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Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 02-Jan-2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev 5.0 02-Jan-2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014 TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Members personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentations Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 Instrument Ground School Weather Weather Overview Hazards to Flight Causes & Types of Weather Sources of Information 3

4 Overview As pilots, we deal with weather every time we fly. As Instrument Pilots, our knowledge of weather must be more in depth than VFR pilots. Instrument Ground School Weather 4

5 Hazards to Flight Most Weather is Flyable – Robert Buck There are 3 principle Weather Hazards can really get you into trouble: Low Visibility / Ceilings Thunderstorms Ice Instrument Ground School Weather 5

6 Causes of Weather All weather processes are directly associated with the exchange of heat As an example, updrafts, caused by solar heating of the surface, cause cumulus clouds as the air raises and the moisture condenses, releasing the heat absorbed at the surface. Instrument Ground School Weather 6

7 Causes of Weather Unequal heating of the Earths surface causes differences in temperature & pressure (and altimeter settings) Points of equal pressure are connected on weather maps using lines called isobars Wind flows from high-pressure to low pressure. Flow is perpendicular to isobars 7 Instrument Ground School Weather

8 8

9 Causes of Weather Coriollis force deflects wind to the right in Northern hemisphere. Earth rotates under the wind, causing an apparent change in wind direction. Coriollis force acts perpendicular to wind direction, and is proportional to wind speed It deflects wind so strongly that wind subsequently flows parallel to isobars. 9 Instrument Ground School Weather

10 Causes of Weather Coriollis force deflects wind to the right in Northern hemisphere. Its greater at higher altitudes, since wind near the surface (below 2000 AGL) is slowed back friction. Since surface winds are slower, they are less effected by Coriollis force. Near the surface, the pressure gradient may be stronger than Coriollis force, causing the wind to flow across the isobars. 10 Instrument Ground School Weather

11 Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere From the surface to the tropopause, the boundary between the troposphere & stratosphere. Most of our weather occurs in the troposphere Height of tropopause varies from about 25,000 feet near the poles, to about 37,000 feet in the mid-latitudes, to about 65,000 at the equator. 11 Instrument Ground School Weather

12 Layers of the Atmosphere 12 Instrument Ground School Weather

13 Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere At the tropopause, temperature and wind vary greatly An abrupt change in the temperature lapse rate occurs at the tropopause Up to the tropopause, temperature decreases with altitude Above the tropopause, temperature is constant with altitude. 13 Instrument Ground School Weather

14 Layers of the Atmosphere Stratosphere Layer above the troposphere Low moisture, and few clouds Temperature remains relatively constant with altitude in the stratosphere. This creates a temperature inversion. Only the most powerful thunderstorms have sufficient energy to climb into the stratosphere. 14 Instrument Ground School Weather

15 Layers of the Atmosphere Jet Stream – a narrow, disjointed, wandering river of air. Flows from west to east, near the tropopause By definition, has speeds > 50 kt Weaker & farther north during summer Stronger & farther south during winter Moves with pressure ridges & troughs. 15 Instrument Ground School Weather

16 Air Masses Air Masses are large regions of air with uniform temperature and moisture properties. The boundary between air masses is called a front. A warm front occurs when a warmer air mass overtakes a cooler one A cold front occurs when a cooler air mass overtakes a warmer one. 16 Instrument Ground School Weather

17 Air Masses - Stability Lapse Rate – the change in temperature with altitude Adiabatic lapse rate is the temperature change due to expansional cooling. Dry adiabatic lapse rate is 3C per 1000 ft Adiabatic lapse rate varies from 1.1C to 2.8C, depending on moisture content Average adiabatic lapse rate is 2C per 1000 ft. 17 Instrument Ground School Weather

18 Air Masses - Stability Lapse rate can be used to gage atmospheric stability. Actual lapse rate is sometimes referred to as ambient lapse rate – average 2C per 1000 ft Lapse rate > 2C per 1000 ft, combined with high humidity indicates an unstable atmosphere, and thunderstorms are likely. Moist air is less stable than dry air, because it cools more slowly with altitude, so it must rise higher to cool. 18 Instrument Ground School Weather

19 Air Masses - Stability Cloud Formation due to lifting Determined by the stability of the air before lifting. Turbulence & cumuliform clouds (vertical development) are created when unstable air rises. Stable air lifted by mountain slopes creates stratiform clouds. Unstable air lifted by mountain slopes creates cumuliform clouds. 19 Instrument Ground School Weather

20 Air Masses - Stability Stable Air Stratiform Clouds & Fog Smooth Air Steady Precipitation Fair – poor visibility, due to haze & smoke 20 Instrument Ground School Weather

21 Air Masses - Stability UnStable Air Cumuliform Clouds Turbulent Air Showery Precipitation Good Visibility (outside of clouds) 21 Instrument Ground School Weather

22 Air Masses - Stability Cold air moving over warm surface results in turbulence, cumuliform clouds and good visibility This is due to the cold air being heated by surface, creating instability and lifting action Precipitation growth rate is enhanced by lifted, moisture laden air currents that condense, increasing droplet size. 22 Instrument Ground School Weather

23 Air Masses Fronts Wind changes across a front Wind shear may occur ahead of a warm front. Wind shear may occur just after a cold front passes Squall lines may develop ahead of a cold front Frontal waves and low-pressure cyclones usually from in slow moving cold fronts, or stationary fronts 23 Instrument Ground School Weather

