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Stanford University Stanford Historical Society A BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMA John Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus.

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Presentation on theme: "Stanford University Stanford Historical Society A BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMA John Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Stanford University Stanford Historical Society A BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMA John Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus May 15 The Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics CCRMA The Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics --known as kar-ma-- was founded in 1975, based on multi-disciplinary sound and music related research begun in 1964 at Stanford’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory directed by John McCarthy and Les Earnest. The Computer Music Project, as it was then known, grew from my interest in programming computers for sound synthesis, as described by Max Mathews in an article published in Science The project received no support other than limited access to the A.I. Lab’s computer. In this presentation I will describe how this work came to be, some of the highlights of the decade before CCRMA, and how CCRMA became an internationally recognized multi-disciplinary center. I will conclude with a profile of where CCRMA is today. ►

2 Stanford Symphony Orchestra 1964
JC Joan Mansour BRASSES TRUMPETS TROMBONES TUBA TYMPANI PERCUSSION HORNS WOODWINDS A fellow musician in the Stanford Symphony Orchestra, Joan Mansour, a biologist by training, gave me Mathews’ article in January 1964. I was the timpanist.►►► Joan was a percussionist► We’d had many conversations during the many rests that percussionists wait through in symphonic music and she remembered my having expressed an interest in music that is created for loudspeakers. I had never read Science before, I was a composer, I read about and studied music, so having Mathews’ article in hand, given to me by this thoughtful colleague, was a bit of serendipity that changed my life, as well as the lives of many others. ► STRINGS STRINGS Sandor Salgo CONDUCTOR © J. Chowning

3 Joan Mansour & Max Mathews meet for the 1st time 2007 43 years later
I had come to Stanford in 1962 as a graduate student in music composition after three years studying in Paris where music composed for loudspeakers was often a part of new music concerts. Since childhood I have been fascinated with echoes and cavernous spaces--and the idea of composing music where imagined spaces could be created and sounds could be composed to move freely through those spaces was compelling. Mathews’ article suggested a means. ► © J. Chowning

4 Max Mathews, to whom we owe much,1926 - 2011
Max standing next to IBM 7094 (BTL) Max Mathews, to whom we owe much, ► Max Mathews was a prominent research engineer/scientist at Bell Telephone Labs. ► In 1957 Max Mathews had created a wholly new means of making music. With the support of John Pierce, who was director of research at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Mathews created out of numbers and code the first sounds to be produced by a digital computer. In November 1963 he introduced his work to the public in the now famous article. ► John chowning

5 “There are no theoretical limitations to the performance of the computer as a source of musical sounds, in contrast to the performance of ordinary instruments.” Mathews, M.V., “The Digital Computer as a Musical Instrument,” Science, Vol. 142, No. 3592, , 1963. ►This is the article that Joan Mansour gave to me two months later— At the time I read Max’s article I was completely naïve in regard to physical acoustics and the engineering sciences—in fact I had never even seen a computer. I had no knowledge of circuits and did not know how to solder, but, I did understand the implication of Mathews’ striking statement► “There are no theoretical limitations to the performance of the computer as a source of musical sounds, in contrast to the performance of ordinary instruments.” --- this sentence got my attention. ► John chowning

6 I would not have to learn to solder But, I had to learn to program!
Max Mathews’ sound synthesis program–Music IV DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER COMPUTER DAC LOUDSPEAKER In the Summer of 1964 on a visit to BTL, Max gave me the program and its compiler in a box and said forcefully “DON’T DROP THE CARDS!” Compared to electronic music studios of the time, with circuit boards, test equipment, wires and patch cords, I would not have to learn to solder But, I had to learn to program! The computer was the perfect complement to the loudspeaker ►1 — with Max’s program it was the means to realize my goal. Based upon the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem, the computer ►2 generates a sound wave in digital form, ►3 which is converted into a continuous electrical signal ►4 by a digital to analog converter ►5 ►6 ►7 Compared to electronic music studios of the time, ►8 with circuit boards, test equipment, wires and patch cords, this ►9 ►10 was a conceptually simple system having three well-defined stages and pieces of machinery whose circuitry was fixed. ►11 the computer, ►12 the DAC, and ►13 the loudspeaker. AND ►14 I would not have to learn to solder! ►15 But I did have to learn to program a computer. I spoke to Leland Smith, my composition-theory professor, of my plan to follow this path. He encouraged me, as did Professor Bill Miller who guided me in the study of acoustics. ►16 In the summer of 1964 I visited Max at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ. He explained to me what I would have to do in order to run his program at Stanford and gave me the program and its compiler in the form of a box of punched cards—with the stern warning ►17 “DON’T DROP THE CARDS!” this was a conceptually simple system having three well-defined stages and pieces of machinery. © J. Chowning

