Presentation on theme: "Portable Radio Fundamentals"— Presentation transcript:
1 Portable Radio Fundamentals Effective Utilization of Portable Hand-held Radios During an EmergencyPrepared by the NYC Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Service (NYC-ARECS)for the New York City OEMOffice of Emergency ManagementCommunity Emergency Response Team (CERT)
2 Objectives: Develop a plan for CERT communications Identify radio features and controlsUse correct radio operating proceduresProcedural words, and standard ITU phoneticsUse your portable radio more effectively during an emergency!
3 Planning Considerations Identify who needs to communicate with whomDiscuss communication methods to be used for alerts and activation with team membersWhatever method is selected, it should beEfficient and organizedAvailable to all CERT members
4 Communicating During a Response CERT communications during emergencies:Intra-team during search & rescue operationsInter-team to communicate logistics, request assistance, and provide status reportsGroup Leaders to CERT Team LeaderTeam Leaders to the Incident Command Post
5 Intra-team search & rescue ops Radio use on searches requires cautionOne search team member maintains contactRelay resource requests or status reports from a safe, stationary positionMaintain situational awarenessSafety first
6 Setting Up Communications Use two-way radios for:Intra-team, among team membersInter-team coordination between teamsEach team is assigned its own “working” channel or frequency for its operations
7 Setting Up Communications Section chiefs (Operations, Logistics, Planning, and Administration) should be assigned a separate channel to communicate with each other and with the CERT Team LeaderTeam Leader Communications with first responders are assigned a separate channel or frequency not used for operations
9 How do I USE a 2-way Radio?DIFFERENT MAKES and models of radios vary, so…READ the INSTRUCTIONSBECOME FAMILIAR with the controls on YOUR radio!
10 Portable Radio “Anatomy” Power On-Off, SwitchIs combined with volume control on some modelsOr “push-button on othersFirst of all, make sure the radio is “turned on”
11 Portable Radio “Anatomy” Channel Selector(If your radio has one)Select your “channel”Develop a plan ahead !“Up-Down” arrowsOr a rotating “knob”
12 Portable Radio “Anatomy” Volume controlAdjust the volume control until you can “hear” other users
13 Portable Radio “Anatomy” “Squelch” controlEither a concentric ringunder the Volume controlOr a separate knob of its own“Open” until you hear “white noise”“Close” just until noise disappears
14 Portable Radio “Anatomy” “Push-To-Talk”(PTT) SwitchPUSH to TALKLet go to LISTENLISTEN more than you talk!If somebody seems in control of things, LISTEN to them!
15 Portable Radio “Anatomy” Speaker-MicrophoneTo SPEAK, Push-To-TalkSPEAK in a NORMAL toneTo LISTEN, Just LET GOLISTEN more than you talk!
16 Portable Radio “Anatomy” Batteries orBattery PackUse AA or AAA alkalineOr a rechargeable packIf supplied with the radioMake sure the pack is chargedCarry spare batteries!
17 Portable Radio “Anatomy” Antenna (flexible or telescoping)Extend fullyHold vertical (best reception)Replace or repairIf visibly damaged
18 A 2-way radio is not “Like a telephone...” BECAUSE:You can’t hear anyone if YOU are talking!So, no one else can speak when YOU talk!If EVERYONE talks, NOBODY understands!Which results in CHAOS %^~#&*!SO…
19 When Do You Speak? Speak ONLY if you have to Then KEEP IT SHORTThe MOST important in using way radio effectively is…LISTENING, Not TALKING!If someone seems in control of things, LISTEN to them!
