Presentation on theme: "Effective Utilization of Portable Hand-held Radios During an Emergency Portable Radio Fundamentals for the New York City OEM Office of Emergency Management."— Presentation transcript:
Effective Utilization of Portable Hand-held Radios During an Emergency Portable Radio Fundamentals for the New York City OEM Office of Emergency Management Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) Prepared by the NYC Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Service (NYC-ARECS)
Objectives: Develop a plan for CERT communications Identify radio features and controls Use correct radio operating procedures Procedural words, and standard ITU phonetics Use your portable radio more effectively during an emergency!
Planning Considerations Identify who needs to communicate with whom Discuss communication methods to be used for alerts and activation with team members Whatever method is selected, it should be Efficient and organized Available to all CERT members
Communicating During a Response CERT communications during emergencies: Intra -team during search & rescue operations Inter- team to communicate logistics, request assistance, and provide status reports Group Leaders to CERT Team Leader Team Leaders to the Incident Command Post
Intra-team search & rescue ops Radio use on searches requires caution One search team member maintains contact Relay resource requests or status reports from a safe, stationary position Maintain situational awareness Safety first
Setting Up Communications Use two-way radios for: Intra-team, among team members Inter-team coordination between teams Each team is assigned its own working channel or frequency for its operations
Setting Up Communications Section chiefs (Operations, Logistics, Planning, and Administration) should be assigned a separate channel to communicate with each other and with the CERT Team Leader Team Leader Communications with first responders are assigned a separate channel or frequency not used for operations
Sample Communications Plan
How do I USE a 2-way Radio? DIFFERENT MAKES and models of radios vary, so… READ the INSTRUCTIONS BECOME FAMILIAR with the controls on YOUR radio!
Portable Radio Anatomy Power On-Off, Switch Is combined with volume control on some models Or push-button on others First of all, make sure the radio is turned on
Portable Radio Anatomy Channel Selector (If your radio has one) Select your channel Develop a plan ahead ! Up-Down arrows Or a rotating knob
Portable Radio Anatomy Volume control Adjust the volume control until you can hear other users
Portable Radio Anatomy Squelch control Either a concentric ring under the Volume control Or a separate knob of its own Open until you hear white noise Close just until noise disappears
Portable Radio Anatomy Push-To-Talk (PTT) Switch PUSH to TALK Let go to LISTEN LISTEN more than you talk! If somebody seems in control of things, LISTEN to them!
Portable Radio Anatomy Speaker-Microphone To SPEAK, Push-To-Talk SPEAK in a NORMAL tone To LISTEN, Just LET GO LISTEN more than you talk!
Portable Radio Anatomy Batteries or Battery Pack Use AA or AAA alkaline Or a rechargeable pack If supplied with the radio Make sure the pack is charged Carry spare batteries!
Portable Radio Anatomy Antenna (flexible or telescoping) Extend fully Hold vertical (best reception) Replace or repair If visibly damaged
A 2-way radio is not Like a telephone... BECAUSE: You cant hear anyone if YOU are talking! So, no one else can speak when YOU talk! If EVERYONE talks, NOBODY understands! Which results in CHAOS %^~#&*! SO…
When Do You Speak? Speak ONLY if you have to Then KEEP IT SHORT The MOST important in using 2-way radio effectively is… LISTENING, Not TALKING! If someone seems in control of things, LISTEN to them!
What is a Controlled Net? Some one takes command to control / manage what is going on Radio users must call Control to get permission before calling anyone else Use a Controlled Net when more than four people are on the air
Why? I t enables Control (the person in charge) to: PRIORITIZE resource requests QUICKLY handle multiple situations RECORD w hat happens
WHO is Control? It could be ANYONE, even you!
CONTROLS JOB IS TO: MAINTAIN radio discipline by: Setting the example Prioritizing messages and requests Handling all radio traffic efficiently TRACK whats going on … Write down everything that happens... REPORT to the Team Leader or Incident Commander
You MUST write things down! Because you cant remember everything in your head Especially when it gets busy! Nor can you effectively brief the Incident Commander from memory Or accurately reconstruct what happened some time days later...