7 Stanford Symphony Orchestra 1964
David Poole JC Joan Mansour BRASSES TRUMPETS TROMBONES TUBA TYMPANI PERCUSSION HORNS WOODWINDS Now, to my other side in the Stanford Orchestra was the tuba player—a very good one. ► Tuba players also have lots of rests in symphonic music so we, too, had opportunities to talk. But we did not talk about computers. In fact I did not know anything about ► David Poole’s academic interests except that he was a math major. We talked about music, folk arts, sailing—but we never talked about computers. So, when I returned from Bell Labs in September of 1964, standing with a box of punched cards in my hands in the Stanford Computer Center, it was a great surprise and my good fortune to meet David, whom I had known since one and a half years as a tuba player. ► STRINGS STRINGS CONDUCTOR © J. Chowning

8 David Poole (my angel) David knew a lot about computers. He thought for a day or so about Max’s article and figured out that it was possible to implement Max’s music synthesis system. Over the next two years David worked on finishing his degree while tutoring me in those aspects of computer technology that I needed to know. He became a critical systems engineer for John McCarthy’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, on whose computer our music project was dependent. David Poole was my angel! ► © J. Chowning

9 Computer Music Project moved with the AI Laboratory from Pine Hall to the D. C. Power Laboratory in 1966 In 1966, the Computer Music Project, now two years old, ► moved with the AI Lab to the D. C. Power Lab a partially finished circular building ►

10 D. C. Power Lab at 1600 Arastradero Rd.
where computer music would thrive for the next 20 years. © J. Chowning

11 In 1966 Leland Smith, back from a Sabbatical leave, asked me to show him how computer programs work. I spent an hour or so explaining a simple Fortran program and gave him a manual. ► Leland Smith

12 Leland Smith’s “Score” programs
Score as complement to Max’s synthesis program begins adapting Score for music printing ► Within days he had built the first version of a program, Score, that facilitated the input of data to our DEC version of Max’s Music synthesis program. Score was logical in a musical sense- part by part rather than a list of acoustic events. I made use of his program in my experiments and in composing my first pieces. ► Then at some point Leland realized that the output of the program he had built for specifying music as sound could be easily adapted with an additional layer of code to control the AI Lab’s graphics devices and specify music as symbol. ► © J. Chowning

13

14 The plotter images were photo-reduced producing elegant printed music

15 Score became, and remains, the hi-end industry standard

16 Music for loudspeakers
sounds moving through an illusory sound space 90º 90º CH2 CH1 listeners ► I continued my work in creating music in an illusory space that would allow compositional constructions in which sound could be positioned and moved through the space, as shown here ► the listeners within the speaker perimeter and ► the illusory space ► outside the perimeter---- and ► sounds moving through the illusory space surrounding the listeners. From the very beginning I worked on the simulation of moving sounds sources as auditory illusions. Looking for books and papers having to do with sound localization and our perception of sound in space, I found that there was a concentration of publications in a small specialized library in the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences in the School of Medicine -- the domain of Professor Earl Schubert. The guidance he provided me in those early years was extensive and later extended to numbers of CCRMA students as he maintained close contact with CCRMA’s research beyond his retirement until he died.► CH3 I continued my work in creating music in an illusory space that would allow compositional constructions in which sound could be positioned and moved through the space. CH4 Listeners space within the speaker perimeter 90º 90º j. chowning

