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Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Planning for FS XXI

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1 Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Planning for FS XXI
E Co Aviation Regiment Lowe Army Airfield Crusaders

2 Purpose To provide the student pilot with an informative briefing regarding the methods, techniques, and procedures utilized in planning instrument flights.

3 Administrative Considerations
Safety Requirements: None. Risk Assessment Level: Low. Environmental Considerations: None. Evaluation: Check on learning questions as required.

4 IFR Flight Planning Topics
Weather Briefing Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) Location Identifiers Departure Procedures En Route Procedures Arrival Procedures Flight Plan Preparation Flight Plan Activation

5 References AR 95-1, Flight Regulations
FM 1-230, Meteorology for Army Aviators FM , Instrument Flight for Army Aviators FAA Joint Order H, Location Identifiers FAA Order , Air Traffic Control FAA Instrument Flying Handbook FAA Instrument Procedures Handbook FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Department of Defense (DoD) Flight Information Publications (FLIP) Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Sectional Enroute Low Altitude (ELA) Chart Instrument Approach Procedures IFR Supplement Flight Information Handbook (FIH) General Planning (GP) Area Planning (AP) Airport Facility Directory (AFD) TM Operator’s Manual UH-60A/L/EH-60A Helicopter

6 Requirement to Operate IFR
(1) All Army aircraft that are instrumented for IFR flight and are flown by an instrument rated pilot will operate on IFR flight plans except when – (a) Flight is primarily for VFR training. (b) Time will not permit mission completion under IFR. (c) Mission can only be accomplished under VFR. (d) Excessive air traffic control (ATC) departure, en route, or terminal area delays are encountered. (e) Hazardous weather conditions must be avoided. (f) Aircraft is being flown single pilot. AR 95-1, Para 5-2 d (1), page 32

7 Task 1006 Task, Condition, Standards
Plan an instrument flight rules flight CONDITIONS: Before instrument flight rules flight in an H-60 helicopter, given access to weather information, notices to airmen (NOTAMs), flight planning aids, necessary charts, forms, and publications. STANDARDS: Appropriate common standards plus the following additions/modifications: 1. Determine whether the aircrew and aircraft are capable of completing the assigned mission. 2. Determine whether the flight can be performed under instrument flight rules (IFR) per AR 95-1 and applicable Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs)/host-nation regulations, local regulations, and standard operating procedures (SOPs). 3. Determine the departure, en route, and destination procedures. 4. Select route(s) and altitudes that avoid hazardous weather conditions, do not exceed aircraft or equipment limitations, and conform to IFR cruising altitudes per Department of Defense flight information publication (DOD FLIP). 5. If off airway, determine the course(s) ± 5 degrees. 6. Select an approach that is compatible with the weather, approach facilities, and aircraft equipment; determine if an alternate airfield is required. 7. Determine distance ±1 nautical mile, true airspeed ±5 knots, ground speed ±5 knots, and estimated time en route (ETE) ±1 minutes for each leg of the flight. 8. Determine the fuel required per AR 95-1 and FM , ±100 pounds. 9. Complete and file the flight plan per AR 95-1 and the DOD FLIP. 10. Perform mission risk assessment per unit SOP. Excerpt of Task 1006 as published in TC 1-237

8 Weather Planning

9 Weather Planning Weather information for the DD Form will be obtained from a military weather facility. (7) Weather briefing. Local commanders will establish policies specifying when DD Form (Flight Weather Briefing) is required to be filed with DD Form 175 (Military Flight Plan) and the minimum entries required on parts I through V of locally briefed DD forms. Weather information will be obtained from a U.S. Military weather facility. If U.S. Military weather service support is not available, consult DOD/US Government FLIP for guidance. Request for exceptions should be submitted through command channels to the commander USAASA. For all IFR flights and/or cross country flights, the weather forecast will be void 1 hour and 30 minutes from the time the forecast is received provided the aircraft has not departed. Weather forecast may be extended after coordination with a weather facility. The crew should update weather briefing information on stopover flights. AR 95-1, Para 5-2 (7), page 32 If a military forecaster is not available, the PC will consult DoD/US Government FLIP for guidance to obtain the weather forecast. The crew should update weather briefing information on stopover flights.

