Presentation on theme: "Work-related to Stress and Stress Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Work-related to Stress and Stress Management Chapter 7Thuan LamFrederick Widjaja
2What is stress ?Stress is the body’s natural response to intense situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person’s well-being.Distress – Bad stress (is most focused)Eustress – Good stressGeneral Adaption Syndrome- Alarm Reaction: The alarm reaction stage occurs when a threat or challenge activates the physiological stress responses.- Resistance: The person’s ability to cope with the environmental demand rises above the normal state during the resistance stage.- Exhaustion: People have a limited resistance capacity, and if the source of stress persists, they will eventually move into the exhaustion stage
3Stressors: The Causes of Stress Stressors, the causes of stress, include any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on a personWork-related stressorsInterpersonal stressorsRole-related stressorsTask control stressorsOrganizational/physical environment stressors
4Interpersonal Stressors (The most pervasive in the workplace) Workplace ViolenceWho’s experienced stress?VictimObserverNon-directly experienced or observed violence if they work in jobs that expose them to a higher incidence of violencePsychological and Sexual HarassmentPsychological harassment includes:Repeated and hostile or unwanted conductVerbal comment, actions, or gestures that affect an employee’s dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee.Sexual harassment includes:Unwanted sexual relations (called quid pro quo)Experiences sexual conduct from others (called hostile work environment)
5Role-Related Stressors Role conflict refers to the degree of incongruity or incompatibility of expectations associated with a person’s roleRole ambiguity refers to the lack of clarity and predictability of the outcomes of a person’s behavior.Work Overload – working more hours and more intensely during those hours than they can reasonably handle.
6Task Control Stressors The degree to which low task control is a stressor increases with the burden of responsibility the employee must carryOrganizational and Physical Environment StressorsDownsizing is stressful for those who lose their jobsLayoff survivors also experience stress because of the reduced job security, chaos of change, additional workloads, and guilt of having a job as others lose theirs.
7Work-Nonwork Stressors (stressors from work spill over into nonwork and vice versa)Time-Based Conflict: refers to the challenge of balancing the time demanded by work with family and other nonwork activitiesStrain-Based Conflict: occurs when stress from one domain spills over to the other.Role Behavior Conflict: occurs when people are expected to act quite differently at work than in nonwork roles.
9Individual Differences in Stress (People have different stress experiences when exposed to the same stressor.)1. They have different threshold levels of resistance to the stressor.2. People use different coping strategies, some of which are more effective than others3. People have different beliefs about the threat and their ability to withstand stress.Resilience and StressThe capacity of individuals to cope successfully in the face of significant change, adversity, or riskWorkaholism and StressClassic workaholic – work addict is highly involved in work, feels compelled or driven to work because of inner pressures, and has a low enjoyment of workEnthusiastic workaholics have high levels of all three components – high work involvement, drive to succeed, and work enjoyment.Work enthusiasts have high work involvement and work enjoyment, but low drive to succeed.
10Consequences of Distress (physiological, psychological, and behavioral)Physiological Consequences: the stress response shuts down the immune system, which makes use more vulnerable to viral and bacterial infection.Psychological Consequences: job dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, lower organizational commitment+ JOB BURNOUT: the process of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced feelings of personal accomplishment resulting from prolonged exposure to stressInterpersonal and role-related stressorsPhysiological, psychological, and behavioral consequencesEmotional exhaustionCynicismReduced efficacy
11Behavioral Consequences Psychological Consequences (cont’d)Emotional exhaustion (compassion fatigue): is characterized by a lack of energy, tiredness, and a feeling that one’s emotional resources are depleted.Cynicism (depersonalization): an indifferent attitude toward work and the treatment of others as object rather than peopleReduced professional efficacy (reduced personal accomplishment): feelings of diminished confidence in one’s ability to perform the job well.Behavioral ConsequencesModerate levels of stress focus our attention and concentrate resources where they are most needed. But when stress distress:- Job performance falls- Memory becomes impaired- Workplace accidents are more frequent- Decision are less effective.Absenteeism is a form of flight – temporarily withdrawing from the stressful situation so that we can reenergize.WORKPLACE AGGRESSION represents THE FIGHT (instead of flight) reaction to stress.
12Work-Life Balance Initiatives Flexible work time Job sharing Remove the StressorWork-Life Balance InitiativesFlexible work timeJob sharingTelecommutingPersonal leaveChild care supportWithdraw from the StressorTemporary Withdrawal StrategiesNap rooms, chill-out rooms (sofas, TV, games)Personal days off, vacation (longer)Change stress perceptionsControl stress consequencesWithdraw from the stressorRemove the stressorReceive social supportStressManagementstrategiesReceive Social SupportValued and WorthyHelp interpret, comprehend, and remove stressorsHelp to buffer the stress experienceControl the Consequences of Stress- Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)Change Stress PerceptionSelf-leadership practices