17 Localization and Moving Sound Sources
90º CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 FAST FASTER FASTER YET! Here is an example of sounds moving in an illusory space in front of the listener, here in stereo. ► You notice that as the sound moves faster ► … the change in pitch because of Doppler shift becomes greater ► ► J.M. Chowning 11/30/02

18 Spatial Processing Scheme -1968
DIRECT SIGNAL CONTROL SIGNALS dt dd d 1 (doppler) CH1 (distance) SIGNAL→REVERB Original signal FM AM AM + 1 1.0 CH2 - % signal (to rev) x AM + 2 √d 1 CH3 AM x AM + 3 CH4 REALIZATIONS COMPUTERS AND LANGUAGES: ALLOW DIRECT CONROL OF THE MATERIAL OF MUSIC SOUND STRUCTURE AND MUSIC STRUCTURE CAN BE JOINED IN A NEW WAY THE VALUE OF A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENT MY EARS ARE MY MOST IMPORTANT TOOL! AM + 4 x x + Rev CH1 ► This is a diagram of the computer program that I wrote to produce these illusions, in I have highlighted the signal flow and control. I had discovered FM synthesis the year before. It is a culmination of all that I had learned since beginning in 1964. So, this was a very important moment in my personal history and in the direction that the Computer Music Project-- and eventually CCRMA-- would take, for several reasons. ► While computers were not yet powerful enough to synthesize and process sound in real-time, hands-on and favoring immediate response, they would be some day (as we will see in the SamsonBox). But, the computer brought to music something else ► ► computer synthesis provided the composer direct control of the material of music, as a painter has with paint and canvas. I also realized that computer programming allowed us to accomplish two very different but complementary tasks ► — joining the structure of the sound itself to the structure of musical form. ► I also understood the importance of the diverse disciplines in the population of researchers at the Artifical Intelligence Lab — computer scientists and electrical engineers, of course, but there were also other disciplines, a philosopher, a linguist, a physicist and a psychiatrist. We in the Computer Music Project were, in a sense, students and we found in these colleagues, patient teachers who willingly answered our questions as they watched us build a new means for making and representing music. Les Earnest, the AI Lab’s able and imaginative administrator-researcher, protected our limited access to the AI Lab system, reminding the funded researchers that the reason we logged so many computer cycles was because we had little competition at 3 o’clock in the morning. Finally, I realized that ► my ears were my most important tool. ► x Rev CH2 + x + Rev CH3 x Rev CH4 + System to process signal using functions shown in preceding slide. j. chowning

19 Spatial Processing Scheme -1968
DIRECT SIGNAL CONTROL SIGNALS dt dd d 1 DAC (doppler) CH1 (distance) SIGNAL→REVERB Original signal FM AM AM + 1 1.0 CH2 - % signal (to rev) x AM + 2 √d 1 CH3 AM x AM + 3 CH4 AM + 4 x x + Rev CH1 We acquired a four channel Digital to Analog converter ►---- x Rev CH2 + x + Rev CH3 x Rev CH4 + j. chowning

20 (still, without knowing how to solder)
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SIMULATING LOCATION AND MOVEMENT OF SOUND Patent number: Filing date: Mar 9, 1970 Issue date: May 1972 Income: a few thousand $ (enough to purchase a 4-ch sound recording system) ►The sound spatialization work resulted in a patent. Neils Reimers and a staff of one, Sally Hines, at the Office for Technology Licensing, were a very efficient team as we began the process of patent search, application and licensing. The system was licensed to General Recorded Tape. They tried to develop it, but Columbia and RCA abandoned their plans for 4-ch surround sound vinyl recordings and cinema theaters were still years away from such forward looking technology. ► Income? A few thousand dollars ► enough to purchase a 4-ch sound recording system to capture the music that was sounding from our 4-ch DACs and surround sound became a signature of our musical works. ► © J. Chowning

