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Internet basics Eng. Mohammad Alenezi

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1 Internet basics Eng. Mohammad Alenezi
Content prepared by Eng. Mohd Alenezi


3 Table of Content Introduction what is the internet?
the history of the internet What is the world wide web? Terms to be familiar with Components of the internet Internet concepts The browser Navigating the web Subject Directories Search Engines Useful sites Using Error Messages Definitions

4 What is the Internet? The Internet is a collection of millions of computers, all linked together on a network to communicate. The Internet is the largest and most well known computer network in the world.

5 INTRODUCTION Home computer links to internet through:
Phone Wi-Fi Wireless DSL Modem ISP (internet service provider) In business computers have (NIC) Network Interface Card LAN (local area network) High speed ISP = 1.5 mb/s while normal phone = 30 – 50 kb/s largest ISP connect through Fiber (undersea, satellite)

6 Modem A device used to attach your computer to telephone system , convert data into sound which is sent over the telephone line, the receiving modem turn the sound into data which computer can understand

7 Computer Networks and the Internet
A network is two or more intelligent devices connected by communication link or wirelessly Network is a collection of hardware and other devices that are connected together so that users can share hardware, software and data. LAN (local area network) Local network connecting computers within the same building WAN (wide area network) more than one local network connecting together

8 Wireless network

9 Networks examples

10 The history of Internet
the U.S. Defense research program to develop communication protocols First generation of networking hardware and software ARPANET connects first 4 universities in the United States 1970 – 1973 ARPANET successes to allow scientists to share data The ARPANET grows to 23 hosts connecting universities The ARPANET goes international The term 'Internet' is used for the first time.

11 1982 – 87 Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf creates TCP/IP, the common language of all Internet computers
1986, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), provides a major backbone communication The World Wide Web is born! the first graphics-based Web browser the Internet in commercial hands Nearly 10 million hosts online. The Internet covers the globe

12 Components of the internet
addresses uniquely identify a mail user and a mail server, Separated by No blank spaces are allowed Telnet Chat & instant messaging World Wide Web Facebook Twitter

13 What is the World Wide Web?
The World Wide Web (www) refers to all of the web pages available on all the HTTP web servers on the Internet protocol based on hypertext developed by Tim Berners-Lee and others Almost support every protocol available on net Internet is not the same thing as the World Wide Web The Internet is the infrastructure for the World Wide Web The Internet is also the infrastructure for and file sharing, for instance

14 Internet concepts Clients & Servers IP Addresses Web Pages Hypertext

15 Server network Machines that provides services (web servers, FTP servers) to other machines called servers The other computers on a network that access network resources through the network server are called clients

16 IP Addresses & Domain Names
Each machine on the internet is assigned a unique address (IP) IP addresses are 32-bit numbers looks: Every web server on the Internet has an IP address, and your computer has one too. for Domain name A domain name is an alias for an IP (Internet Protocol) address: Domain Name Registrars administer Domain names and IP addresses Generic TLD's (top level domain): .com, .org, .net, .gov, .mil, and the newer .biz, .info, etc. Country TLD's: .de = Germany, .sc = Seychelles Island, .kw = ? is a domain name (everything after the protocol up to the next slash, if any) Your browser's address bar will recognize IP addresses just as well as domain names. Every domain name and IP address is unique on the Internet

17 Web pages Web sit is a collection of web pages are stored on computers called web servers Web pages are accessed with a web browser program like Internet Explorer, Safari, Netscape, Firefox or Opera

18 Hypertext Hypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documents A single hypertext can contain links(image, video, audio & text) to many documents Using language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) PROTOCOL In IT a protocol is the special set of rules for communications On the internet TCP/IP protocols are used: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other internet points at the information packet level IP (Internet Protocol) which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the internet address level FTP (File Transfer Protocol) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

19 IP Addresses. URL’s and Domain Names
Web page URLs usually begin with the standard protocol identifier Hypertext transfer protocol This part of the URL Next comes the Identifies the Web server folder(s) in which the & domain name Hosting the Web page Web page is stored, If necessary. This is the Web page document that is to be retrieved and displayed. filename /Index.html Protocol web server domain folder page

20 Terms to Be Familiar With:
WWW (World Wide Web) - all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). Browser--Contains the basic software information over the Internet. Download To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer. Upload—To send data from a local computer to a remote computer. - is the exchange of messages by telecommunication. E- mail can be distributed to lists of people as well as to individuals. However, you can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files, as attachments sent in binary streams. Home Page - The beginning "page" of any site. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) - The coding language used to create documents for use on the World Wide Web.

21 HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol) - the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. Hyperlinks: take you to a different page when you click on them can be text or graphics Search Engine - A web server that collects data from other web servers and puts it into a database. TCP/IP -- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - The Internet address. The prefix of a URL indicates which area of the Internet will be accessed. URLs look differently depending on the Internet resource you are seeking. Address Bar: where you can type a URL of a page you want to see. Contains the URL of the page you are currently viewing History list: tracks the URL‘ you've visited in the past x weeks Search sites: Google, Yahoo, Ask

22 Components of the internet
Internet is made up of ISP's (internet service provider) Regional networks (large network) Backbone networks (major high-speed network) Web servers Accessing Networks Needs Modem or other network adapter dialup via the public telephone network or broadband such as cable, DSL, satellite Web browser ISP: a service that connects you to the Internet User ID and password to log on

23 What is a Web Browser? It’s a basic software enable users in order to travel, find, retrieve, view and send information over the Internet The most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer , Netscape Navigator and Mozilla Firefox Menu Bar Title Bar Address Bar Standard Buttons Toolbar

24 Scroll Bar Frames Status Bar

25 Toolbars Back Lets you return to pages you've viewed
9 10 11 8 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 Back Lets you return to pages you've viewed Forward. Lets you move forward through pages you've viewed using the Back button Favorites. Displays a list of the sites you have marked Home. Returns you to your home page. You can designate any Web page as your home page. Refresh. Updates any Web page stored in your disk cache with the latest content Stop. Halts the process of downloading a Web page. Print. Prints the page you're viewing Search. Displays a choice of popular Internet search engines in the left pane. Minimize go to smaller window’s view Maximize go to bigger window’s view Close window Without OS computer can’t function at all

26 Boot processing User interface Power on
Boot “ part of the computer OS loaded into the memory” Diagnostic Launches programs “ antivirus, instant messaging” Start up PC User interface Command line Graphical user interface (GUI) Windows Icons Menus Toolbars Taskbar Hyperlinks Sizing buttons Dialog boxes

27 What is a URL? URL (Uniform Resource Locater) the combination of protocol, domain name (Or IP address), folder and page (file) name all taken together. Every server on the Internet has an IP number, a unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots The IP number is the server's address. However, it is harder for people to remember numbers than to remember word combinations, so addresses are given "word-based" addresses called URLs. The URL and the IP number are one and the same The standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this: telnet:// gopher:// The URL is divided into sections: transfer/transport protocol :// server (or domain). generic top level domain/path/filename, The first part of a URL defines the transport protocol. (HyperText Transport Protocol) moves graphical, hypertext files ftp:// (File Transfer Protocol) moves a file between 2 computers gopher:// (Gopher client) moves text-based files news: (News group reader) accesses a discussion group telnet:// (Telnet client) allows remote login to another computer

28 Pronouncing internet address
at The . dot The / slash Using favorites Called favorites in Internet Explorer and bookmarks in Netscape, that allows you to save URLs Searching the web

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