20 What is a “Controlled Net?” Some one “takes command” to control / manage what is going onRadio users must call “Control” to get permission before calling anyone elseUse a Controlled Net when more than four people are “on the air”
21 (the person in charge) to: Why?It enables “Control”(the person in charge) to:PRIORITIZE resource requestsQUICKLY handle multiple situationsRECORD what happens
22 It could be ANYONE, even you! WHO is “Control?”It could be ANYONE, even you!
23 MAINTAIN radio discipline by: “CONTROL’S” JOB IS TO:MAINTAIN radio discipline by:Setting the examplePrioritizing messages and requestsHandling all radio traffic efficientlyTRACK what’s going on…Write down everything that happens...REPORT to the Team Leader or Incident Commander
24 You MUST write things down! Because you can’t remember everything in your headEspecially when it gets busy!Nor can you effectively brief the Incident Commander from memoryOr accurately reconstruct what happened some time days later...
25 “CONTROL” LOG WRITE down names of officials for whom you send messages Make a log line entry for each itemThis is absolutely necessaryIn case person wanders off before you get a reply or you need to get more informationHelps eliminate duplicate requests for the same resources or information
26 List in chronological order... Who has a problem or informationSituation update / tasks assignedProblem identification and locationStatus of building search and evacuationResources needed, available, assigned, out of service or in transitionPersonnel safety / accountabilityBrief Team Leader and Incident CommanderBecomes part of official incident record
27 Your “Job” as a volunteer who is an occasional radio user PARTICIPATE in training exercisesLEARN and use correct procedureLISTEN to the radio all the timePAY ATTENTION to instructionsBe BRIEF when you talk on the radio
28 Participating in a Controlled “Net” Respond ONLY to “Control”Get permission before contacting anyoneAnswer PROMPTLYMonitor the radio continuouslyAnswer immediately if calledDon’t leave the “air” without checking out!Otherwise, “Control” wastes time trying to call or locate you when you are not there
29 Identify yourself by your : User Names - “Unit IDs”Identify yourself by your :LOCATION and ASSIGNMENT such as: “Stairwell Ten, Evac Chair”Enables “Control” to manage resources or tasks without regard to WHO is at any location, so events can be logged easilyUse your Unit ID CONSISTENTLYContact “Control” or others by THEIRSListen for YOURS
30 LISTEN! before transmitting Call Correctly:LISTEN! before transmittingDo not transmit over a contact in progressContact “Control” by saying:“THIS IS <your unit ID>, Over.”Control acknowledges“<your ID> GO AHEAD”Then you can speak… Please keep it brief
31 Example: “P2 Garage, this is P2 North Elevator, Over” To call someone elseSAY the unit ID of the person you want to call,Then say ‘THIS IS’ . . .Followed by “<your ID>Then say, “OVER>”Example: “P2 Garage, this is P2 North Elevator, Over”
32 Acknowledge Calls Correctly: When you hear a call to you reply:“THIS IS” followed by “<your ID>”Then tell the unit calling you that it is OK to proceed with their message by saying:‘GO AHEAD’“THIS IS P2 GARAGE, GO AHEAD”
33 Establish initial contact with ‘Control’ by stating your unit ID only RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE Practice the ABCs: “ACCURACY + BREVITY = CLARITY!”Avoid idle chatter!Establish initial contact with ‘Control’ by stating your unit ID onlyWait for ‘Control’ to recognize you before transmitting any further
34 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) THINK BEFORE you speakKeep transmissions shortSTOP transmitting if you stop talkingRelease Push-to-Talk, otherwise you make “dead air” so that no one else can speakDON’T call repeatedlyIf Control doesn’t answer you, wait for other traffic to finish before trying againIf truly urgent, disregard
