3Table of Content Introduction what is the internet? the history of the internetWhat is the world wide web?Terms to be familiar withComponents of the internetInternet conceptsThe browserNavigating the webSubject DirectoriesSearch EnginesUseful sitesUsingError MessagesDefinitions
4What is the Internet?The Internet is a collection of millions of computers, all linked together on a network to communicate.The Internet is the largest and most well known computer network in the world.
5INTRODUCTION Home computer links to internet through: PhoneWi-FiWirelessDSLModem ISP (internet service provider)In business computers have(NIC) Network Interface Card LAN (local area network)High speed ISP = 1.5 mb/s while normal phone = 30 – 50 kb/s largest ISP connect through Fiber (undersea, satellite)
6ModemA device used to attach your computer to telephone system , convert data into sound which is sent over the telephone line, the receiving modem turn the sound into data which computer can understand
7Computer Networks and the Internet A network is two or more intelligent devices connected by communication link or wirelesslyNetwork is a collection of hardware and other devices that are connected together so that users can share hardware, software and data.LAN (local area network)Local network connecting computerswithin the same buildingWAN (wide area network)more than one local networkconnecting together
10The history of Internet the U.S. Defense research program to develop communication protocolsFirst generation of networking hardware and softwareARPANET connects first 4 universities in the United States1970 – 1973 ARPANET successes to allow scientists to share dataThe ARPANET grows to 23 hosts connecting universitiesThe ARPANET goes internationalThe term 'Internet' is used for the first time.
111982 – 87 Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf creates TCP/IP, the common language of all Internet computers 1986, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), provides a major backbone communicationThe World Wide Web is born!the first graphics-based Web browserthe Internet in commercial handsNearly 10 million hosts online. The Internet covers the globe
12Components of the internet addresses uniquely identify a mail user and a mail server, Separated byNo blank spaces are allowedTelnetChat & instant messagingWorld Wide WebFacebookTwitter
13What is the World Wide Web? The World Wide Web (www) refers to all of the web pages available on all the HTTP web servers on the Internetprotocol based on hypertext developed by Tim Berners-Lee and othersAlmost support every protocol available on netInternet is not the same thing as the World Wide WebThe Internet is the infrastructure for the World Wide WebThe Internet is also the infrastructure for and file sharing, for instance
14Internet concepts Clients & Servers IP Addresses Web Pages Hypertext Protocols
15Server networkMachines that provides services (web servers, FTP servers) to other machines called serversThe other computers on a network that access network resources through the network server are called clients
16IP Addresses & Domain Names Each machine on the internet is assigned a unique address (IP)IP addresses are 32-bit numbers looks:Every web server on the Internet has an IP address, and your computer has one too.forDomain nameA domain name is an alias for an IP (Internet Protocol) address:Domain Name Registrars administer Domain names and IP addressesGeneric TLD's (top level domain): .com, .org, .net, .gov, .mil, and the newer .biz, .info, etc.Country TLD's: .de = Germany, .sc = Seychelles Island, .kw = ?is a domain name (everything after the protocol up to the next slash, if any)Your browser's address bar will recognize IP addresses just as well as domain names.Every domain name and IP address is unique on the Internet
17Web pagesWeb sit is a collection of web pages are stored on computers called web serversWeb pages are accessed with a web browser program like Internet Explorer, Safari, Netscape, Firefox or Opera
18HypertextHypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documentsA single hypertext can contain links(image, video, audio & text) to many documentsUsing language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language)PROTOCOLIn IT a protocol is the special set of rules for communicationsOn the internet TCP/IP protocols are used:TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) which uses a set of rules to exchange messages with other internet points at the information packet levelIP (Internet Protocol) which uses a set of rules to send and receive messages at the internet address levelFTP (File Transfer Protocol)HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
19IP Addresses. URL’s and Domain Names Web page URLs usually begin with the standard protocol identifierHypertext transfer protocolThis part of the URL Next comes theIdentifies the Web server folder(s) in which the & domain nameHosting the Web page Web page is stored,If necessary.This is the Web page document that is to be retrieved and displayed.filename/Index.htmlProtocol web server domain folder page
20Terms to Be Familiar With: WWW (World Wide Web) - all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).Browser--Contains the basic software information over the Internet.Download To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer.Upload—To send data from a local computer to a remote computer.- is the exchange of messages by telecommunication. E- mail can be distributed to lists of people as well as to individuals. However, you can also send non-text files, such as graphic images and sound files, as attachments sent in binary streams.Home Page - The beginning "page" of any site.HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) - The coding language used to create documents for use on the World Wide Web.
21HTTP (HyperText Transport Protocol) - the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.Hyperlinks: take you to a different page when you click on them can be text or graphicsSearch Engine - A web server that collects data from other web servers and puts it into a database.TCP/IP -- TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language or protocol of the InternetURL (Uniform Resource Locator) - The Internet address. The prefix of a URL indicates which area of the Internet will be accessed. URLs look differently depending on the Internet resource you are seeking.Address Bar: where you can type a URL of a page you want to see. Contains the URL of the page you are currently viewingHistory list: tracks the URL‘ you've visited in the past x weeksSearch sites: Google, Yahoo, Ask
22Components of the internet Internet is made up ofISP's (internet service provider)Regional networks (large network)Backbone networks (major high-speed network)Web servers Accessing Networks NeedsModem or other network adapterdialup via the public telephone network or broadband such as cable, DSL, satelliteWeb browserISP: a service that connects you to the InternetUser ID and password to log on
23What is a Web Browser?It’s a basic software enable users in order to travel, find, retrieve, view and send information over the InternetThe most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer , Netscape Navigator and Mozilla FirefoxMenu BarTitle BarAddress BarStandard ButtonsToolbar
25Toolbars Back Lets you return to pages you've viewed 9101184567123Back Lets you return to pages you've viewedForward. Lets you move forward through pages you've viewed using the Back buttonFavorites. Displays a list of the sites you have markedHome. Returns you to your home page. You can designate any Web page as your home page.Refresh. Updates any Web page stored in your disk cache with the latest contentStop. Halts the process of downloading a Web page.Print. Prints the page you're viewingSearch. Displays a choice of popular Internet search engines in the left pane.Minimize go to smaller window’s viewMaximize go to bigger window’s viewClose windowWithout OS computer can’t function at all
26Boot processing User interface Power on Boot “ part of the computer OS loaded into the memory”DiagnosticLaunches programs “ antivirus, instant messaging”Start up PCUser interfaceCommand lineGraphical user interface (GUI)WindowsIconsMenusToolbarsTaskbarHyperlinksSizing buttonsDialog boxes
27What is a URL?URL (Uniform Resource Locater) the combination of protocol, domain name (Or IP address), folder and page (file) name all taken together.Every server on the Internet has an IP number, a unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots The IP number is the server's address.However, it is harder for people to remember numbers than to remember word combinations, so addresses are given "word-based" addresses called URLs. The URL and the IP number are one and the sameThe standard way to give the address of any resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW). A URL looks like this:telnet://well.sf.ca.usgopher://gopher.ed.govThe URL is divided into sections: transfer/transport protocol :// server (or domain). generic top level domain/path/filename, The first part of a URL defines the transport protocol.(HyperText Transport Protocol) moves graphical, hypertext filesftp:// (File Transfer Protocol) moves a file between 2 computersgopher:// (Gopher client) moves text-based filesnews: (News group reader) accesses a discussion grouptelnet:// (Telnet client) allows remote login to another computer
28Pronouncing internet address atThe . dotThe / slashUsing favoritesCalled favorites in Internet Explorer and bookmarks in Netscape, that allows you to save URLsSearching the web