Presentation on theme: "Chapter Seven Patrol: The Backbone of Policing."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Seven Patrol: The Backbone of Policing
Function of Patrol Crime prevention Maintain feelings of public safety Available for service
Organization and Delivery of Patrol Number of Officers Distribution of Officers Assignments Location – Hot Spots
* Police-Population Ratio * Large Departments – 2.6/1,000 population * Missouri - ?
CityPop Total law enforcement employees Total officers Total civilians Top Five - Missouri Cities Bellerive Pasadena Park Oakland1, Randolph Uplands Park Bottom Five - Missouri Cities Tipton3, New Franklin1, Maysville1, Country Club Village2, Oran1, Average of Missouri Cities3.46
CityPopulation Total law enforceme nt employees Total officers Total civilians # Officers/1,000 Kansas City483,1911,9931, St. Louis355,1511,9201, Springfield157, Independence121, Columbia103, Lee's Summit87, O'Fallon81, St. Joseph75, St. Charles65, St. Peters56, Blue Springs56, Joplin50, Average Cities above 50,000 population 1.92
* Assigned to Patrol – % * Small communities * Larger communities
* Put officers: * Where they are needed * When they are needed * Poor parts of town * Usually more crime
* Frequent vs. Infrequent Rotation of Shifts/Beats * Corruption Measure * Familiarity * is deleterious to the physical and psychological health of the individual and to the well being of the organization.
* Crime is not committed randomly * Officers should not be placed randomly * When do you need them? * Where do you need them?
How effective are these? Patrol Foot Auto Motorcycle Bicycle
* Foot Patrol Flagstaff, Arizona P.D.
* Bicycle Patrol Pennsylvania Capital Police Bike Patrol
* Motorcycle Patrol Maumee Police Department Maumee, Ohio
Durability 250,000 mile 75 mph rear impact crash Cockpit - fitted law enforcement equipment ballistic protection (front doors and dash panel) * Reverse backup camera * 360 degree surveillance * License plate recognition Night vision interior * Infrared system
Chevrolet Caprice PPV` Dodge Charger Pursuit Ford Police Interceptro Sedan Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor Carbon E Quarter Mile - Time Quarter Mile - Speed Some of you had doubts as to the accuracy of the speed of the Carbon E7. It would help if I had placed a 1 in front of the time of 4.5, making it 14.5 seconds. The E7 looks very competitive with the Caprice, Charger and Ford police packages. Rumor has it that the Carbon E7 may cost around $80,000. Dont worry about the worst of these cars, it hasnt been produced since 2008.
I might even ask several questions concerning this vehicle to see who is looking at it.
* One person patrol units – 89% * Efficient * 2X More Area * 2X Calls * One person * Less resisting arrest / Assaulted less / More arrests / More crime reports
Type of Patrol Percent Used Personal Contact Patrol Coverage Inclement Weather Automobile84%LessGoodYes Foot4%Much morePoorNo Motorcycle5%MoreModerateNo Bicycles4%Much morePoorNo
Dispatched Activity Based upon call to the P.D. Officer-Initiated Activity Based upon officers initiative
Watchman Style Emphasis on Order maintenance Ignore little stuff Tough on crime Officer is given great latitude
Legalistic Style Emphasis on law enforcement More traffic tickets Juvenile taken into custody Use little things to find bigger things
Service Style Often informal intervention Deal with a broad array of problems Community relations and public education are important
Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment Controversial results Challenged traditional assumptions about patrol Newark Foot Patrol Experiment Crime Citizen attitudes Kansas City Response Time Study
80-90% reported too slowly to help Discovery/Reporting – Victim controlled Processing – Dispatcher controlled Travel – Officer controlled Usually youre already too late Discovery Time Reporting Time Processing Time Travel timeAt-scene Time
Improving Patrol Differential Response to calls (Immediate/delay/none) Telephone Reporting Units (Reports over the phone) 311 Nonemergency Numbers (Reduces patrol work) Non-English 911 Call Services Reverse 911 Computers and Video Cameras Police Aids or Cadets Directed Patrol (Go where the crime is to patrol)
Modern Communications Technology Information Processing Prioritizing Calls Operators Dispatchers 911 Systems
Only ½ of all calls to 911 result in a dispatch Operators ask questions of callers Operators assess situation Operators decide how many and which officers to dispatch Patrol officers responding to calls experience great uncertainty
Historical Context Calls for Service Systematic Study of Police Patrol Response Time