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1. Fitness and Wellness and Stress Management (14 hrs.) TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/27/04.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Fitness and Wellness and Stress Management (14 hrs.) TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/27/04."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Fitness and Wellness and Stress Management (14 hrs.) TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/27/04

2 Unit Goal: 1.1. Demonstrate an understanding of lifestyle, nutrition, and fitness concepts required to maintain a high level of fitness and wellness Describe the importance of fitness and wellness in the law enforcement profession Identify healthy nutritional strategies Develop a personal nutrition plan.

3 Unit Goal: 1.1. Demonstrate an understanding of lifestyle, nutrition, and fitness concepts required to maintain a high level of fitness and wellness.

4 Describe the importance of fitness and wellness in the law enforcement profession.

5 DEFINITION OF PHYSICAL FITNESS: The condition of the body which enables an individual to use his/her body in activities requiring strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, agility, power, balance, speed, and accuracy, without undue experience of fatigue and exhaustion.

6 DEFINITION OF WELLNESS: That condition of the human organism which consists of its health and disease status and risk potential. There are varying degrees of wellness, ranging from death to optimal well-being. Genuine health or wellness is not just the absence of disease or infirmity, it is a state of positive well-being. It induces the physical, mental, spiritual, and socio-emotional dimensions of life. Total well-being translates into the practice of positive lifestyle behaviors and good health habits.

7 THE FITNESS/WELLNESS RELATIONSHIP

8 Physical fitness can be divided into two categories: Health related: strength, dynamic strength (muscle endurance), flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, body composition. Motor related: coordination, agility, power balance, speed accuracy. The health-related components are more important to wellness and quality of life than the skill-related components linked to motor performance.

9 FACTORS INFLUENCING FITNESS/WELLNESS

10 The concept of the wellness lifestyle can be visualized in terms of a wellness pyramid:

11 Wellness Pyramid Self-responsibility Stress management Smoking cessation Weight control Nutrition Exercise

12 Regular exercise and proper nutrition make up the foundation on which the Wellness Pyramid is built. Adequate attention and proper application to these two areas will set the standard for positive improvements in the areas.

13 Self-responsibility is the cap which holds down all the other areas in the pyramid. Rather than being an area of mastery itself, it lends support to the successful application of the other wellness areas.

14 How we act, react, function, and perform during our everyday life has the greatest impact on fitness/wellness. It is these behaviors that directly influence our fitness level and where we are on the wellness continuum (death to optimal well-being).

15 THE HEALTH AND DISABILITY STATUS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AS A PROFESSION

16 As an occupational group, law enforcement professionals have a poor health profile.

17 High risk with high incidence of stress-related disorders: Alcoholism Divorce Suicide

18 THE IMPORTANCE OF FITNESS FOR THE LAW ENFORCEMENT PROFESSION

19 Physical fitness has a significant impact on:

20 Physical health Reducing coronary risk Minimizing hypo-kinetic disease Weight reduction and control Fatigue tolerance Energy production

21 Emotional health Decreased anxiety and depression Improved self-concept Ability to deal with stress

22 Job Performance Increased alertness Reduced absenteeism Increased productivity Reduced health care cost

23 Identify healthy nutritional strategies.

24 ESSENTIAL DIETARY COMPONENTS: Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins, minerals Water

25 DAILY DIETARY CONSUMPTION Consume at least 4 servings of fruit and vegetables (at least one fresh or frozen fruit or vegetable and at least one fruit that is high in vitamin C). Consume at least 4 whole grain, bread, pasta or cereal servings. Consume at least 2 dairy product servings (low fat milk, yogurt or cheese). Consume at least 4 servings of fruit and vegetables (at least one fresh or frozen fruit or vegetable and at least one fruit that is high in vitamin C).

26 DAILY DIETARY CONSUMPTION Consume no more than 4 oz. (uncooked weight) of meat - lean red meat, skinless poultry or baked, broiled or poached fish. Prepare and consume foods without adding salt (use spices instead). Drink no more than 4 servings of coffee, tea or other beverage containing caffeine.

