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Photosynthesis Uses solar energy to build sugar from CO 2 & H 2 O.

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Presentation on theme: "Photosynthesis Uses solar energy to build sugar from CO 2 & H 2 O."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Photosynthesis Uses solar energy to build sugar from CO 2 & H 2 O

3 Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen Chlorophyll 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Solar energy

4 Chloroplast Stroma lamellae Inner Membrane Granum (stack of thylakoids) Thylakoid Outer Membrane Stroma Intermembrane space fluid with enzymes Extensively folded to increase surface area membrane with chlorophyll

5 Pigments PigmentsPigments absorb solar energy electrons in pigment become excited high energy electron Green pigment c cc chlorophyll reflects green light – absorbs blue and red + -

6 H2OH2O O2O2 Chlorophyll in Thylakoid membrane Calvin Cycle Carbon fixation Stroma NADP+ ADP + Pi NADPH 2 ATP CO 2 Glucose Light-dependent Phase Light-independent Phase from water

7 More chloroplasts in the upper palisade cells, mostly around the edges of the cells

8 MENU Key Words Exercises Quick Quiz MCQ Videos Application questions Stages of photosynthesis Recap Extension

9 Key words photosynthesis plant chloroplast autotrophic chlorophyll pigment Back to menu

10 QUICK QUIZ Modified True/False If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true. 1. ADP is one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store energy 2. If you grind up the chloroplasts found in spinach leaves into a liquid solution, the solution will have a green color. 3. The light-dependent reactions supply the Calvin cycle with CO 2 and ATP. One word answers 4. Photosynthesis requires light, water, CO 2, and ____ 5. The electrons that chlorophyll loses to the electron transport chain are replenished by _____ molecules 6. In many plants, the rate of photosynthesis ____ when the weather becomes very cold Answers Back to menu

11 QUICK QUIZ 1. F - ATP is one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store energy 2. T - If you grind up the chloroplasts found in spinach leaves into a liquid solution, the solution will have a green color. 3. F - The light-dependent reactions supply the Calvin cycle with NADPH 2 and ATP. One word answers 4. Photosynthesis requires light, water, CO 2, and chlorophyll 5. The electrons that chlorophyll loses to the electron transport chain are replenished by water molecules 6. In many plants, the rate of photosynthesis slows down when the weather becomes very cold (because enzymes become less active) Back to menu

12 Application A student prepared two beakers with identical sprigs of a water plant as shown below. She placed one beaker in the shade and the other beaker beside a fluorescent lamp. She then systematically changed the distance of the beaker from the lamp. She counted the bubbles given off by each sprig of the water plant. 1. If she later tested the air bubbles collected in the test tube, what would she find they are made of? How do you know? 2. What do the students data show? 3.If the lamp were placed closer than 5cm from the water plant, would the plant give off many more bubbles? Why or why not? Back to menu

13 Application Answer 1.If she later tested the air bubbles collected in the test tube, what would she find they are made of? How do you know? Oxygen – given off by photosynthesis 2. What do the students data show? As the light is moved further away, the rate of photosynthesis decreases. 3.If the lamp were placed closer than 5cm from the water plant, would the plant give off many more bubbles? Why or why not? If the light was too close the plant might get too hot and the enzymes would become denatured. Back to menu

14 Revision question 1. What are the products of the light-dependent reactions? 2. What are the products of the Calvin cycle? 3. What chemical is converted to sugar? Back to menu

15 Revision question 1.What are the products of the light-dependent reactions? ATP, oxygen and NADPH 2. What are the products of the Calvin cycle? sugars, NADP, ADP 3. What chemical is converted to sugar? CO 2 and H 2 O Back to menu

16 Exercise Workbook pp73-7 Pathfinder pp49-50 q 1, 2, 6 Extra READING Pathfinder p50, Excellence in Biology 126-130 Back to menu

17 Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xNwZCk2CHY http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29603- assignment-discovery-photosynthesis-video.htmhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29603- assignment-discovery-photosynthesis-video.htm http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?title=Photosyn thesis&video_id=62625http://www1.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?title=Photosyn thesis&video_id=62625 Back to menu

18 Question 1 Which of the following is NOT a part of an ATP molecule? a. adenine b. ribose c. chlorophyll d. phosphate 27 Back to menu