35 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) WAIT a few seconds before pushing to “talk” and between phrases so others can break inIt’s OK to interrupt, IF you have important infoThat's why you leave gaps between transmissionsWhen necessary to interrupt, speak only long enough to “IDENTIFY AND SAY WHY”Example: “Stairway Ten with info”
36 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) Use PLAIN LANGUAGE ONLYNo 10-codes or jargon !Avoid technical terminology unless it is OPERATIONALLY NECESSARY!USE short simple phrasesShort transmissions help the listener
37 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) CLARIFYREPEAT Critical InformationCONFIRM correct
38 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) WAIT to be recognized before speakingDon't relay information that must be copied until certain that you have the other's attentionACKNOWLEDGE transmissions to you‘Control’ then knows you are ready to continue with your assignment, releasing the frequencyThis avoids having to repeat the message
39 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) Answer questions directly; do not explainIf more information is vital to ensure that your information is fully understood, then be briefLet ‘Control’ or the requestor ask for detailsASK who a message is for if you don't knowLet third parties speak directly to each other
40 RADIO OPERATING PRACTICE (continued) Wait a fraction of a second after pushing the “talk” button and before speakingThis avoids “clipping” off first syllable as radio changes over from its receive state to transmit
41 Don't speak louder in a noisy environment If you speak louder than is needed for normal speech, the radio will distort your voice, reducing intelligibility
42 Use earphone or headset (if you have one) In Noisy EnvironmentsPreventive Steps:Use earphone or headset (if you have one)Turn down volume - don’t add to noise level!Shield microphone from the windSpeak ACROSS the microphoneUse a normal speaking voice
43 Use Procedural Words Correctly “Prowords” help expedite radio messages and reduce copying errorsThey are effective ONLY if everyone understands and uses them correctly
44 The “Basic Four” Everyone who uses a 2-way radio should learn and use these: “THIS IS” - Used to identify who is calling"OVER" - Means “I have finished speaking and it’s now your turn”“GO AHEAD” - Means “I’m ready to copy”"OUT" - Means - “I am finished and expect no reply’The station who initiates the call always TERMINATES it
45 Proword Recap “OVER” “OUT” - Tells everyone the contact has ended - Leaves no doubt whose turn it is…“OUT”- Tells everyone the contact has endedUsing “Over and Out” together is unnecessary,use either one, or the other.
46 Some More Prowords... "COPY" - Means OK, received and understood "AFFIRMATIVE"or "NEGATIVE" Use instead of "yes" or "no" because its sound is distinctive and meaning clear, even under noisy operating conditions.“SAY AGAIN” Used to request a word or phrase be repeated from the last known word preceding or referenced, for example:‘SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER…<known word>’
47 More Prowords...“CORRECTION” - I made an error and am transmitting again from after the last correct word...“CORRECT?” - Am I Correct?“CORRECT (AFFIRMATIVE)”- You are correct“WAIT”Cease transmission until told to“Go Ahead” by ‘Control’Example: “Fourth floor acknowledged, WAIT,... Evac Chair make your call”
48 Yes, more useful Prowords... But, thank goodness we are almost done! “I SPELL” - Copy as I spell phonetically“FIGURE(S)” - Copy numbers following“INITIAL” - Single letter follows“MIXED GROUP” - following Group contains both numbers and lettersSpeak SLOWLY and DISTINCTLY!