27 DAILY DIETARY CONSUMPTION No more than 2 servings of alcoholic beverage. No more than one serving of sweets (candy, cookies, pie, sweetened beverage).

28 Information about serving sizes may be found in nutrition and diet books.

29 MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Eat enough calories to attain and maintain desired body weight. Eat a balanced diet and a variety of foods at each meal. Establish consistent eating patterns and do not skip meals.

30 MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Eat smaller, easily digested meals. Eat slowly, in a relaxed pleasant place. Eat fewer foods that are high in cholesterol. Eat fewer foods that are high in fat (no more than 30% of daily intake).

31 MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Substitute polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats for saturated fats. Eat more complex carbohydrates and less refined, simple sugars. Increase dietary fiber. Drink 6-8 eight-ounce glasses of water a day.

32 MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Avoid excessive sodium (salt). Limit caffeine. Limit alcohol.

33 Balance, variety, and moderation are the keys to adequate nutrition.

34 NUTRITION ASSESSMENT

35 Four Categories: Healthy (prudent) Diet, Calorie Control, Fat/Cholesterol Control, Sodium (salt) Control

36 The purpose of the Nutrition Assessment is to assist students in evaluating their individual eating habits. The assessment will also help students develop their personalized Nutrition Plan.

37 Develop a personal nutrition plan.

38 NUTRITION PLAN Using the student's Nutrition Profile (assessment results), discuss what categories need improvement. Develop a Nutrition Plan to document the student's goals and to give to the student for his/her personal use.

39 The Nutrition Plan should include strategies for: 1.a healthy diet 2.calorie control 3.reducing fat and cholesterol 4.reducing sodium (salt)

40 MAINTAINING HEALTHY NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES Motivation Behavior Modification

41 Sources of Nutrition and Fitness Information: Institute for Aerobics Research - Dallas, Texas American Heart Assoc. American Cancer Society American Dietetics Assoc. Registered Dietitians

42 Sources of Nutrition and Fitness Information: American Diabetes Assoc. Sports Medicine Research Journals Nutrition Books Fitness Books

43 There are some defeats more triumphant than victories. Michel de Montaigne ( )

44 Unit Goal: 1.2 Be aware of the causes and effects of stress in the lives of peace officers Identify common stressors of peace officers Identify emotional and physical symptoms of stress Explain post-traumatic stress disorder Recognize the positive role of stress and approaches to coping with stress. Unit Goal: 1.3. Become aware of the problems, symptoms, and responses to substance abuse in law enforcement Identify the extent of alcohol and drug abuse in the work place and in law enforcement Explain the consequences of personal use of alcohol/drugs Discuss responsibilities an officer has to a co-worker when substance abuse threatens the safety and efficiency of the department. Unit Goal: 1.4. Develop personal strategies for the positive management of stress Describe the role of attitude and perception in stress management Recognize stress reduction techniques Discuss psychological reactions that officers often experience following a shooting incident.

45 Unit Goal: 1.2 Be aware of the causes and effects of stress in the lives of peace officers.

46 1.2.1 Identify and discuss the common stressors of peace officers.

47 All occupations experience stress Some stress is "good"

48 Job stress

49 External to agency Frustration with judicial system Lack of consideration by the courts for scheduling officer appearances Perceived lack of public support Negative or distorted media coverage of policing Officers' dislike of the decisions and interests of city council, county commissioners, or legislature

50 Internal to agency Policies that are offensive to officers Poor training and inadequate career development opportunities Lack of identity and recognition for good performance Poor economic benefits, working conditions, equipment Excessive paperwork Inconsistent discipline Perceived favoritism regarding promotions and assignments Explore Myths Ex: Weak people are more susceptible to stress.