10 Weather Planning (Continued)
C-2 METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION 1. TELEPHONE WEATHER/NOTAM BRIEFINGS (AFFSA/AFFSA) a. Military pilots departing a location where military weather and NOTAM services are not available will obtain required information as follows: (1) Contact the Operational Weather Squadron (OWS) responsible for your area. OWSs are located worldwide to be the primary 24-hour weather-briefing source. Local base/post weather flights may assist transient aircrews if and when higher priority taskings and local mission support allow. Contact information is listed on the following pages; or (2) Obtain information from published Command-approved weather sources. (3) Obtain information from the US National Weather Service (http:// aviationweather.gov/) (4) Obtain information from an NWS/FAA-approved source IAW FAAO (http:// fsims.faa.gov). (5) Obtain information from accredited local agencies. (6) Real time NOTAM updates are available at https://notams.jcs.mil. b. When talking to a military forecaster, please provide the following information at least 2 hours prior to desired brief time: (1) Name of person calling. (2) Aircraft type and call sign. (3) VFR or IFR and proposed altitude. (4) ETD for departure point and ETA for destination and alternates. (5) Route. (6) Enroute stops, if applicable (in order, with ETAs) FIH, Appendix C-2

11 Weather Planning (Continued)
CONUS Air Force Operational Weather Squadrons (OWS) Areas of Responsibility (AOR), FIH, Appendix C-3

12 Weather Planning (Continued)
26 OWS AOR Contact Numbers FIH, Appendix C-7 Marine Corps/Navy Areas of Responsibility (AOR) FIH, Appendix C-3

13 Weather Planning (Continued)
Note: For explanation of DD Form entries see FM Appendix C. Sample DD Form 175-1

14 Weather Planning (Continued) Example of DD Form 175-1 Weather Briefing
16/1143 16/1238 16/2343 17/0009 17/0042 17/0838 27 / +06 / +03 TOI MGM ALL AREAS SFC - 060 TOI - MGM Example of DD Form Weather Briefing

15 Weather Planning (Continued) Example of DD Form 175-1 Weather Briefing
280/05 TOI 3/4 FG BKN OVC C 260/10 MGM 3 BR SCT BKN C X 134.1 X PHONE: or Request PIREP on 134.1 – JC CW3 Jones 1440 Example of DD Form Weather Briefing

16 Flight Information Publications (FLIP)

17 Flight Information Publications (FLIP)
DoD Flight Information Publications (FLIP) contain worldwide aeronautical information required in the planning and execution of VFR and IFR flight. DoD FLIP product groups are aligned with the three flight phases (Planning, Enroute, and Terminal). Note: Downloaded products should be cross checked against traditional paper FLIP.

18 Flight Information Publications (FLIP) (Continued)
Planning Publications General Planning (GP) Area Planning 1B (AP/1B)

19 Flight Information Publications (FLIP) (Continued)
Flight Information Handbook (FIH)

20 Flight Information Publications (FLIP) (Continued)
Enroute and Terminal Publications IFR Supplement Enroute Low Altitude Chart Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP)

21 Flight Information Publications (FLIP) (Continued)
Enroute and Terminal Publications Airport/Facility Directory (A/FD) VFR Supplement Note: The Airport/Facility Directory will replace the VFR supplement at a time TBD.

22 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM)

23 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM)
Information considered essential to the safety of flight as well as supplemental data to other aeronautical publications. NOTAM information for DoD aircrews is obtained using the Defense Internet NOTAM Service https://www.notams.jcs.mil/. NOTAM information may also be https://pilotweb.nas.faa.gov/distribution/home.html should the DINS server be out of service. NOTAMs are separated into four types: Distant (D) Flight Data Center (FDC) Pointer Military Note: FAA NOTAM “D” Standardization briefing has removed all reference to “L” NOTAMS effective 28 January 2008.

24 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
"D" NOTAM: Information that requires wide dissemination and pertains to en route navigational aids, civil public use landing areas, seaplane bases, and heliports listed in the Airport Facility Directory (AF/D).  FDC NOTAM: NOTAM information that is regulatory in nature and transmitted by the National Flight Data Center (NFDC). FDC NOTAMs contain such information as amendments to published IAPs and other aeronautical charts. They are also used to advertise Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR) such as natural disasters or large scale public events that may generate congestion of air traffic over a site.