CONTROL LOG WRITE down names of officials for whom you send messages Make a log line entry for each item This is absolutely necessary In case person wanders off before you get a reply or you need to get more information Helps eliminate duplicate requests for the same resources or information
List in chronological order... Who has a problem or information Situation update / tasks assigned Problem identification and location Status of building search and evacuation Resources needed, available, assigned, out of service or in transition Personnel safety / accountability Brief Team Leader and Incident Commander Becomes part of official incident record
Your Job as a volunteer who is an occasional radio user PARTICIPATE in training exercises LEARN and use correct procedure LISTEN to the radio all the time PAY ATTENTION to instructions Be BRIEF when you talk on the radio
Participating in a Controlled Net Respond ONLY to Control Get permission before contacting anyone Answer PROMPTLY Monitor the radio continuously Answer immediately if called Dont leave the air without checking out! Otherwise, Control wastes time trying to call or locate you when you are not there
User Names - Unit IDs Identify yourself by your : LOCATION and ASSIGNMENT such as: Stairwell Ten, Evac Chair Enables Control to manage resources or tasks without regard to WHO is at any location, so events can be logged easily Use your Unit ID CONSISTENTLY Contact Control or others by THEIRS Listen for YOURS
Call Correctly: LISTEN! before transmitting Do not transmit over a contact in progress Contact Control by saying: THIS IS, Over. Control acknowledges GO AHEAD Then you can speak… Please keep it brief
To call someone else SAY the unit ID of the person you want to call, Then say THIS IS... Followed by Then say, OVER> Example: P2 Garage, this is P2 North Elevator, Over
Acknowledge Calls Correctly: When you hear a call to you reply: THIS IS followed by Then tell the unit calling you that it is OK to proceed with their message by saying: GO AHEAD THIS IS P2 GARAGE, GO AHEAD
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE Practice the ABCs: ACCURACY + BREVITY = CLARITY! Avoid idle chatter! Establish initial contact with Control by stating your unit ID only Wait for Control to recognize you before transmitting any further
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) THINK BEFORE you speak Keep transmissions short STOP transmitting if you stop talking Release Push-to-Talk, otherwise you make dead air so that no one else can speak DONT call repeatedly If Control doesnt answer you, wait for other traffic to finish before trying again If truly urgent, disregard
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) WAIT a few seconds before pushing to talk and between phrases so others can break in Its OK to interrupt, IF you have important info That's why you leave gaps between transmissions When necessary to interrupt, speak only long enough to IDENTIFY AND SAY WHY Example: Stairway Ten with info
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) Use PLAIN LANGUAGE ONLY No 10-codes or jargon ! Avoid technical terminology unless it is OPERATIONALLY NECESSARY! USE short simple phrases Short transmissions help the listener
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) CLARIFY REPEAT Critical Information CONFIRM correct
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) WAIT to be recognized before speaking Don't relay information that must be copied until certain that you have the other's attention ACKNOWLEDGE transmissions to you Control then knows you are ready to continue with your assignment, releasing the frequency This avoids having to repeat the message
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) Answer questions directly; do not explain If more information is vital to ensure that your information is fully understood, then be brief Let Control or the requestor ask for details ASK who a message is for if you don't know Let third parties speak directly to each other
RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) Wait a fraction of a second after pushing the talk button and before speaking This avoids clipping off first syllable as radio changes over from its receive state to transmit
Don't speak louder in a noisy environment If you speak louder than is needed for normal speech, the radio will distort your voice, reducing intelligibility
In Noisy Environments Preventive Steps: Use earphone or headset (if you have one) Turn down volume - dont add to noise level! Shield microphone from the wind Speak ACROSS the microphone Use a normal speaking voice
Use Procedural Words Correctly Prowords help expedite radio messages and reduce copying errors They are effective ONLY if everyone understands and uses them correctly
The Basic Four Everyone who uses a 2-way radio should learn and use these: THIS IS - U sed to identify who is calling "OVER" - MeansI have finished speaking and its now your turn GO AHEAD - Means Im ready to copy "OUT" - Means - I am finished and expect no reply The station who initiates the call always TERMINATES it
Proword Recap OVER - Leaves no doubt whose turn it is… OUT - Tells everyone the contact has ended Using Over and Out together is unnecessary, use either one, or the other.