51 Stressors in work itself Rigors of shift work, especially rotating shifts, which result in alterations to body rhythms and officer's personal life Frequent exposure to life's miseries and brutalities Boredom, interrupted by the need for sudden action Fear and dangers of the job Constant responsibility for protecting other people Fragmented nature of the job, which rarely allows for following a case through to conclusion Work overload

52 Stressors Confronting the Individual Officer Fears regarding job competence, individual success, and safety Necessity to conform Necessity to take a second job or to further education Altered social status in the community due to attitude changes toward a person because he or she is an officer

53 Family and personal Marital Children Parents Financial

54 Identify and discuss emotional and physical symptoms of stress.

55 Emotional: Divorce Alcoholism Suicide Abrupt change in typical behavior pattern Rapid mood changes Overly suspicious Overly hostile Always blaming others for problems Becoming argumentative Depression

56 Physical: Digestive disorders Headaches Excessive illnesses Blood pressure Sleep disorders

57 Early Warning Signs are usually present (give examples)

58 Explain post-traumatic stress disorder.

59 Traumatic events triggers for PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder): war witnessing or experiencing violence child abuse partner abuse shootings auto accidents air crashes

60 Normal responses: fight or flight

61 Possible symptoms: heightened sense of danger, anger, nightmares, isolation/withdrawal, fear and anxiety about future situations, sleep difficulties, flashback/intruding thoughts, emotional numbing, depression, alienation, guilt/sorrow/remorse, the Mark of Cain (an assumption that others blame or shame them), problems with authority figures/rules/regulations, family problems, feelings of insecurity/loss of control, sexual difficulties, alcohol/drug abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Symptoms similar to victims.

62 Possible Discussion: What factors might keep an officer from getting the support and assistance she/he needs after a traumatic incident? How might the absence of a chance to work through stages of recovery affect an officer down the line?

63 1.2.4 Recognize the positive role of stress and approaches to coping with stress.

64 Positive role of stress distress eustress or good/positive stress

65 Some appropriate/inappropriate approaches to coping with stress Drinking Kicking the dog Drugs Exercise Hunting, fishing Needlepoint Sleeping Time off from work Eating Reading TV/movies

66 Obviously, some ways of dealing with stress are positive and not harmful. However, others are harmful and may lead to additional problems.

67 Assessment instruments adapted from Holmes and Rahe or other comparable instrument

68 List stressors and discuss

69 Refer to IRG: Panel

70 Unit Goal: 1.3 Become aware of the problems, symptoms, and responses to substance abuse in law enforcement.

71 Identify the extent of alcohol and drug abuse in the work place and in law enforcement.

72 NATURE OF THE PROBLEM Hundreds of books, articles, and research reports have been written about alcohol and drug abuse in the work place and almost all lead to these conclusions: –A significant number of U.S. workers abuse alcohol an/or drugs. –Alcohol and/or drug use occurs on the job as well as off the job. –Alcohol and drug use endangers the health and safety of these workers, their co-workers, and the public.

73 Law enforcement is not immune.

74 Let 's begin this session by summarizing some of the findings about work place alcohol and drug abuse. We will do this in 3 parts. First we will briefly examine the nature of work place alcohol and drug abuse throughout the U.S. Next we will examine the nature of alcohol and drug abuse in law enforcement. Finally, we will share some of our own experiences regarding the problem of alcohol/drug abuse in law enforcement agencies specifically within Texas.

75 The Problem of Work Place Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the U. S.

76 Most experts would agree that alcohol and drug abuse affects a significant number of U.S. workers. While firm data are difficult to obtain, estimates are: Approximately 10% suffer from alcohol abuse to the degree that they are unable to do their jobs. Approximately 3% suffer from drug abuse to the degree that they are unable to do their jobs. Approximately 10-23% use drugs (illicit or prescription) on the job. As many as 65% of the young people coming into the American work force have used illegal drugs.

