? The need for an interim life safety measure evaluation is normally required whenever there is a life safety deficiency that is found, or renovation or construction activities create life safety deficiencies. Be sure to do an ILSM evaluation for PFIs! Include in the ILSM policy exclusions for evaluations, such as routine work orders or superficial projects
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Interim life safety measures evaluation exception for routine work orders or superficial projects that do not impact life safety
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Step 2: Are interim life safety measures necessary, based on the evaluation? Interim life safety measure trigger points include the following: Egress is compromised, and alternative exits are necessary Compartmentation is breached,and is considered serious Part or all of the fire detection or extinguishing system has been taken out of service Hot Work is being performed Large quantities of combustible materials are present Other conditions determined by the organization
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Interim Life Safety Measures Check which triggers (if any) apply for the project Add other triggers, as desired If none of the triggers are marked Yes, then no additional action is required
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Step 3: Which interim life safety measures apply? The use of an ILSM applicability matrix that helps to determine which interim measures apply is helpful. The matrix can either be pre-filled for specific conditions or left blank until the evaluation process occurs. The ILSM policy should describe how the interim measures are selected, based on criteria developed by the hospital.
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Possible Interim Life Safety Measures Include: Fire watch Alternative exit signage Daily inspection of exits Temporary, but equivalent fire alarm and detection systems Additional fire fighting equipment Temporary, smoke-tight, noncombustible partitions Increased surveillance of buildings, grounds and equipment Storage, housekeeping and debris removal practices Additional staff training for staff who use fire equipment
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Possible Interim Life Safety Measures Include (continued): Additional fire drills Inspect and test temporary systems monthly Additional staff training related to the interim measures Additional training to compensate for impaired fire or building features Note: Implementation of any or all of the interim life safety measures noted in the list above are based on criteria developed by the hospital and should be listed in the hospital interim life safety measures policy
Interim Life Safety Measures (ILSM) Healthcare Engineering Consultants Applicability Grid Example for Interim Life Safety Measures Compromise egressXXXXXX Breach compartmentation XXXXXXXXX Impair fire detection, alarm, suppression XXXXXXXX Hot workXX Large quantities of combustibles XXXXXXXX Interim Measure Deficiency Ensuring Egress Notify Fire Dept Operational LS Barriers Fire equipment Reduce combust. Prohibit smoking Fire drills Fire watch Staff trainingSurveillance Other
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Example for Interim Life Safety Measures Chart One or more of the interim measures listed on the chart may be selected, based on the scope of the project and the type of deficiency that exists
Interim Life Safety Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Step 4: Implement and document the required measures Whichever interim measures are selected must be implemented and documented Remember: Failure to implement or document interim life safety measures, when required, can result Conditional Accreditation from the Joint Commission!
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Interim Life Safety Measures
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Interim Life Safety Measures
Fire Watch Requirements Healthcare Engineering Consultants LS : EP 1 The hospital notifies the fire department (or other emergency response group) and initiates a fire watch when a fire alarm or sprinkler system is out of service more than 4 hours in a 24-hour period in an occupied building. Notification and fire watch times are documented Question: What constitutes when a fire alarm or sprinkler system is out of service?
Fire Watch Decision Grid Healthcare Engineering Consultants The requirement for a fire watch is determined by the hospital staff. NFPA 101, section A states: it is not the intent of the Code to require notification of the AHJ for a single non-operating device or appliance
Other Interim Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants What about interim measures for Utility Systems? Interim fire system measures (IFSM) Example: Changing out the fire pump (also ILSM) Interim emergency power measures (IEPM) Example: Changing the oil and filter in an emergency generator Interim medical gas system measures (IMGM) Example: Installing a new oxygen source valve
Interim Fire System Measures (IFSM) Healthcare Engineering Consultants What about interim measures for Fire Systems? Example: Replacing the fire pump Possible Interim Measures: 1. Notify staff, local fire department and insurance company 2. Provide for back-up pump, if possible 3. Implement fire watch throughout affected areas 4. Obtain additional portable fire extinguishers 5. Perform replacement at non-critical times 6. Other?