Some More Prowords... "COPY" - Means OK, received and understood "AFFIRMATIVE "or "NEGATIVE" Use instead of "yes" or "no" because its sound is distinctive and meaning clear, even under noisy operating conditions. SAY AGAIN Used to request a word or phrase be repeated from the last known word preceding or referenced, for example: SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER…
More Prowords... CORRECTION - I made an error and am transmitting again from after the last correct word... CORRECT? - Am I C orrect? CORRECT (AFFIRMATIVE) - You are correct WAIT Cease transmission until told toGo Ahead by Control Example: Fourth floor acknowledged, WAIT,... Evac Chair make your call
Yes, more useful Prowords... But, thank goodness we are almost done! I SPELL - Copy as I spell phonetically FIGURE(S) - Copy numbers following INITIAL - Single letter follows MIXED GROUP - following Group contains both numbers and letters Speak SLOWLY and DISTINCTLY!
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Standard Phonetics A - Alpha J - JulietS - Sierra B - Bravo K - Kilo T - Tango C - CharlieL - LimaU - Uniform D - Delta M - MikeV - Victor E - Echo N - NovemberW - Whiskey F - FoxtrotO - Oscar X - Xray G - GolfP - Papa Y - Yankee H - Hotel Q - QuebecZ - Zulu I - India R - Romeo
Radio Services Citizens Band (CB) Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) Family Radio Service (FRS) General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) Amateur Radio Service (Ham Radio)
CB Radio 40 channels 10 watt maximum output 20 mile or better range No License Required Radios easily obtainable Widely used by truckers and others Channels may be cluttered
MURS 5 channels 2 watt maximum output 3-4 mile range No License Required External antennas permissible Channels may be cluttered
FRS and GMRS 16 frequencies (channels) 50 W max 5 mile range FCC license required. Valid for immediate family members 14 frequencies (channels) 500 mW (½ watt) max 1-2 mile range Unlicensed operation Licensed operation on channels 1-7 by any GMRS license holder at 5 watts max GMRS - General Mobile Radio Service FRS – Family Radio Service
Amateur (Ham) Radio Multiple bands and frequencies Most widely used bands for emergency communications are 2 meters (VHF) and 70 centimeters (UHF) License required 1500 watt maximum Range in excess of 100 miles with repeaters Existing emergency communications groups (ARECS/RACES/ACS/SEDAN/etc)
CERT Radio Communication Service most used by CERT will be FRS Use to coordinate within teams and with other teams Local ARES groups will assist with communications to EOC and other jurisdictions
Typical FRS Radios
Family Radio System (FRS) Radio Basics FRS Radio Features Antenna Do not pick up the radio by the antenna On/Off Volume Channel Select Interference Eliminator Codes (PL or CTCSS) Push to talk (PTT) Accessories
Channels to Use and NOT USE Channels 8-14 are FRS (Family Radio Service) channels and may be used by anyone without a license Channels are GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and may only be used by individuals who have paid for the $50.00 license Channels 1-7 are both FRS and GMRS and may be used by either with or without a license
Turning On/Off Your Radio If your radio has a knob on top, turn it clockwise to turn the radio ON. If your radio has a power button, push it and hold it in until the radio comes on. The radio will chirp and display all feature icons that your radio has available for a brief period. Volume Rotate the On/Off knob while holding the mon button until you reach a comfortable listening level. Rotate clockwise to increase and counterclockwise to decrease volume. Some radios use push buttons to adjust the volume up and down.
Channel Select With the radio on, press the menu button, the current channel will begin to flash. Use the +/- keys to change channel while the channel number is flashing. Press the PTT button to set the new channel The channel to be used during an emergency incident will either be assigned by a net control station or by your CERT leader
Interference Eliminator Codes Are not a separate frequency Put a sub-audible tone on the transmission Only transmissions with the selected tone can be heard The same code number is not necessarily the same tone on different makes and models The mon button overrides this and allows you to hear everything on the channel Not all FRS radios are code capable
Push to Talk (PTT) Switch To SPEAK, press the Push-To-Talk (PTT) button SPEAK in a NORMAL tone To LISTEN, LET GO of the PTT LISTEN more than you talk! Wait a second between pushing the PTT button and speaking Gives the radio time to change over from its receive state to transmit Avoids clipping off first syllable Make sure the PTT doesn t get pushed accidentally
Accessories Headset or earbud Speaker / mike Rechargeable batteries Belt case Others?
Communication Basics Role of the Communicator Tactical Call Signs Talking on the radio Noisy Environments Controlled Nets
Role of the communicator Your role as an emergency communicator is to: Be a set of eyes on the ground during an incident Relay information between official personnel in connection with an incident Be a trained emergency resource at an incident Be part of a team of emergency communicators working to assist first responders during an incident Remember; as the communicator, you are not the decision maker. You relay information to and from the leader.