25 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
Pointer NOTAM: Information issued by a flight service station to highlight or point out another NOTAM. Pointer NOTAMs assist users in cross-referencing important information that may not be found under an airport or NAVAID identifier. Military NOTAM: Information pertaining to U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine, and Navy navigational aids/airports that are part the of the NAS.

26 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued) NOTAM “D” Standardized Format

27 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
Defense Internet NOTAM Service (DINS) web site

28 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
Note: For IFR flights, use the Flight Path Search engine for NOTAM research to include ARTCC/UIR/FIR NOTAMs. Defense Internet NOTAM System (DINS) web site

29 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
Sample NOTAMS for Tallahassee Regional Airport (KTLH)

30 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP)

31 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
NTAP is an integral part of the NOTAM system. NTAP is published every four weeks and contains information to reduce congestion on communications circuits. Once published electronically, that information contained is not provided during pilot briefings unless specifically requested by the pilot. All information contained will be carried until the information expires, is canceled, or is published in other publications such as the AF/D. NTAP information can be

32 Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) (Continued)
If a proposed flight will terminate at a civil airport, aircrews should obtain/review all Federal Aviation Administration NOTAMs including those contained in the NTAP. Aircrews using DINS will not need to consult FLIP to determine if a location has NOTAM support. DINS will provide a plain language notice, highlighted in red, when a requested location is not in the U.S. NOTAM System.

33 Location Identifiers

34 Location Identifiers Publication listing the 3-4 letter identifier location of airports, navigation aids, fixes, weather stations, and flight service stations. FAA and Canadian locations are provided in latitude and longitude format (degrees, minutes, seconds). Location identifier information can be obtained via the website link: To convert the latitude/longitude format from seconds to tenths of seconds, divide the seconds by An example (WIBIN intersection): N 31° 19 min seconds 34.06 ÷ 60 = .567 (.57 in DGNS format) N 31° 19.57

35 Departure Procedures

36 Departure Procedures Instrument departure procedures are preplanned IFR procedures which provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure. Departure procedures are categorized by two types: Textual Graphical There are two types of departure procedures: Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP) Standard Instrument Departure (SID) If the airport has at least one instrument approach procedure (IAP), and there are no published IFR departure procedures; then an aircraft departing under IFR can ensure obstacle clearance by executing a diverse departure.

37 Departure Procedures (Continued)
Graphic Representation of Airplane Diverse Departure Procedure

38 Departure Procedures (Continued)
V168 400 ft Obstacle Identification Slope 35 ft AGL 1 NM Slope of 304 ft per Nautical Mile (20:1) Graphic Representation of Helicopter Diverse Departure Procedure

39 Departure Procedures (Continued)
ATC will not specifically clear an aircraft for a diverse departure; the clearance may simply be cleared as filed. In order to fly a diverse departure, fly runway heading until 400 feet above airfield elevation before executing any turns while maintaining a minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile until reaching the required IFR altitude. Diverse departure procedures for heliports are based on flying takeoff heading until 400 feet above airfield elevation while maintaining a minimum climb gradient of 400 feet per nautical mile.

40 Departure Procedures (Continued)
Example of Lowe AHP (KLOR) Textual Departure Procedure

41 Departure Procedures (Continued)
Example of Cairns Army Airfield (KOZR) Graphical Departure Procedure

42 Departure Procedures (Continued)
Climb/Descent Chart (Page 7-151, TM ) While planning the departure phase of IFR flight, confirm that the aircraft is capable of completing the departure procedure utilizing the operator’s manual climb/descent charts.

43 Departure Procedures (Continued)
Rate of Climb/Descent Chart (Instrument Approach Procedures)

44 Route Selection

45 Route Selection Determine if flight can be completed by means of published routing utilizing en route low altitude charts. Example of Published Routing (V521) as Depicted in En Route Low Altitude (ELA) 21-22

46 Route Selection (Continued)
If flight cannot be completed by means of published routing utilizing en route low altitude charts, create user defined direct routing. Utilize VFR Sectional to determine direct routing between NAVAIDS. Determine NAVAID reception along direct routing. Determine minimum en route altitude requirements utilizing mountainous/non-mountainous altitude requirements. Determine routes taking into account NAVAID unusable sectors and reception altitude requirements.