24 Fronts 24 Instrument Ground School Weather

25 Fronts 25 Instrument Ground School Weather

26 26 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

27 27 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

28 28 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

29 29 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

30 30 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

31 31 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

32 32 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

33 33 Fronts Instrument Ground School Weather

34 Temperature Inversions A temperature inversion is when temperature increases or remains constant with altitude, rather than decreases. Results in warm, stable air below the inversion May develop near the ground on cool, clear nights with light wind, due to terrestrial radiation. Stability results in smooth air, and haze, fog or low clouds. 34 Instrument Ground School Weather

35 Temperature & Dewpoint The ability of the air to hold moisture is directly related to its temperature. Warm air holds more moisture than cold air The temperature at which the air is 100% saturated is called the dew point. If the air temperature is within 3C (5F) of the dewpoint and is decreasing, expect low clouds and fog to form. 35 Instrument Ground School Weather

36 Temperature & Dewpoint Frost may form on a surface, if the surface temperature is below the dew point and the dew point is below freezing. Water vapor is visible when it condenses into clouds, fog or dew. Evaporation is when liquid water converts to vapor Sublimation is when ice converts directly to vapor. 36 Instrument Ground School Weather

37 Fog Radiation Fog occurs with clear skies, little wind, and small temperature – dew point spread over land – usually low flat areas Ground cools faster than air, cooling air very close to surface, resulting in a temperature inversion. 37 Instrument Ground School Weather

38 Fog Advection Fog forms when warm moist air, usually from over a large body of water, moves over cool land. Requires Wind Often happens in coastal areas Upslope Fog results from warm, moist air being forced up sloping terrain. 38 Instrument Ground School Weather

39 Fog Precipitation Induced Fog Caused by warm air dropping rain into cooler air beneath Evaporation from the precipitation saturates cooler air below, causing fog. Occurs easily in industrial areas, where pollution creates an abundance of nuclei for the moisture to condense onto. 39 Instrument Ground School Weather

40 Cloud Families High Clouds Ice crystals – little threat of aircraft icing. Middle Clouds Low Clouds Clouds with extensive vertical development. Cumulus, cumulonimbus 40 Instrument Ground School Weather

41 Cloud Families Standing Lenticular Altocumulus clouds (ACSL) are lens-shaped, and form on the downwind side of mountain ridges. Indicate very strong turbulence 41 Instrument Ground School Weather

42 Cumulus Clouds Cumulus clouds occur in unstable, moist air with a lifting action. Turbulence occurs at & below cloud level Nimbus means rain cloud Tower cumulus is an early sign of cumulonimbus Cumulonimbus Clouds (thunderstorms) contain the greatest turbulence. 42 Instrument Ground School Weather

43 Thunderstorms 3 stage life cycle Cumulus – the building stage. Towering Cumulus, with continuous updrafts Mature Greatest Intensity, both updrafts & downdrafts Dissipating Continuous downdrafts, raining out. 43 Instrument Ground School Weather

44 Thunderstorms 44 Instrument Ground School Weather

45 Thunderstorms Always has lightning, since lightning causes thunder. Produced by cumulonimbus clouds, and occur with Water Vapor Unstable Lapse Rate Lifting Action 45 Instrument Ground School Weather

46 46 Thunderstorms Instrument Ground School Weather

47 Thunderstorms Produces wind shear turbulence If penetrating a thunderstorm, fly straight ahead, set power for turbulence penetration speed, and try to maintain level attitude. Do not turn around – turn increases load factor on airplane No not try to maintain altitude Severe Thunderstorms should be avoided by at least 20 miles. May cause turbulence and hail miles from the storm. 47 Instrument Ground School Weather

48 Thunderstorms Squall Line is a non-frontal, narrow band of thunderstorms forming ahead of a cold front Most severe conditions – hail, turbulence, tornados, etc. A squall is defined as a sudden increase in wind speed of at least 16 kts up to 22 kts, lasting for more than 1 minute. 48 Instrument Ground School Weather

49 Thunderstorms Embedded thunderstorms are storms that are obscured by cloudy conditions, haze layers, etc. Visual see & avoid may be inadequate Spherics or weather radar are essential to avoiding embedded thunderstorms. Radar detects precipitation, not instrument conditions. 49 Instrument Ground School Weather

50 Icing Tests indicate that frost, snow or ice with texture similar to coarse sandpaper reduces lift by up to 30%, and increased drag by up to 40%. Freezing Level is the altitude where freezing temperatures exist. Can be determined using the average lapse rate of 2C per 1000 ft. 50 Instrument Ground School Weather

51 Icing 51 Instrument Ground School Weather

52 52 Icing Instrument Ground School Weather

53 Icing Requires 2 conditions Visible Moisture Temperature at or below freezing Freezing rain results in the fastest and greatest accumulation of ice. Indicates warmer temperatures above – temperature inversion. 53 Instrument Ground School Weather

54 54 Icing Instrument Ground School Weather

55 Icing Ice pellets caused by rain freezing at higher altitude Heavy, wet snow means temperature is above freezing at your altitude. It formed above you, but is on the verge of melting Frost on the wings disrupts the flow over the wings, and should be removed before flight. 55 Instrument Ground School Weather

56 Weather Information Flight Service DUATS The Weather Channel Internet Sources NOAA / ADDS Intellicast FOUS 56 Instrument Ground School Weather

57 Reading: Aviation Weather Gleim Study Unit 8: Aviation Weather 57 Instrument Ground School Weather

58 Questions? Always Think Safety! 58 Instrument Ground School Weather

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