21 Discovery of FM Synthesis
j. chowning Discovery of FM Synthesis November, 1967 It was nearly forty-five years ago that I discovered FM synthesis while searching for sounds having dynamic attributes that would be suitable for my sound localization experiments. ► Not having a scientific or engineering background, I did not have the habit of keeping dated lab notes, but I did keep notes. The actual date of my discovery is not known, ► but Jean-Claude Risset copied my undated lab notes on Dec 18, 1967 when I visited Max at Bell Labs. I remember computing the first FM sounds a few weeks before. ►

22 TRIGONOMETRIC EXPANSION
FM EQUATION AND THE TRIGONOMETRIC EXPANSION e = Asin(2πfct+Isin2πfmt) e =A{J0(I) sin αt J1(I)[sin(α+β)t - sin(α-β)t] J2(I)[sin(α+2β)t + sin(α-2β)t] J3(I)[sin(α+3β)t - sin (α-3β)t] Jn(I)[sin(α+nβ)t ± sin(α+nβ)t]} I played for David Poole the sound examples I had produced and we looked at a text on Radio Engineering by Fredrick Terman. David showed that the ► expansion of the FM equation confirmed that what I discovered using my ears as applied at audio frequencies was exactly explained by the theory as applied at radio frequencies ► I will play a few examples from the early years that show why FM synthesis was so very powerful, as no other synthesis method was able to produce such a large range of timbres –drums, brasses and singing voices are but a few. ► The FM paper can be downloaded from https://ccrma.stanford.edu/people/john-chowning For a complete description of FM/PM Synthesis see Bill Schottstaedt's tutorial https://ccrma.stanford.edu/software/snd/snd/fm.html © J. Chowning

23 I m = 1.4 = 1.0 Percussive tones Brass-like tones + c = 1.0 +
modulation Index (bandwidth) amplitude ►1 ►2 ►3 first, drum-like timbres ►4 ----►5 During the exchange of FM data mentioned above, Risset explained to me his analysis and synthesis of trumpet tones and what he had learned as he applied this knowledge to the synthesis of other timbres. I was struck by the elegance of his synthesis. However, the cost in computer time was large, because his method required a separate oscillator for each partial in the spectrum, placing practical limits on the complexity of synthesis algorithms. The tones that I had produced required only two oscillators whether the spectrum had four partials or forty partials. ►6 He had learned that during the onset of a brass tone there is a rapid increase in the bandwidth, or number of partials, of the spectrum as shown here ►7 ► ► ► I B a n d w i d t h frequency © J. Chowning

24 © J. Chowning

25 Formants (resonances) 1 2 3
Synthesis of the Singing Voice by Means of Frequency Modulation. Current Directions in Computer Music Research, Edited by Max V. Mathews and John R. Pierce, MIT Press, 1989. + + Singing voice + modulation Index (bandwidth) amplitude Formants (resonances) Vibrato with resonances causes complex modulation of the partials, enriching the color. With the addition of two oscillators ►1, one for each resonance or formant ►2 as it is called in voice science, and change in function shape ►3 the singing voice can be synthesized ► It was the high quality of these FM singing voice, brass and percussion examples that convinced YAMAHA in 1979 to commit to FM Synthesis in its Large Scale Integration chip production for future electronic organs and synthesizers. AMP f 2f 3f FREQ © j. chowning John M. Chowning

26 ? METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING A MUSICAL SOUND
Patent number: Filing date: May 2, 1975 Issue date: Apr 19, 1977 Income: ? ► Stanford applied for and was issued a patent for the FM synthesis technology. ► The projected income was unknown, ► as the digital technology and the FM synthesized sounds had no precedent in the market place. ► © J. Chowning