47 Route Selection (Continued)
Navigation Aid Reception Class Codes (IFR Supplement)

48 Route Selection (Continued)
Example of Wiregrass VOR (RRS) Unusable Sectors in IFR Supplement

49 Route Selection (Continued)
Mountainous/Non-Mountainous Areas (Figure 5-6-2, Aeronautical Information Manual)

50 Route Selection (Continued)
Highest Elevation Along Route Example of Direct Routing in Absence of Victor Airway

51 Arrival

52 Arrival Instrument approach procedures provide an IFR descent from the en route environment to a point where a safe landing can be made.

53 ILS Runway 6, Cairns Army Airfield (KOZR)
Arrival (Continued) ILS Runway 6, Cairns Army Airfield (KOZR)

54 Segments of an Instrument Approach
Arrival (Continued) Segments of an Instrument Approach Margin Identification Pilot Briefing Information Plan View Profile View Landing Minimums Airport Diagram FM , Page 4-13

55 Instrument Approach Minimums
Arrival (Continued) Instrument Approach Minimums S-ILS 6 548 – Decision Altitude (DA) 50– Runway Visual Range (RVR) 250– Height Above Touchdown (HAT) 300-1 – Weather Planning Minima CIRCLING 740– Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) 1 – Runway Visual Range (RVR) 439– Height Above Airport (HAA) 500-1 – Weather Planning Minima S-LOC 6 640– Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) 50– Runway Visual Range (RVR) 342 – Height Above Touchdown (HAT) 400-1 – Weather Planning Minima S-PAR 6 548 – Decision Altitude (DA) 50– Runway Visual Range (RVR) 250– Height Above Touchdown (HAT) 300-1 – Weather Planning Minima GS 2.7° - Glide Slope Angle

56 Instrument Approach Minimums
Arrival (Continued) Instrument Approach Minimums H-069° 760– Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) 3/4 – Runway Visual Range (RVR) 519– Height Above Landing (HAL) 600 3/4 – Weather Planning Minima Note: Decision Altitude (DA) is an ICAO definition (differing from the JCS/NATO definition of Decision Height (DH)) specifying an altitude on a precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established.

57 Arrival (Continued) Additional Approach Information
GP Chapter 2, Page 2-2 Explanation of Terms GP Chapter 2, Page 2-2 Explanation of Terms

58 Instrument Approach Considerations
Arrival (Continued) Instrument Approach Considerations Aircraft equipment available (ADF, VOR, GPS). Weather Requirements. Approach Requirements (Radar, DME). Alternate approach requirements. Radar Requirements Unmonitored NAVAIDS Weather Requirements Approach Lighting. Inoperative Components.

59 Instrument Approach Considerations Inoperative Components Table
Arrival (Continued) Instrument Approach Considerations Unmonitored NAVAIDS Inoperative Components Table

60 Instrument Approach Considerations
Arrival (Continued) Instrument Approach Considerations Example of Inoperative Approach Lighting System (ALS) at Barksdale Air Force Base (KBAD)

61 Alternate Approach Planning
Arrival (Continued) Alternate Approach Planning e. Alternate airfield planning. An alternate airfield is required when filing IFR to a destination under any of the following conditions: (1) Radar is required to execute the approach procedure to be flown. (2) The instrument approach navigational aids to be used are unmonitored. (3) The predominant weather at the destination is forecast at ETA through 1 hour after ETA to be less than – (a) Ceiling 400 feet above the weather planning minimum required for the approach to be flown. (b) Visibility 1 mile (or metric equivalent) greater than the planning minimum required for the approach to be flown. (4) An alternate is not required if descent from en route minimum altitude for IFR operation, approach, and landing can be made in VFR conditions. AR 95-1, Para 5-2 (7)(e), page 32

