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Presentation on theme: " 1 Recognition of Credits - Achievements and Problems / Challenges A Stocktaking Exercise Bologna Conference Riga Dec.3-5."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Recognition of Credits - Achievements and Problems / Challenges A Stocktaking Exercise Bologna Conference Riga Dec.3-5 / 2004

2 Achievements How can achievements be measured? One proposal Critical Success Factors Critical Success Factors Suitability – fit for purpose Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Feasibility – fit to live Sustainability – fit for life

3 3 CSF 1 Suitability – fit for purpose?

4 Suitability – fit for purpose 11 Credits document the achievement of learning objectives - expressed as learning outcomes – by the learner 12 Allocated credits to a learning module highlight the expected notional workload necessary to be invested by the learner Common denominators Workload and Outcome Achieved?

5 Suitability – fit for purpose The development of ECTS from a transfer to a transfer and accumulation system and the linkage of learning outcomes with credits have made it possible 11/12 ECTS = fit for purpose

6 Suitability – fit for purpose 13 A credit system has to support the Bologna objective of Employability Achieved?

7 Learning Chain Learnig outcomes Subject related -Knowledge broadening -Knowledge deepening Generic -Knowledge accessing Learners Selection (accumulates credits) Learning space (Teaching and learning, Research Learning material, Learning methods...) Change of paradigm Total Quality Management Labour Market

8 Indicators Information process EmployabilityLearning Space -wherever- Information Pack. Trainability/ Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Credit Transfer / Accumulation Profile Level Modularisation Learning Outcomes Workload Individual Selection Performance Credits Grade Descriptors

9 Indicators Information process EmployabilityInformation Package Trainability/ Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Transfer / Accumulation Tuning Dublin Descriptors Structure of a Module Learning Outcomes: Subj. rel. /non subj. rel. Knowledge widening Knowledge deepening Knowledge accessing Instrumental Interpersonal systemic Workload -Effectiveness - Efficiency Individual Selection Interview Portfolio u.a. Performance Credits 5 Grade Local Ranking Qualifications- framework LLL 6x4

10 Suitability – fit for purpose With its instruments to communicate transparency, i.e. Information Package / Course Catalogue Learning Agreement Transcript of Records Diploma Supplement, its linkage with learning outcomes 13 ECTS definitely supports employability

11 Suitability – fit for purpose 14 A credit system is not only for university learning but has to cover all areas of learning Formal Non-formal Informal That is for all forms of education and training Achieved?

12 Suitability – fit for purpose ECTS – ECVET APL APEL Joint Action – Projects, TELL ELITE´LLL University Lyon = Work in progress

13 Suitability – fit for purpose One credit system for all forms of learning: 14 A challenge for ECTS

14 14 CSF 2 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders?

15 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? A credit system has to respect the perspectives of – customers Learners Teaching and training staff Employers –And also stakeholders in a wider sense, such as Parents Governments (education, training, finance…ministries – issue of governance: Whom should ECTS serve / How should purposes be determined) Social partners Society

16 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? Criteria are the expected performance outcome and may be expressed as return, risk, stakeholder reaction Achieved?

17 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders 21 Return The learner receives a number of credits Credits reflect a value expressed as learning outcomes, i.e. competences the learner has acquired Credits identify the notional time necessary to invest (workload) The return: Qualified Learning Outcomes quantified by credits 21 ECTS is working

18 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders 22 Risk Recognition of credits achieved –Identical number of credits –Different number of credits Explanation –Responsibility of the institution which allocates credits for an incoming learner –Difference between absolute and relative credits (compare with purchasing power of the Euro in Euroland) The risk: –Expectations of applying learners may not be met 22 ECTS is working

19 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Whom does ECTS serve? 23 Stakeholder reaction (mapping): –To identify stakeholder expectations and power Interest Power LowHigh LowMinimal effort Parents Keep informed Employers / Learners Teachers / Trainers HighKeep satisfied Finance ministries Social partners Administration Key players Accreditation Agencies Quality Assurance Bologna Process (QFW)