27 1975 - Founding of the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics CCRMA (kar·ma)
Photo Patte Wood Leland Smith James (Andy) Moorer John Grey John Chowning Loren Rush from the beginning, our work was multidisciplinary The computer music activity at Stanford attracted interest beyond music. ► The team that eventually created CCRMA was multidisciplinary. ► It formed itself over time around the root disciplines that Max’s own work had prescribed: music graphics, computing, signal processing, psychoacoustics and musical acoustics. The A. I. Lab hired James A. (Andy) Moorer out of MIT as the systems programmer in the spring of But Moorer came with more than computing/engineering skills. He is also a musician and had a strong interest in music as a domain of application for signal processing. He tracked closely the work that we were doing and after a couple of years entered the PhD program in Computer Science with automatic music transcription as his dissertation focus. In 1971, John Grey was doing graduate work in psychology at Stanford working with Roger Shepard. Shepard had been a colleague of Max at Bell Labs and had a strong interest in music cognition. Grey discovered the work we were doing at the A. I. Lab and with Schubert and Shepard as advisors, collaborated with Moorer in signal processing and he began his seminal work on the perception of timbre. At about the same time Loren Rush, already an accomplished composer, began his doctorate at Stanford in composition and computer music. Several years later he received a commission from the San Francisco Symphony for a piece, "I'll See You in My Dreams,“ for orchestra and computer generated quadraphonic tape, a first! This was the team that in 1975 formed CCRMA after receiving grants from both The National Science Foundation (signal processing and psychoacoustics) and the National Endowment for the Arts (composition with computers). Professor Albert Cohen, Music Dept. Chair, ably shepherded the creation of the center through the university administration . © J. Chowning

28 Ligeti at Stanford Jan –Jun 1972
In the winter and spring quarters of 1972, Gyorgy Ligeti was a guest composer at Stanford. Ligeti was an eminent composer in the European music scene. Astonished at the advanced level of our computer system and our musical/technical thinking, on his return to Europe he told Pierre Boulez that he should inform himself about our work at Stanford. Boulez was in the initial stages of planning for the large music research center, IRCAM (Institute de Recherche Coordination Acoustique/Musique) to be built along side the Centre Pompidou in Paris. ► --informed Boulez of our work

29 1975- Pierre Boulez brings IRCAM team to CCRMA for two week course in computer music
James (Andy) Moorer Steve Martin – graduate student John Chowning Max Mathews In 1973 Boulez asked me to meet with him at the BBC Orchestra studio in London. ►Together with Jean-Claude Risset we convinced him to abandon many of the technologies that were being planned in favor of the digital domain, ► but most important we convinced him that he should appoint Max Mathews as his scientific adviser. Max immediately recommended that the entire IRCAM come to Stanford for an intensive two week course in computers and music ► Photo Patte Wood © J. Chowning

30 IRCAM- 1979 PDP-10 John Chowning Max Mathews John Pierce
Jean-Claude Risset IRCAM opened in IRCAM purchased a DEC PDP-10 computer and took all of the software that had been developed by the CCRMA staff and students and, in addition, hired Andy Moorer. Thus IRCAM was launched with the most advanced computer music system available – CCRMA’s. We had become a critical part of the international new music scene. Both John Pierce and Max Mathews joined the CCRMA faculty after their early retirements from Bell Telephone Laboratories. ► © J. Chowning

31 Pete Samson with the “SamsonBox” digital synthesizer — a highly optimized computer for synthesizing and processing audio signals in real-time. It was built for CCRMA in 1977 and was retired in 1992. It is now part of the collection at the Musée de la Musique in the Cité de la Musique, Paris. In early January 2010, Mike McNabb and Bill Schottstaedt generated the original music for Mars in 3D using a software emulator of the Samson Box programmed by Bill Schottstaedt. Mute! ►With a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, CCRMA asked Pete Samson to design and build a highly optimized computer for synthesizing and processing audio signals in real-time. The “Samson Box” was capable of synthesizing and processing sound using all of the known methods at the time and in 4-ch surround sound. No other synthesizer could compare in power, reliability, and elegance of design. There was an explosion of software development and music produced --some of which has become part of the standard repertoire, Bill Schottstaedt’s Diinosaur Music, Mike McNabb’s Dreamsong and Invisible Cities, and David Jaffe’s Silicon Valley Breakdown are examples. ► It is now part of the collection at the Musée de la Musique in Paris. ► ► In early January 2010, Mike McNabb and Bill Schottstaedt generated the original music for Mars in 3D using a software emulator of the Samson Box programmed by Bill Schottstaedt. ► Making possible the regeneration of many of the pieces from those years meeting current audio standards. ► The “Samson Box” Digital synthesizerc Mute off!

