Presentation on theme: "1. Fitness and Wellness and Stress Management (14 hrs.)"— Presentation transcript:
11. Fitness and Wellness and Stress Management (14 hrs.) TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES07/27/04
2Unit Goal: Demonstrate an understanding of lifestyle, nutrition, and fitness concepts required to maintain a high level of fitness and wellness.Describe the importance of fitness and wellness in the law enforcement profession.Identify healthy nutritional strategies.Develop a personal nutrition plan.
3Unit Goal: Demonstrate an understanding of lifestyle, nutrition, and fitness concepts required to maintain a high level of fitness and wellness.
41.1.1. Describe the importance of fitness and wellness in the law enforcement profession.
5DEFINITION OF PHYSICAL FITNESS: The condition of the body which enables an individual to use his/her body in activities requiring strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, agility, power, balance, speed, and accuracy, without undue experience of fatigue and exhaustion.
6DEFINITION OF WELLNESS: That condition of the human organism which consists of its health and disease status and risk potential. There are varying degrees of wellness, ranging from death to optimal well-being. Genuine health or wellness is not just the absence of disease or infirmity, it is a state of positive well-being. It induces the physical, mental, spiritual, and socio-emotional dimensions of life. Total well-being translates into the practice of positive lifestyle behaviors and good health habits.
8Physical fitness can be divided into two categories: Health related: strength, dynamic strength (muscle endurance), flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, body composition. Motor related: coordination, agility, power balance, speed accuracy.The health-related components are more important to wellness and quality of life than the skill-related components linked to motor performance.
12Regular exercise and proper nutrition make up the foundation on which the Wellness Pyramid is built. Adequate attention and proper application to these two areas will set the standard for positive improvements in the areas.
13Self-responsibility is the cap which holds down all the other areas in the pyramid. Rather than being an area of mastery itself, it lends support to the successful application of the other wellness areas.
14How we act, react, function, and perform during our everyday life has the greatest impact on fitness/wellness.It is these behaviors that directly influence our fitness level and where we are on the wellness continuum (death to optimal well-being).
15THE HEALTH AND DISABILITY STATUS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AS A PROFESSION
16As an occupational group, law enforcement professionals have a poor health profile.
17High risk with high incidence of stress-related disorders: AlcoholismDivorceSuicide
18THE IMPORTANCE OF FITNESS FOR THE LAW ENFORCEMENT PROFESSION
25 DAILY DIETARY CONSUMPTION Consume at least 4 servings of fruit and vegetables (at least one fresh or frozen fruit or vegetable and at least one fruit that is high in vitamin C).Consume at least 4 whole grain, bread, pasta or cereal servings.Consume at least 2 dairy product servings (low fat milk, yogurt or cheese).
26DAILY DIETARY CONSUMPTION Consume no more than 4 oz. (uncooked weight) of meat - lean red meat, skinless poultry or baked, broiled or poached fish. Prepare and consume foods without adding salt (use spices instead). Drink no more than 4 servings of coffee, tea or other beverage containing caffeine.
27DAILY DIETARY CONSUMPTION No more than 2 servings of alcoholic beverage. No more than one serving of sweets (candy, cookies, pie, sweetened beverage).
28Information about serving sizes may be found in nutrition and diet books.
29MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Eat enough calories to attain and maintain desired body weight. Eat a balanced diet and a variety of foods at each meal. Establish consistent eating patterns and do not skip meals.
30MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Eat smaller, easily digested meals. Eat slowly, in a relaxed pleasant place. Eat fewer foods that are high in cholesterol. Eat fewer foods that are high in fat (no more than 30% of daily intake).
31MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Substitute polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats for saturated fats.Eat more complex carbohydrates and less refined, simple sugars. Increase dietary fiber. Drink 6-8 eight-ounce glasses of water a day.
32MORE GUIDELINES FOR A HEALTHY DIET Avoid excessive sodium (salt). Limit caffeine. Limit alcohol.
33Balance, variety, and moderation are the keys to adequate nutrition.
38NUTRITION PLAN Using the student's Nutrition Profile (assessment results), discuss what categories need improvement. Develop a Nutrition Plan to document the student's goals and to give to the student for his/her personal use.