49 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Standard Phonetics A - Alpha J - Juliet S - Sierra B - Bravo K - Kilo T - Tango C - Charlie L - Lima U - Uniform D - Delta M - Mike V - Victor E - Echo N - November W - Whiskey F - Foxtrot O - Oscar X - Xray G - Golf P - Papa Y - Yankee H - Hotel Q - Quebec Z - Zulu I - India R - Romeo
50 Radio Services Citizen’s Band (CB) Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) Family Radio Service (FRS)General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS)Amateur Radio Service (“Ham Radio”)
51 CB Radio 40 channels 10 watt maximum output 20 mile or better range No License RequiredRadios easily obtainableWidely used by truckers and othersChannels may be cluttered
52 MURS 5 channels 2 watt maximum output 3-4 mile range No License RequiredExternal antennas permissibleChannels may be cluttered
53 FRS and GMRS GMRS - General Mobile Radio Service FRS – Family Radio Service14 frequencies (channels)500 mW (½ watt) max1-2 mile rangeUnlicensed operationLicensed operation on channels 1-7 by any GMRS license holder at 5 watts max16 frequencies (channels)50 W max5 mile rangeFCC license required. Valid for immediate family members
54 Amateur (Ham) Radio Multiple bands and frequencies Most widely used bands for emergency communications are 2 meters (VHF) and 70 centimeters (UHF)License required1500 watt maximumRange in excess of 100 miles with repeatersExisting emergency communications groups (ARECS/RACES/ACS/SEDAN/etc)
55 CERT Radio Communication Service most used by CERT will be FRSUse to coordinate within teams and with other teamsLocal ARES groups will assist with communications to EOC and other jurisdictions
57 Family Radio System (FRS) Radio Basics FRS Radio FeaturesAntennaDo not pick up the radio by the antennaOn/OffVolumeChannel SelectInterference Eliminator Codes (PL or CTCSS)Push to talk (PTT)Accessories
58 Channels to Use and NOT USE Channels 8-14 are FRS (Family Radio Service) channels and may be used by anyone without a licenseChannels are GMRS (General Mobile Radio Service) and may only be used by “individuals” who have paid for the $50.00 licenseChannels 1-7 are both FRS and GMRS and may be used by either with or without a license
59 Turning On/Off Your Radio If your radio has a knob on top, turn it clockwise to turn the radio ON. If your radio has a power button, push it and hold it in until the radio comes on. The radio will chirp and display all feature icons that your radio has available for a brief period.VolumeRotate the On/Off knob while holding the “mon” button until you reach a comfortable listening level. Rotate clockwise to increase and counterclockwise to decrease volume. Some radios use push buttons to adjust the volume up and down.
60 Channel SelectWith the radio on, press the menu button, the current channel will begin to flash.Use the +/- keys to change channel while the channel number is flashing.Press the PTT button to set the new channelThe channel to be used during an emergency incident will either be assigned by a net control station or by your CERT leader
61 Interference Eliminator Codes Are not a separate frequencyPut a sub-audible tone on the transmissionOnly transmissions with the selected tone can be heardThe same code number is not necessarily the same tone on different makes and modelsThe “mon” button overrides this and allows you to hear everything on the channelNot all FRS radios are code capable
62 Push to Talk (PTT) Switch To SPEAK, press the Push-To-Talk (PTT) buttonSPEAK in a NORMAL toneTo LISTEN, LET GO of the PTTLISTEN more than you talk!Wait a second between pushing the PTT button and speakingGives the radio time to change over from its receive state to transmitAvoids “clipping” off first syllableMake sure the PTT doesn’t get pushed accidentally
63 Accessories Headset or earbud Speaker / mike Rechargeable batteries Belt caseOthers?
65 Communication Basics Role of the Communicator Tactical Call Signs Talking on the radioNoisy EnvironmentsControlled Nets
66 Role of the communicator Your role as an emergency communicator is to:Be a set of eyes on the ground during an incidentRelay information between official personnel in connection with an incidentBe a trained emergency resource at an incidentBe part of a team of emergency communicators working to assist first responders during an incidentRemember; as the communicator, you are not the decision maker. You relay information to and from the leader.
67 Tactical Call Signs Identify yourself by your: LOCATION and ASSIGNMENT such as: “Fir Grove CERT Logistics” (this is your Tactical Call Sign)This enables Net Control to manage resources by POSITION, rather than by each person’s NAMEUse your Tactical Call Sign CONSISTENTLYContact Net Control or others by THEIRSListen for YOURSTell your successor what tactical call sign you have been using
68 When Do You Speak? KEEP IT SHORT LISTENING, not talking! Speak ONLY if you must, thenKEEP IT SHORTThe MOST important thing in using 2-way radio effectively is…LISTENING, not talking!If someone seems in control of things, LISTEN to them!