77 The Problem of Work Place Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Law Enforcement

78 Although these statistics describe the American work force as a whole, they are probably very good indicators of the problem of alcohol and drug abuse in the specific area of law enforcement. Of the studies that have been done on law enforcement, most suggest that alcohol and drug abuse is as frequent or more frequent than in the general population. Let's review a few of the studies that have been conducted.

79 These problems may or may not be prevalent in Texas.

80 A survey of 2,200 officers in 29 police departments throughout the U.S. revealed that 23% of the officers had serious alcohol problems and 10% had serious drug problems. (This number is substantially higher than the number estimated for the general population.)

81 A study of 6,182 Canadian police officers revealed that 11% drank more than 5 drinks per day, and an additional 13% drank more than 3 drinks per day. Thus, a total of 24% drank at a frequency which, if maintained over an extended period, can be predicted to cause physical damage. With regard to drugs, 37% reported using illicit drugs in their lifetimes. Fourteen per cent said they had used illicit drugs in the past year, seven per cent reported illicit drug use in the past 30 days.

82 A questionnaire administered to police officers in Chicago revealed that 40% drank while on duty.

83 A study of officers in a major mid-western state revealed that 53% came to work with a hangover, and that an "average" officer drank alcohol on the job almost eight days every half year.

84 Ref: NIDA: Strategic Planning for Work Place Drug Abuse Programs, (1987).

85 Alcohol and Drug Prevention Strategies for Law Enforcement. (1991). Criminal Justice Center, Sam Houston State University.

86 Ref: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Trainer's Manual: Employee Counseling Services Program - Supervisory Training. Ref: NIDA. Strategic Planning for Work Place Drug Abuse Programs. (1987). Ref:, et.al., Ref: Lanphier, et.al., Ref: Van Raalte, Ref: Jones, Ref: NIDA publication, Strategic Planning for Work Place Drug Abuse Programs. (1987).

87 1.3.2 Explain the consequences of personal use of alcohol/drugs.

88 ROLE OF THE INDIVIDUAL OFFICER

89 The solution to alcohol/drug abuse in law enforcement begins with the individual officer. The responsibility of the individual officer is two-fold: To evaluate his/her own use of alcohol and drugs. To assist co-workers who are experiencing alcohol/drug problems.

90 Refer to IRG: Evaluation of personal alcohol/drug usage.

91 1.3.3 Discuss responsibilities an officer has to a co-worker when substance abuse threatens the safety and efficiency of the department.

92 Assisting Co-workers: Experts agree that the earlier an alcohol or drug abusing employee is helped the more likely he/she will be able to recover. Unfortunately, co-workers are often the first to see a problem, but the last to intervene. Often this is because they fail to understand how they can help.

93 Co-workers can help in four ways: Be aware and recognize the problem. Urge the person to seek help. Encourage the person after they seek help. Keep in mind that avoiding the problem only contributes to the denial of the abuser and that alcohol/drug abuse will eventually have serious physical and emotional consequences.

94 Remember, as a co-worker your concern is the safety and efficiency of your department. If you suspect an alcohol/drug problem, refrain from offering the fellow officer your "diagnosis". Diagnosis is the job of professionals. Instead, tell the officer that you are concerned about the safety of others and encourage him/her to seek assistance from his/her supervisor or a counselor. If he/she refuses, discuss your concerns about safety with a supervisor.

95 (Share examples of peer counseling programs in Texas law enforcement agencies -- e.g., the Partner Program at Dallas Police Department, Personnel Division, ).

96 Unit Goal: 1.4. Develop personal strategies for the positive management of stress.

97 Describe the role of attitude and perception in stress management.

98 The instructor should explore with the students how their view (perception) of an event can make that event more stressful or less stressful. An example of an event may be shared with the students to stimulate discussion.