Tactical Call Signs Identify yourself by your : LOCATION and ASSIGNMENT such as: Fir Grove CERT Logistics (this is your Tactical Call Sign) This enables Net Control to manage resources by POSITION, rather than by each person s NAME Use your Tactical Call Sign CONSISTENTLY Contact Net Control or others by THEIRS Listen for YOURS Tell your successor what tactical call sign you have been using
When Do You Speak? Speak ONLY if you must, then KEEP IT SHORT The MOST important thing in using 2-way radio effectively is … LISTENING, not talking! If someone seems in control of things,LISTEN to them!
Call Someone LISTEN! before transmitting Do not interfere with radio traffic in progress SAY the Tactical Call Sign of the person you want to call, Then say THIS IS Followed by your tactical call sign Then say, OVER Example: CERT Logistics, this is CERT Operations, over
Acknowledge Calls Say the Tactical Call Sign of the person calling you Then say THIS IS Followed by your Tactical Call Sign Then signal them to proceed with their message by saying: GO AHEAD CERT Operations this is CERT Logistics, go ahead If you are busy say STAND BY or WAIT CERT Search and Rescue, stand by Dont forget to return to the station and talk to them.
During a Conversation COPY Means message received and understood. Some people use ROGER instead. Does not mean yes. AFFIRMATIVE or NEGATIVE Use instead of "yes" or "no" Ensures meaning is clear, even under noisy operating conditions. SAY AGAIN Used to request a repeat from the last known word Example: SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER …
Spelling Words I SPELL - Copy as I spell phonetically FIGURE(S) - Copy numbers following INITIAL - Single letter follows MIXED GROUP - following Group containing both numbers and letters Speak SLOWLY and DISTINCTLY!
Correcting Mistakes CORRECTION - I made an error and am transmitting again from the last correct word... CORRECT? - Am I C orrect? CORRECT - You are correct.
Terminating a Contact When you have said all you intend to say, use the word OUT instead of over. This tells the other party you are finished and expect no reply. Dont use over and out together. Use one or the other. The person who initiates the contact should usually terminate it. CERT Operations out
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Standard Phonetic Alphabet A - AlphaJ - JulietS - Sierra B - BravoK - KiloT - Tango C - CharlieL - LimaU - Uniform D - DeltaM - MikeV - Victor E - EchoN - NovemberW - Whiskey F - FoxtrotO - OscarX - Xray G - GolfP - PapaY - Yankee H - HotelQ - QuebecZ - Zulu I - IndiaR - Romeo
Do not Speak Louder In A Noisy Environment If you speak louder than is needed for normal speech, the radio will distort your voice and reduce intelligibility.
In Noisy Environments Preventive Steps: Use earphone or headset Also saves battery power Turn down volume Don t add to the noise level! Shield microphone from the wind Speak ACROSS the microphone Use a normal speaking voice
Its NOT just like a telephone You cant hear anyone if YOU are talking! No one else can speak when YOU talk! If EVERYONE talks, NOBODY listens! Everybody hears EVERYTHING anybody says Which results in CHAOS (%^~#&*!) SO…
What is a Controlled Net? Someone – Net Control - takes command to control/manage the flow of communications Radio users must call Net Control to get clearance before calling anyone else. Use a Controlled Net when more than four people are on the air
Why Use A Controlled Net? I t enables Net Control to: PRIORITIZE resource requests QUICKLY and EFFECTIVELY handle multiple situations RECORD w hat happens
Participating in a Controlled Net Respond ONLY to Net Control Get clearance before contacting anyone Move to another channel/frequency if requested by Net Control Answer PROMPTLY Monitor the radio continuously Answer immediately if called ACKNOWLEDGE transmissions to you This avoids having to repeat the message. Net Control then knows you are ready to continue with your assignment, releasing the frequency Don t go off the air without checking out! Otherwise, Net Control wastes time trying to call or locate you when you are not there
Participating in a Controlled Net Wait for Net Control to recognize you before transmitting any further If you speak further without being recognized, you may double with (talk over the top of) someone, who then must repeat their message DON T call repeatedly If Net Control doesn t answer you, wait for pending traffic to finish before trying again If truly urgent, interrupt by saying break Wait for Net Control to terminate the current conversation and acknowledge the break