Presentation on theme: "How to, kinds of and info on – maps!"— Presentation transcript:
1 How to, kinds of and info on – maps! Mappin’ Out EarthHow to, kinds of and info on – maps!
2 A compass rose with cardinal directions and intermediate (intercardinal) directions provides orientation.
3 Determining LocationLatitude and longitude are lines on the globe that are used to determine location.Latitude is distance north or south of the equator, measured in degrees, lines run east to west, and are a.k.a. parallels.Longitude is distance east or west of the prime meridian, measured in degrees, lines run north to south and are a.k.a. meridians.
4 Where it all begins…Initial parallel = equatorInitial meridian = prime meridian (Greenwich, England)
5 Maps and MappingNo matter what kind of map is made, some portion of the surface will always look either too small, too big, or out of place.Mapmakers have, however, found ways to limit the distortion of shape, size(area), distance and direction.
6 Type of ProjectionsTransformation from lat/long to a flat surfaceA conic projection = a cone is wrapped around the globeA cylindrical projection = a cylinder is wrapped around the globe-have a lot of distortion in the polar regions (that is, the size of the polar regions is greatly exaggerated on these maps).A planar projection = details of the globe are projected onto a plane (a flat surface) yielding a rectangular-shaped map. Planar maps have a lot of distortion towards the edges.
8 Scale TypesFractional scale: - is a fixed ratio between linear measurements on the map and corresponding distances on the ground. It is sometimes called the representative fraction or R.F.Example: R.F. 1:62,500Graphical scale: - is simply a line or bar drawn on the map and divided into units that represent ground distances.Example:Verbal scale: - is a convenient way of stating the relationship of map distance to ground distance.Example: 1 inch equals 1 mile
9 Topographic Maps Topographic maps represent Earth’s surface in three dimensions; they show elevation, distance directions, and slope angles.Contour lines are lines on a topographic map that indicate an elevation.Contour interval is the distance in elevation between adjacent contour lines.
10 Features of Topographic Maps TOPOGRAPHY (RELIEF):- printed in brown- contour lines shows hills, mountains, plains, etc.WATER FEATURES:- printed in blue- includes oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, canals, etc.CULTURE:- printed in black- human-made works such as roads,railroads, buildings, land boundaries, etc.
11 Mapping technology: Today we have more accurate maps than ever, made possible by remote sensing. This technique uses satellites and computers. The data can be verified through a technique known as ground truthing.