32 1983 – DX7 Beginning in 1974, the investment that YAMAHA made in developing FM instruments sound and the LSI chip sets was enormous. The management asked for an received an exclusive license from Stanford so that they could hope, at least, to recoup their investment. When the DX7 hit the market, YAMAHA was taken by surprise by its success. The instruments were back ordered for over a year. But, the larger use was in electronic organs and home keyboards and finally even larger, in cell phone ring-tones. ► © J. Chowning

33 ? METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING A MUSICAL SOUND
Patent number: Filing date: May 2, 1975 Issue date: Apr 19, 1977 Income: a lot more than the 1st patent (enough to endow CCRMA, thanks to Stanford) ? ► income ► a lot more than the 1st patent ► enough to endow CCRMA ► ► © J. Chowning

34 1985-Move to the Knoll Heidi Kugler Patte Wood John R. Pierce
In 1985 CCRMA moved from the DC Power Laboratory to the Knoll on Stanford campus, which, with licensing and university funds, had been fit out for our needs with a proper recording studio, computer room and fixed up work spaces, all overseen by ► Patte Wood who had been CCRMA’s administrator since 1975 and ► Heidi Kugler, secretary. Tovar, our systems engineer managed the 5-mile move such that the system was down less than 24hrs. ► John Pierce, an eminent scientist/engineer, who had supported Max’s music research at BTL and was himself active in acoustic research, had advised the Systems Development Foundation to give $2.2 million to support CCRMA research. He joined the CCRMA faculty and was active in advising and research until the last years of his life. ► Heidi Kugler Patte Wood John R. Pierce

35 Fernando oLpez-Lezcano
1996 – CHOWNING RETIRES – CHRIS CHAFE IS APPOINTED DIRECTOR Chris Chafe Director CCRMA Jay Kadis Julius Smith Fernando oLpez-Lezcano Bill Schottstaedt Max Mathews Patte Wood Heidi Kugler Nette Worthey Tricia Schroeter AND CCRMA FLOURISHES Radio Baton The JOS Global Index Recording Engineering Planet CCRMA CLM I have presented some of the highlights of my 32 years heading up the work in computer music at Stanford. ► Chris Chafe, who was appointed director of CCRMA when I retired in 1996, continued to encourage and support ► his colleagues in pursuit of their individual interests► Max’s radio baton ► ► Julius Smith’s index of music related signal processing ► ► Jay Kadis’ ever popular recording engineering courses ► ► Fernando’s Planet CCRMA ► ► open source package that allows anyone, anywhere to use CCRMA’s system, and Bill’s ► ► common lisp music, one of the essential pieces of software at CCRMA. ►

36 INSTRUMENT MAKING LISTENING ROOM HAGIA SOPHIA MODULATIONS 1996 - 2013
Chris Chafe Director CCRMA LISTENING ROOM Julius Smith Jonathan Berger Jay Kadis MODULATIONS INSTRUMENT MAKING Max Mathews Takako Fujioka Ge Wang Tricia Schroeter Nette Worthey Max died April 2011 Jonathan Abel Tricia Schroeter became the CCRMA administrator and was the untiring interface with the university in the rebuilding of the Knoll that was required after severe damage from Loma Prieta, and the faculty/staff grew ► Jonathan Berger, whose doctorate was from Stanford, was hired from Yale ► Jonathan Abel, a fellow PhD in engineering with Julius joined as Consulting Professor, ► Sasha Leitman was hired as Facilities Coordinator and Project Manager and Carr Wilkerson as System Administrator► Ge Wang was appointed to the faculty with his Princeton PhD in Computer Science ► and Takako Fujioka appointed to build the area of music related neuro-sciences. ► Nette Worthy became the CCRMA administrator. Recent activities include ►Nando’s development of the multi-speaker listening room ►► Jonathan Abel’s acoustic model of the Hagia Sophia that was presented at the opening of Bing concert hall ►►Sasha’s instrument making, both electric and not ►► and Carr’s arranging of 2 days of hi-tech presence of CCRMA in San Francisco ► Max died in 2011 ► and Bill retired in 2012. Sasha Leitman Fernando Lopez-Lezcano Bill retired 2012 Carr Wilkerson Bill Schottstaedt