Interim Emergency Power Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants What about interim measures for Emergency Power? Example: Changing the generator oil and filter Possible interim measures: 1. Obtain back-up generator (not usually necessary) 2. Notify staff in critically affected areas (ICU, OR, NICU, etc.) 3. Perform service during less critical times 4. Verify that back-up, battery-operated equipment is functional 5. Remind staff of emergency procedures for no power 6. Review procedures for actual normal power failure with service personnel
Interim Medical Gas Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants What about interim measures for Medical Gas and Vacuum Systems? Example: Installing a new oxygen source valve Possible interim measures: 1. Obtain truck with liquid oxygen tank and vaporizer to connect to emergency low pressure inlet 2. Notify staff in affected areas 3. Obtain additional H cylinders for back-feed, if necessary 4. Perform installation during less critical time periods 5. Verify that critical patient areas have adequate oxygen tanks
Interim Utility System Measures Healthcare Engineering Consultants Describe what actions the project requires Be sure to notify the staff and departments that will be affected, and which special procedures are necessary Maintain this and other related documentation in the project file
Other Life Safety Deficiencies that are Likely to be Found Healthcare Engineering Consultants Life Safety Pitfalls
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Life Safety Deficiencies Additional Note: Joint Commission now accepts up to 6 inch projections above 40 inches from the floor
Compartmentation Deficiencies Healthcare Engineering Consultants Whats wrong with this seal?
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Compartmentation Deficiencies Repair of Smoke and Fire Wall Penetrations Polyurethane foam should never be used as a sealant! Intumescent materials should not only be tested, but pass the tests! Smoke and fire ratings apply to the entire assembly Smoke barriers (1/2 hour) need at least 1/2 sheetrock (each side) 1-hour fire barriers require at least 1-1/4 of sheetrock (2 layers) 2-hour fire barriers require at least 2-1/2 of sheetrock (4 layers) Insulation or mineral wool requires intumescent capping Use the manufacturer applications book for proper installation Unusual applications require an engineering judgment The use of labels describing the seal is recommended
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Egress Corridor Deficiencies Whats wrong with this picture?
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Corridor Interpretations Life Safety Code: Means of egress shall be continuously maintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency ( ) CMS and Joint Commission: An 8-foot clear corridor width must be maintained... CMS permits items to be in the corridor for temporary use of one half-hour or less... Both agencies agreed that computers on wheels (COWs) may not be plugged in to recharge while in a corridor (Mills, Zimmerman) Joint Commission: Carts on wheels permitted in the corridor when in use; COWs permitted when charting being performed; otherwise store in clean utility rooms or patient rooms (EC News, 2/07) Egress Corridor Deficiencies
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Additional Joint Commission Interpretations 1.Egress corridors greater than 8 feet in width may be partitioned to provide alcove storage for computers, equipment 2.Small (less than 50 square feet) dead-end corridors beyond the exit stairwell doorway may be used to store equipment 3.Where only offices exist in an egress corridor beyond an exit stairwell door, only 44 inches of clearance is required to be maintained in the corridor! Important Note: Although these interpretations were provided by George Mills (Joint Commission Senior Engineer) at the 2008 ASHE Annual Conference, local AHJs may not permit these exceptions! Be careful!! Egress Corridor Storage
Healthcare Engineering Consultants Request for Life Safety Code Equivalency Traditional Procedure: Identify the deficiency (reference the LSC, state the intent) Propose an alternate solution (provide explanation, drawings, cost, commitment of funds and timetable) Get certification from PE, AIA, etc. and submit to JCAHO FSES Procedure: Survey facility to determine deficiencies Provide BBI for building in which equivalency is requested Perform FSES evaluation for fire/ smoke zone in question Determine if equivalent condition exists Submit PFI with actions, cost, commitment of funds, timetable, and FSES worksheet to the Joint Commission