39The Nutrition Plan should include strategies for: a healthy dietcalorie controlreducing fat and cholesterolreducing sodium (salt)
41Sources of Nutrition and Fitness Information: Institute for Aerobics Research - Dallas, TexasAmerican Heart Assoc.American Cancer SocietyAmerican Dietetics Assoc.Registered Dietitians
42Sources of Nutrition and Fitness Information: American Diabetes Assoc.Sports Medicine Research JournalsNutrition BooksFitness Books
43There are some defeats more triumphant than victories. Michel de Montaigne ( )
44Unit Goal: 1.2 Be aware of the causes and effects of stress in the lives of peace officers. Identify common stressors of peace officers.Identify emotional and physical symptoms of stress.Explain post-traumatic stress disorder.Recognize the positive role of stress and approaches to coping with stress.Unit Goal: Become aware of the problems, symptoms, and responses to substance abuse in law enforcement.Identify the extent of alcohol and drug abuse in the work place and in law enforcement.Explain the consequences of personal use of alcohol/drugs.Discuss responsibilities an officer has to a co-worker when substance abuse threatens the safety and efficiency of the department.Unit Goal: Develop personal strategies for the positive management of stress.Describe the role of attitude and perception in stress management.Recognize stress reduction techniques.Discuss psychological reactions that officers often experience following a shooting incident.
45Unit Goal: 1.2 Be aware of the causes and effects of stress in the lives of peace officers.
461.2.1 Identify and discuss the common stressors of peace officers.
47All occupations experience stress Some stress is "good"
49External to agency Frustration with judicial system Lack of consideration by the courts for scheduling officer appearancesPerceived lack of public supportNegative or distorted media coverage of policingOfficers' dislike of the decisions and interests of city council, county commissioners, or legislature
50Internal to agency Policies that are offensive to officers Poor training and inadequate career development opportunitiesLack of identity and recognition for good performancePoor economic benefits, working conditions, equipmentExcessive paperworkInconsistent disciplinePerceived favoritism regarding promotions and assignmentsExplore MythsEx: Weak people are more susceptible to stress.
51Stressors in work itself Rigors of shift work, especially rotating shifts, which result in alterations to body rhythms and officer's personal lifeFrequent exposure to life's miseries and brutalitiesBoredom, interrupted by the need for sudden actionFear and dangers of the jobConstant responsibility for protecting other peopleFragmented nature of the job, which rarely allows for following a case through to conclusionWork overload
52Stressors Confronting the Individual Officer Fears regarding job competence, individual success, and safetyNecessity to conformNecessity to take a second job or to further educationAltered social status in the community due to attitude changes toward a person because he or she is an officer
53Family and personalMaritalChildrenParentsFinancial
541.2.2. Identify and discuss emotional and physical symptoms of stress.
55Emotional: Divorce Alcoholism Suicide Abrupt change in typical behavior patternRapid mood changesOverly suspiciousOverly hostileAlways blaming others for problemsBecoming argumentativeDepression
61Possible symptoms:heightened sense of danger, anger, nightmares, isolation/withdrawal, fear and anxiety about future situations, sleep difficulties, flashback/intruding thoughts, emotional numbing, depression, alienation, guilt/sorrow/remorse, the Mark of Cain (an assumption that others blame or shame them), problems with authority figures/rules/regulations, family problems, feelings of insecurity/loss of control, sexual difficulties, alcohol/drug abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Symptoms similar to victims.
62Possible Discussion: What factors might keep an officer from getting the support and assistance she/he needs after a traumatic incident? How might the absence of a chance to work through stages of recovery affect an officer down the line?
631.2.4 Recognize the positive role of stress and approaches to coping with stress.
64Positive role of stress distresseustress or good/positive stress
65Some appropriate/inappropriate approaches to coping with stress DrinkingKicking the dogDrugsExerciseHunting, fishingNeedlepointSleepingTime off from workEatingReadingTV/movies
66Obviously, some ways of dealing with stress are positive and not harmful. However, others are harmful and may lead to additional problems.
67Assessment instruments adapted from Holmes and Rahe or other comparable instrument
70Unit Goal: 1.3 Become aware of the problems, symptoms, and responses to substance abuse in law enforcement.
711.3.1. Identify the extent of alcohol and drug abuse in the work place and in law enforcement.
72NATURE OF THE PROBLEMHundreds of books, articles, and research reports have been written about alcohol and drug abuse in the work place and almost all lead to these conclusions:A significant number of U.S. workers abuse alcohol an/or drugs.Alcohol and/or drug use occurs on the job as well as off the job.Alcohol and drug use endangers the health and safety of these workers, their co-workers, and the public.