62 Alternate Approach Planning
Arrival (Continued) Alternate Approach Planning f. Alternate airfield selection. (1) An alternate may be selected as an alternate when the worst weather condition for that airfield is forecast for ETA through 1 hour after ETA to be equal to or greater than – (a) Ceiling 400 feet above the weather planning minimum required for the approach to be flown and visibility 1 mile (or metric equivalent) greater than the weather planning minimum required for the approach to be flown; or (b) VFR minimums and descent from en route minimum altitude for IFR operation, approach, and landing can be made in VFR conditions. (2) An airfield will not be selected as an alternate except per f(1)(b) above – (a) If the approach procedure to be used at the alternate is shown not authorized (NA) in FLIP. (b) If radar is required for the approach procedure to be used at the alternate. (c) If the instrument approach navigational aids to be used is unmonitored. (d) If a Class B, C, D, or E surface area airspace does not exist or is not in effect at the airport to be used. (e) If the global positioning system (GPS) is required for the approach. AR 95-1, Para 5-2 (7)(f), page 32

63 Arrival (Continued) Descent from Minimum Altitude for IFR Operations in VFR Conditions Minimum altitude for IFR Operations: Field elevation of Cairns Army Airfield: 301 (Min for IFR operations in MSL) (Field elevation) = (Elevation of Cairns AAF at min IFR alt in AGL) (Elevation of Cairns AAF at min IFR alt in AGL) (Basic cloud clearance for VFR) = (Height AGL of cloud requirements) (Cloud Height rounded to nearest 100 ft increment) + 3 SM (Visibility requirement for VFR conditions) Ceiling/Visibility Requirement: 2200 ft Ceilings / 3 SM Visibility Excerpt of ILS Runway 6 Cairns Army Airfield (KOZR)

64 Arrival (Continued) Copter Approaches Maximum airspeed is 90 KIAS on any segment of the approach (initial, intermediate, final, missed). Lower airspeeds may be listed on the final and missed approach segments. Reduction of visibility for “copter only” approaches is not authorized as this reduction is already applied. You may hold on copter holding patterns at 100 KIAS. However, once you begin and are established on the inbound portion of the approach, airspeed is limited to 90 KIAS.

65 Excerpt of Copter VOR 069 Lowe AAF (KLOR)
Arrival (Continued) Excerpt of Copter VOR 069 Lowe AAF (KLOR)

66 Flight Plan Preparation
Parked: G05 22 Oct 09 R24517 H60/U I LOR EDN XNE MGM MARRA MGM I MGM MGM XNE EDN (2+40 OZR 0+18) LOR Briefed by: Jones, W. W., CW3 1ST Request – ILS 28 MGM MGM - S /JK LOR 5 Jun / USAACE / LOR Smith, J. K CW E Avn / LOR PI Jones, W. C LT D Avn/Ft. Rucker CP Johnson, B. D WO B Avn/Ft. Rucker

67 Flight Plan Preparation
Purpose of the flight plan is to communicate the pilot’s desires to Air Traffic Control. General Planning (GP) (Chapter 4) is the reference for completing the DD Form 175 (Military Flight Plan) and DD Form 1801 (International Flight Plan). Depending on unit assignment, other types of flight plans may be required (DD Form 1801, FAA , FAA (Flight Progress Strip)).

68 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued)
Stopover Flight Plans Each leg after the initial leg of a stopover flight plan is entered as described in ITEMS (4) through (11). In parenthesis following the last entry of successive legs, enter the hours of fuel on board (e.g., (2+40)). 22 Oct 09 I LOR EDN XNE MGM MARRA MGM R23369 H60/U Parked: W09 I MGM MGM XNE EDN (2+40 OZR 0+18) LOR TOI /RK LOR 2 Jun / USAACE / LOR Example of IFR Flight Plan from Lowe AAF to Montgomery Regional Airport (Dannelly Field) (KMGM) and Return

69 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued) Flight Plans Requiring Alternates
FM (Para A-15, page A-4) states that the ETE to the alternate should include time from the: Missed approach procedure to the missed approach holding point to include one circuit in the holding pattern. Missed approach holding point to the alternate including approach and landing time. If an alternate is required for successive legs, enter the airport identifier and the ETE to the alternate in parenthesis with the fuel on board entry (e.g., 2+35 TOI 0+24).