99 The following may influence stress levels: ability to laugh at one's self attitude towards one's job self concept attitude towards those we encounter on the job

100 Recognize and discuss stress reduction techniques.

101 Verbalizing Talk with co-workers Peer counseling Discussion with significant others (don't hold everything inside) Discuss with supervisor Seek professional counseling Assertiveness information Aggressive characteristics

102 Stress reduction techniques such as: change the stressors change your personal perspective find ways to cope and live with it

103 Relaxation Techniques Importance of being able to relax Experience relaxation techniques Lifestyle choices (e.g., about smoking, drinking, sleep and rest) Recreation (e.g., hobbies, time with friends – especially outside of policing)

104 1.4.3 Discuss psychological reactions that officers often experience following a shooting incident.

105 The Shooting A common experience of officers who use deadly force is viewing the event in "slow motion". Being under physiological stress, the officer's senses are keenly attuned to the event. Some officers have reported seeing the bullet leave their gun and enter the suspect. They see blood come out of the suspect's body and the body bend and slowly fall to the ground and hear the suspect's screams.

106 Flashbacks Sometimes the shooting is re-lived in dreams and nightmares. Many officers involved in shootings have nightmares that reflect their unexpressed feelings about the violent event. Sometimes conscious recognition of past shooting incidents occurs. For example, when driving by the location of a past shooting, the officer may re-live the event.

107 Fear Whenever an officer relieves a shooting incident, fear is experienced. Not just fear associated with the violent aspect of the event, but also fear related to being unable to forget the traumatic incident. Some officers begin to fear insanity when they cannot "shake" memories of the shooting. Fear may also revolve around real or imaginary retribution. Most commonly, officers fear having criminal or civil charges filed against them. While officers only have seconds to make decisions, prosecuting and plaintiff's attorneys have months to examine every possible alternative in a situation.

108 The instructor may use an officer(s) who has been through a serious shooting incident for discussion and illustration.

109 Even if completely exonerated from any wrongdoing, the officer recognizes that his/her future involvement in such an incident may result in an attempt to show a "pattern of unjustified violence". Fear may cause an officer to avoid violent confrontation or to react too slowly because of the consequences.

110 Five phases of transition that persons who experience traumatic events typically go through:

111 Denial Phase A tendency to reject the traumatic incident. Refusal to believe the event occurred. In officer-related shootings this phase may be brief or nonexistent because of the necessity to immediately deal with the aftermath of the event.

112 Anger Phase Feeling anger or resentment that the traumatic event "had to happen to me".

113 Bargaining Phase A wish that the event had never taken place. An officer wishes he could "take back the bullet".

114 Depression Phase This phase is often the longest. Its severity depends on: (1) the individual's basic personality, (2) the nature of the event, (3) the reaction of the department, (4) the reaction of the community, (5) the officer's support system.

115 Acceptance Phase The officer "gets over" the total preoccupation with the event. Accepts the fact that the event occurred and resumes a normal life. This phase can be reached sooner through professional counseling.

116 EVALUATION OF PERSONAL ALCOHOL/DRUG USAGE THE OBJECTIVE OF THE EXERCISE IS TO GIVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXAMINE YOUR OWN ATTITUDES AND FEELINGS ABOUT ALCOHOL AND DRUGS. BEGIN BY INDIVIDUALLY ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. NEXT, REVIEW YOUR ANSWERS AND TRY TO ARRIVE AT SOME CONCLUSIONS ABOUT YOUR USE OF ALCOHOL AND DRUGS. IDENTIFY ATTITUDES AND FEELINGS WHICH MAY ENCOURAGE YOU TO USE ALCOHOL/DRUGS. 1.Do you use alcohol and/or drugs? (Include all prescription and non-prescription drugs.) 2.Why do you use alcohol and/or drugs you just listed? 3.Are there medically sound alternatives to using drugs? (NOTE: see your physician before discontinuing any medicine!) 4. What drug taking practices are broadly accepted in our society? Which aregenerally disapproved of? What practices are ambiguous? 5.How do you feel personally about alcohol and drugs?

117 Friendship demands a religious treatment. We talk of choosing our friends, but friends are self-elected. Reverence is a great part of it. Ralph Waldo Emerson


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