74Let 's begin this session by summarizing some of the findings about work place alcohol and drug abuse. We will do this in 3 parts. First we will briefly examine the nature of work place alcohol and drug abuse throughout the U.S. Next we will examine the nature of alcohol and drug abuse in law enforcement. Finally, we will share some of our own experiences regarding the problem of alcohol/drug abuse in law enforcement agencies specifically within Texas.
75The Problem of Work Place Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the U. S.
76Most experts would agree that alcohol and drug abuse affects a significant number of U.S. workers. While firm data are difficult to obtain, estimates are:Approximately 10% suffer from alcohol abuse to the degree that they are unable to do their jobs.Approximately 3% suffer from drug abuse to the degree that they are unable to do their jobs.Approximately 10-23% use drugs (illicit or prescription) on the job.As many as 65% of the young people coming into the American work force have used illegal drugs.
77The Problem of Work Place Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Law Enforcement
78Although these statistics describe the American work force as a whole, they are probably very good indicators of the problem of alcohol and drug abuse in the specific area of law enforcement. Of the studies that have been done on law enforcement, most suggest that alcohol and drug abuse is as frequent or more frequent than in the general population. Let's review a few of the studies that have been conducted.
79These problems may or may not be prevalent in Texas.
80A survey of 2,200 officers in 29 police departments throughout the U.S. revealed that 23% of the officers had serious alcohol problems and 10% had serious drug problems. (This number is substantially higher than the number estimated for the general population.)
81A study of 6,182 Canadian police officers revealed that 11% drank more than 5 drinks per day, and an additional 13% drank more than 3 drinks per day. Thus, a total of 24% drank at a frequency which, if maintained over an extended period, can be predicted to cause physical damage. With regard to drugs, 37% reported using illicit drugs in their lifetimes. Fourteen per cent said they had used illicit drugs in the past year, seven per cent reported illicit drug use in the past 30 days.
82A questionnaire administered to police officers in Chicago revealed that 40% drank while on duty.
83A study of officers in a major mid-western state revealed that 53% came to work with a hangover, and that an "average" officer drank alcohol on the job almost eight days every half year.
84Ref: NIDA: Strategic Planning for Work Place Drug Abuse Programs, (1987).
85Alcohol and Drug Prevention Strategies for Law Enforcement. (1991) Alcohol and Drug Prevention Strategies for Law Enforcement. (1991). Criminal Justice Center, Sam Houston State University.
86Ref: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Trainer's Manual: Employee Counseling Services Program - Supervisory Training.Ref: NIDA. Strategic Planning for Work Place Drug Abuse Programs. (1987).Ref:, et.al., 1984.Ref: Lanphier, et.al., 1983.Ref: Van Raalte, 1979.Ref: Jones, 1980.Ref: NIDA publication, Strategic Planning for Work Place Drug Abuse Programs. (1987).
871.3.2 Explain the consequences of personal use of alcohol/drugs.
89To evaluate his/her own use of alcohol and drugs. The solution to alcohol/drug abuse in law enforcement begins with the individual officer. The responsibility of the individual officer is two-fold:To evaluate his/her own use of alcohol and drugs.To assist co-workers who are experiencing alcohol/drug problems.
90Refer to IRG: Evaluation of personal alcohol/drug usage.
91Discuss responsibilities an officer has to a co-worker when substance abuse threatens the safety and efficiency of the department.
92Assisting Co-workers: Experts agree that the earlier an alcohol or drug abusing employee is helped the more likely he/she will be able to recover. Unfortunately, co-workers are often the first to see a problem, but the last to intervene. Often this is because they fail to understand how they can help.
93Co-workers can help in four ways: Be aware and recognize the problem.Urge the person to seek help.Encourage the person after they seek help.Keep in mind that avoiding the problem only contributes to the denial of the abuser and that alcohol/drug abuse will eventually have serious physical and emotional consequences.
94Remember, as a co-worker your concern is the safety and efficiency of your department. If you suspect an alcohol/drug problem, refrain from offering the fellow officer your "diagnosis". Diagnosis is the job of professionals. Instead, tell the officer that you are concerned about the safety of others and encourage him/her to seek assistance from his/her supervisor or a counselor. If he/she refuses, discuss your concerns about safety with a supervisor.
95(Share examples of peer counseling programs in Texas law enforcement agencies -- e.g., the Partner Program at Dallas Police Department, Personnel Division, ).
96Unit Goal: 1.4. Develop personal strategies for the positive management of stress.