70 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued)
Flight Plans Requiring Alternates 22 Oct 09 I LOR EDN XNE MGM MARRA MGM R23369 H60/U Parked: W09 I MGM MGM XNE EDN (2+40 OZR 0+18) LOR TOI /RK LOR 2 Jun / USAACE / LOR Alternate Airfield and ETE for 1st Leg of Flight Alternate Airfield and ETE for Subsequent Leg of Flight Example of IFR Flight Plan with Successive Legs Requiring Alternates

71 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued) Flight Plan with Holding Delay
Parked: W09 22 Oct 09 R23369 H60/U I LOR EDN XNE BLOOD / D MGM MGM Example of IFR Flight Plan From Lowe AAF to Montgomery Regional Airport (Dannelly Field) (KMGM) with Holding Delay

72 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued)
Flight Plan with Terminal Area Delay Enter the delay location airport identifier as the last item in the route of flight. Do not make an entry in the TO block; enter the time required to fly the segment exclusive of planned en route delays in the ETE block. Explain the delay as a remark on the next line in the ROUTE OF FLIGHT block; do not make entries in any other blocks on this line Precede the delay remark with a circled "R" to indicate that the information to following should be transmitted as a remark. Enter a "D" and the length of the delay, the delay location airport identifier, and the airport of the final destination (e.g., R D 0+15 MAI TLH). Complete items (4) through (11) for the subsequent leg of flight.

73 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued)
22 Oct 09 R24623 H60/U Parked: M10 I LOR EDN RRS V MAI MAI R D MAI TLH I MAI MAI SZW GACED TLH Example of IFR Flight Plan From Lowe AAF to Tallahassee Regional Airport with a Terminal Area Delay at Marianna Municipal Airport

74 Flight Plan Preparation (Continued) Estimated Time En Route
IFR Flight Plans: The time from takeoff or departure from a Terminal or Special Use Airspace en route delay location to the last fix shown in the route of flight exclusive of planned en route delays. For Army Aircrews, the ETE for IFR flight plans is the elapsed time until over the first point of intended landing. Composite Flight Plans: For each IFR segment, use time planned to fly the segment exclusive of en route delays; for each VFR segment, use time planned to fly the segment including known delays (practice air work, landing, etc.).

75 Flight Plan Filing Flight Plans filed with a military Base Operations are passed to Federal Aviation Administration Flight Service immediately after aircraft departure. Flight Service then notifies the destination base of each aircraft's ETA. Pilots should file their IFR flight plan at least 30 min (45 minutes at LOR and 1 hour in some areas) prior to ETD. Prior to departing civil airports, file the Flight Plan with the nearest Flight Service Station (FSS) via telephonically or by use of aircraft communications if other means are not available using the format contained in FAA Form Flight plans transmitted to FSS telephonically may use the toll-free number 800 WXBRIEF ( ).

76 Flight Plan Filing (Continued)
In the event of a delay in excess of 30 minutes from the estimated departure time as filed on the flight plan, an amended or new flight plan should be submitted, whichever is applicable. Flight service stations can provide weather observations and forecasts (terminal and area), but military pilots must obtain their weather brief from military facilities (AR 95-1, Para 5-2 (7), page 32). While communicating with flight service, it is advisable to have available a copy of FAA Form to use as a reference while transmitting flight plan entries.

77 Flight Plan Filing (Continued) Sample FAA Form 7233-1 Flight Plan

78 Flight Plan Activation
When departing non-military airfields, the pilot must ensure that the actual departure time is passed to the TIE-IN FSS serving the departure field. The pilot can transmit the departure time through the tower or directly to the tie-in FSS. Flight service will then transmit the departure time to the flight operations facility at the destination, workload permitting. Standard UHF/VHF FSS frequencies are 255.4/122.2 respectively. If the departure time is not passed to the TIE-IN FSS, the aircraft will arrive unannounced at the destination and assistance in flight tracking for emergencies will not be available if required.

79 Check on Learning

80 Review of Topics Covered
Weather Briefing Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) Location Identifiers Departure Procedures En Route Procedures Arrival Procedures Flight Plan Preparation Flight Plan Activation


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