20 Acceptability – fit for stakeholders Since the development from a transfer to an accumulation system: –Increase of interest in the return –Increase of understanding the philosophy, accepting the risk –Interest in getting involved – stakeholder mapping 2 ECTS is acceptable = fit for stakeholders

21 21 CSF 3 Feasibility - fit to live

22 Feasibility – fit to live Is the only credit system which has been tested European-wide Feasibility Study revealed the possibility to develop the ECTS Transfer System, tested since 1989, into an accumulation system CSF 3 Feasibiltiy – fit to live = Achieved Guarantors : European Quality Assurance System (Evaluation / Accreditation) European Qualification Framework based on learning outcomes and credits

23 23 CSF 4 Sustainability – fit for life

24 Sustainability – fit for life Bologna-Euro (currency) for education and training Essential basic elements Based on trust Generally accepted Works as unit of account Respects convertibility Enables recognition Represents value Is Convertible Is compatible (common reference)

25 Sustainability – fit for life Challenges Merge ECTS and ECVET Design a European Qualification Framework in which the levels are described by learning outcomes which can be achieved with an identified notional workload expressed in credits Understand the concept of purchasing power of credits

26 Purchasing Chain Where ?/ How? Work Learning -formal -non-formal -informal Outcome/ Can do: Purchasing Power Buy Transfer of credits Who?/What? Individuum accumulates Income Saves credits Transformation Process-TQM Currency Perspective Shift of Paradigm

27 Sustainability – fit for life The Credit Chameleon You achieved level B2 of the Language Competence Framework Let´s assume for this achievement 900 hours were deemed to be the notional workload According to the Key Features this would be translated into 30 credits

28 Sustainability – fit for life Do 30 credits count towards the 180 (let´s assume a 3-year BA-programme)? May they count less? May they count more? May they count exactly 30 at all? Lesson learned: Credits can have an absolute and a relative value They always become relative when they are being put into a programme Learning outcomes have to be identified precisely and concisely Credits have a purchasing power

29 Sustainability – fit for life Challenge Can all subject and generic skills be measured in absolute terms? Tuning Experts Groups of all stakeholders Does this lead to standardised study- programmes in certain subject areas? Possible, but better not Better: standardisation of learning outcomes in a given subject area - if the stakeholders think so

30 Sustainability – fit for life What can you do with the credits received? Basically: Spend or Save Spending To cover immediate needs Swapping for a paper qualification (to be able to apply for a specific job e.g.) Saving To accumulate with A specific intention to barter the credits later for something huge, e.g. a degree No specific intention yet For the fun of it Actions taken Transfer to your learning account

31 Sustainability – fit for life A currency/credit system therefore is the key requirement of life-long- learning concepts Geared towards Learners Values Competences Employability

32 Conclusion ECTS as a transfer and accumulation system is unintentionally basically designed as a currency system All aspects related to a currency system are therefore valid for ECTS as well This relates e.g. to issues such as –purchasing power of the outcomes –Conversion of achievements at institutional, national and international level –Fluctuations of values –Formal, non-formal and informal achievements

33 Indicators / Transparency Information process Employability Information Package Trainability/ Learning Agreement Award / Diploma Supplement Transcript of Records Transfer / Accumulation Bologna Priorities 2005 Quality Assurance Academic Recognition Qualifications framework Bachelor Master Doctorate Credit Transfer Credit Accumulation Product Processes Structure Qualified Learning Outcomes quantified by credits as currency

34 Conclusion As with any currency the basic element today is Trust How to achieve this for ECTS? –Like in the monetary union: stability criteria –Which means for education and training: Transparency Quality (Structure / Process / Product) Supported by tuned educational structures (see Tuning Project, Joint Quality Initiative, etc.)

35 Conclusion The challenges for Bologna 2007 –Design one currency: EC(T)S or ECET (European credit in education and training)

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