971.4.1. Describe the role of attitude and perception in stress management.
98The instructor should explore with the students how their view (perception) of an event can make that event more stressful or less stressful. An example of an event may be shared with the students to stimulate discussion.
99The following may influence stress levels: ability to laugh at one's selfattitude towards one's jobself conceptattitude towards those we encounter on the job
1001.4.2. Recognize and discuss stress reduction techniques.
101Verbalizing Talk with co-workers Peer counseling Discussion with significant others (don't hold everything inside)Discuss with supervisorSeek professional counselingAssertiveness informationAggressive characteristics
102Stress reduction techniques such as: change the stressorschange your personal perspectivefind ways to cope and live with it
103Relaxation Techniques Importance of being able to relaxExperience relaxation techniquesLifestyle choices (e.g., about smoking, drinking, sleep and rest)Recreation (e.g., hobbies, time with friends – especially outside of policing)
1041.4.3 Discuss psychological reactions that officers often experience following a shooting incident.
105The ShootingA common experience of officers who use deadly force is viewing the event in "slow motion". Being under physiological stress, the officer's senses are keenly attuned to the event. Some officers have reported seeing the bullet leave their gun and enter the suspect. They see blood come out of the suspect's body and the body bend and slowly fall to the ground and hear the suspect's screams.
106FlashbacksSometimes the shooting is re-lived in dreams and nightmares. Many officers involved in shootings have nightmares that reflect their unexpressed feelings about the violent event. Sometimes conscious recognition of past shooting incidents occurs. For example, when driving by the location of a past shooting, the officer may re-live the event.
107FearWhenever an officer relieves a shooting incident, fear is experienced. Not just fear associated with the violent aspect of the event, but also fear related to being unable to forget the traumatic incident. Some officers begin to fear insanity when they cannot "shake" memories of the shooting. Fear may also revolve around real or imaginary retribution. Most commonly, officers fear having criminal or civil charges filed against them. While officers only have seconds to make decisions, prosecuting and plaintiff's attorneys have months to examine every possible alternative in a situation.
108The instructor may use an officer(s) who has been through a serious shooting incident for discussion and illustration.
109Even if completely exonerated from any wrongdoing, the officer recognizes that his/her future involvement in such an incident may result in an attempt to show a "pattern of unjustified violence". Fear may cause an officer to avoid violent confrontation or to react too slowly because of the consequences.
110Five phases of transition that persons who experience traumatic events typically go through:
111Denial Phase A tendency to reject the traumatic incident. Refusal to believe the event occurred.In officer-related shootings this phase may be brief or nonexistent because of the necessity to immediately deal with the aftermath of the event.
112Anger PhaseFeeling anger or resentment that the traumatic event "had to happen to me".
113Bargaining Phase A wish that the event had never taken place. An officer wishes he could "take back the bullet".
114Depression Phase This phase is often the longest. Its severity depends on:(1) the individual's basic personality,(2) the nature of the event,(3) the reaction of the department,(4) the reaction of the community,(5) the officer's support system.
115Acceptance PhaseThe officer "gets over" the total preoccupation with the event.Accepts the fact that the event occurred and resumes a normal life.This phase can be reached sooner through professional counseling.
116EVALUATION OF PERSONAL ALCOHOL/DRUG USAGE THE OBJECTIVE OF THE EXERCISE IS TO GIVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO EXAMINE YOUR OWN ATTITUDES AND FEELINGS ABOUT ALCOHOL AND DRUGS. BEGIN BY INDIVIDUALLY ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. NEXT, REVIEW YOUR ANSWERS AND TRY TO ARRIVE AT SOME CONCLUSIONS ABOUT YOUR USE OF ALCOHOL AND DRUGS. IDENTIFY ATTITUDES AND FEELINGS WHICH MAY ENCOURAGE YOU TO USE ALCOHOL/DRUGS.1. Do you use alcohol and/or drugs? (Include all prescription and non-prescription drugs.)2. Why do you use alcohol and/or drugs you just listed?3. Are there medically sound alternatives to using drugs?(NOTE: see your physician before discontinuing any medicine!)4. What drug taking practices are broadly accepted in our society? Which are generally disapproved of? What practices are ambiguous?5.How do you feel personally about alcohol and drugs?
117Friendship demands a religious treatment Friendship demands a religious treatment. We talk of choosing our friends, but friends are self-elected. Reverence is a great part of it. —Ralph Waldo Emerson