69 Call SomeoneLISTEN! before transmittingDo not interfere with radio traffic in progressSAY the Tactical Call Sign of the person you want to call,Then say “THIS IS”Followed by your tactical call signThen say, “OVER”Example: “CERT Logistics, this is CERT Operations, over”
70 Acknowledge Calls Say the Tactical Call Sign of the person calling you Then say “THIS IS”Followed by your Tactical Call SignThen signal them to proceed with their message by saying: “GO AHEAD”“CERT Operations this is CERT Logistics, go ahead”If you are busy say “STAND BY” or “WAIT”“CERT Search and Rescue, stand by”Don’t forget to return to the station and talk to them.
71 During a Conversation “COPY“ “AFFIRMATIVE“ or “NEGATIVE“ “SAY AGAIN” Means message received and understood.Some people use “ROGER” instead.Does not mean yes.“AFFIRMATIVE“ or “NEGATIVE“Use instead of "yes" or "no"Ensures meaning is clear, even under noisy operating conditions.“SAY AGAIN”Used to request a repeat from the last known wordExample: ‘SAY AGAIN ALL AFTER…<known word>’
72 Spelling Words “FIGURE(S)” - Copy numbers following “I SPELL” - Copy as I spell phonetically“FIGURE(S)” - Copy numbers following“INITIAL” - Single letter follows“MIXED GROUP” - following Group containing both numbers and lettersSpeak SLOWLY and DISTINCTLY!
73 Correcting Mistakes“CORRECTION” - I made an error and am transmitting again from the last correct word...“CORRECT?” - Am I Correct?“CORRECT”- You are correct.
74 Terminating a ContactWhen you have said all you intend to say, use the word “OUT” instead of “over”.This tells the other party you are finished and expect no reply.Don’t use “over” and “out” together. Use one or the other.The person who initiates the contact should usually terminate it.“CERT Operations out”
75 International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Standard Phonetic Alphabet A - Alpha J - Juliet S - Sierra B - Bravo K - Kilo T - Tango C - Charlie L - Lima U - Uniform D - Delta M - Mike V - Victor E - Echo N - November W - Whiskey F - Foxtrot O - Oscar X - Xray G - Golf P - Papa Y - Yankee H - Hotel Q - Quebec Z - Zulu I - India R - Romeo
76 Do not Speak Louder In A Noisy Environment If you speak louder than is needed for normal speech, the radio will distort your voice and reduce intelligibility.
77 In Noisy Environments Preventive Steps: Use earphone or headset Also saves battery powerTurn down volumeDon’t add to the noise level!Shield microphone from the windSpeak ACROSS the microphoneUse a normal speaking voice
78 It’s NOT “just like a telephone” You can’t hear anyone if YOU are talking!No one else can speak when YOU talk!If EVERYONE talks, NOBODY listens!Everybody hears EVERYTHING anybody saysWhich results in CHAOS (%^~#&*!)SO…
79 What is a “Controlled Net?” Someone – “Net Control” - takes command to control/manage the flow of communicationsRadio users must call Net Control to get clearance before calling anyone else.Use a Controlled Net when more than four people are “on the air”
80 Why Use A Controlled Net? It enables Net Control to:PRIORITIZE resource requestsQUICKLY and EFFECTIVELY handle multiple situationsRECORD what happens
81 Participating in a Controlled Net Respond ONLY to Net ControlGet clearance before contacting anyoneMove to another channel/frequency if requested by Net ControlAnswer PROMPTLYMonitor the radio continuouslyAnswer immediately if calledACKNOWLEDGE transmissions to youThis avoids having to repeat the message.Net Control then knows you are ready to continue with your assignment, releasing the frequencyDon’t go “off the air” without checking out!Otherwise, Net Control wastes time trying to call or locate you when you are not there
82 Participating in a Controlled Net Wait for Net Control to recognize you before transmitting any furtherIf you speak further without being recognized, you may “double” with (talk over the top of) someone, who then must repeat their messageDON’T call repeatedlyIf Net Control doesn’t answer you, wait for pending traffic to finish before trying againIf truly urgent, interrupt by saying “break”Wait for Net Control to terminate the current conversation and acknowledge the “break”