19 Question 2 Energy is released from ATP when a. a phosphate group is formed b. adenine bonds to ribose c. ATP is exposed to sunlight d. a phosphate group is removed 27 Back to menu

20 Question 3 Different plants are placed under a bell jar with a burning candle. The candle remains lighted for different periods of time. What would be a logical conclusion from these experiments? a. different plants require different amounts of water b. different plants require different amounts of oxygen c. different plants require different amounts of carbon dioxide d. different plants require different amounts of light 27 Back to menu

21 Question 4 Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into a. oxygen and high energy sugars b. high energy sugars c. ATP and oxygen d. oxygen 27 Back to menu

22 Question 5 Which of the following are used in the overall reactions for photosynthesis? a. carbon dioxide b. water c. light d. all of the above 27 Back to menu

23 Question 6 All of the following are parts of an ADP molecule EXCEPT a. structure D b. structure C c. structure B d. structure A 27 Back to menu

24 Question 7 In the overall equation for photosynthesis, six molecules of carbon dioxide result in six molecules of a. glucose b. oxygen c. water d. ATP 27 Back to menu

25 Question 8 Plants gather the suns energy with light-absorbing molecules called a. pigments b. thylakoids c. glucose d. chloroplasts 27 Back to menu

26 Question 9 The stroma is the space that surrounds a. plant cells b. chloroplasts c. thylakoids d. all of the above 27 Back to menu

27 Question 10 Where do the light-dependent reactions take place? a. in the stroma b. in the thylakoid membranes c. outside the chloroplasts d. only in chlorophyll molecules 27 Back to menu

28 Question 11 The Calvin cycle takes place in the a. chlorophyll molecules b. photosystems c. thylakoid membranes d. stroma 27 Back to menu

29 Question 12 How does the Calvin cycle differ from the light-dependent reactions? a. It requires light b. It takes place in chloroplasts. c. It takes place in the stroma. d. It takes place in the thylakoid 27 Back to menu

30 Question 13 Which of the graphs represents the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis? 27 Back to menu

31 Question 14 If carbon dioxide is removed from a plants environment, what would you expect to happen to the plants production of high- energy sugars? a. More sugars will be produced. b. Fewer sugars will be produced. c. The same number of sugars will be produced but without carbon dioxide. d. Carbon dioxide does not affect the production of high-energy sugars in plants. 27 Back to menu

32 Correct 31 Back to menu

33 Incorrect 32 Back to menu

34 Light Dependent Reaction Find definitions for the following terms: Photoionisation, photophosphorylation & photolysis. Where do these processes take place? What is the difference between cyclic & non-cyclic phosphorylation. EXTENSION Back to menu

35 Carotenoids Yellow – orange Transfer energy to chlorophyll. Often not reabsorbed during autumn EXTENSION Back to menu

36 Both mitochondria & chloroplasts contain DNA & may have arisen from endosymbiosis EXTENSION Back to menu

37 Solar energy organic molecule with chemical potential energy Inorganic molecules oxygen as a waste product

38 Chlorophyll except greenAbsorbs all wavelengths except green Reflects greenReflects green light appears green ReabsorbedReabsorbed before leaves fall

39 Chlorophyll in grana Photolysis - light dependant stage oxygenhydrogen NADP H 2 NADPH 2 Energy ADP + Pi ATP Splits water by-product light-independent phase Back to menu

40 Electron Transfer Electrons excited by solar energy Transferred down a chain of receptors Release energy with each transfer ADP ATP energy in ATP used to make sugars

41 Electron Transfer 1 electron excited by solar energy photon 2 electron passed along from carrier to carrier 3 electron excited by solar energy photon 4 electron passed to NADPH e-e- ATP NADPH Electron Transfer Chain

42 Carbon fixation - light independent stage Calvin Cycle (carbon fixation) In the stroma CO 2 CH2OCH2OCH2OCH2O from air from light- dependent phase 6 cycles needed to make C 6 H 12 O 6 H2H2H2H2 Energy NADPH 2 ATP ATP 123456 123456 C 6 H 12 O 6

43 Photosynthesis & Respiration in plants

44 Draw an overview of photosynthesis Summarise the factors needed Highlight key ideas in the workbook Pair up and teach each other Work through NCEA questions Back to menu

45 THE END Back to menu


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