37 BANF/SEOUL/NY/SAN DIEGO
CHRIS CHAFE CHRIS CHAFE BANF/SEOUL/NY/SAN DIEGO One way to see CCRMA’s future is to follow the interests of the faculty. Chris Chafe--Network concerts, Sonification and Human Computer performance , here ► network concert including Banf, Seoul. NY and San Diego –Chris is in Banf ► Stanford, St. Johns ► and Stanford Beijing ► --► STANFORD/ST JOHNS -NETWORK CONCERTS -SONIFICATION -HUMAN/COMPUTER PERFORMANCE STANFORD/BEIJING

38 A waveguide model of a cylindrical tube with a conical tip
JULIUS SMITH JULIUS SMITH Pablo Castellanos Macin MEXICO A waveguide model of a cylindrical tube with a conical tip Romain Michon FRANCE Julius Smith ► FAUST Functional AUdio Stream ►► digital waveguides ►►► and graduate students from three continents ► ► ► ► -FAUST -DIGITAL WAVEGUIDES -STUDENTS Waveguide model of a bowed string Zhengshan Shi CHINA Impulse response from a Schroeder / Feedback Delay Network reverberator (recently implemented in Faust)

39 Sonification of satellite data from Jiyeh 2007 oil spill
JONATHAN BERGER Sonification of satellite data from Jiyeh 2007 oil spill Jonathan Berger ► ► sonification of data from an environmental disaster turned into music ► ► ► -SONIFICATION

40 JONATHAN BERGER JONATHAN BERGER -SONIFICATION -MUSIC AND THE BRAIN
► music and the brain, Berger’s ► annual symposium that this year was on auditory hallucinations ► --- ► and was coupled with his two new ► operas premiered with great sucess at Bing Concert Hall ► Theotokia ► and the War Reporter► -SONIFICATION -MUSIC AND THE BRAIN -OPERAS THEOTOKIA THE WAR REPORTER

41 CHUCK AUDIO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE & BOOK
GE WANG GE WANG CHUCK AUDIO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE & BOOK OCARINA, FOR IPHONE (OVER 10 MILLION DOWNLOADS) STANFORD LAPTOP ORCHESTRA Ge Wang ► ► ► --the chuck programming language ► Mobile music, for example the Ocarina and the ► Stanford Laptop Orchestra ►

42 Interests of my research
TAKAKO FUJIOKA TAKAKO FUJIOKA Interests of my research Biological nature of human musicality How does our brain work to understand sounds? How does the brain change when learning musical skills? How do learning and brain development/aging interact? How can that knowledge be used for education, therapy, and sound application? Takako Fujioka – ► Her interest is in the Biological nature of Human Musicality ► How does our brain work to understand sounds, ► or change when learning new musical skills? ► How do learning and brain development and aging interact? ► How can we use that knowledge for education, therapy and sound application? ►

43 The upcoming NeuroMusic Lab @ CCRMA!!
TAKAKO FUJIOKA TAKAKO FUJIOKA The upcoming NeuroMusic CCRMA!! -BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE -BEHAVIOURAL AND EEG ANALYSIS -MOTION, VIDEO, AND AUDIO ANALYSIS - REHABILITATION ► The NeuroMusic Lab and ► brain computer interface► Behavioural and EEG analysis ► motion video and audio analysis and► rehabilitation

44 the teaching/research is enriched further (and still) by
Jaroslaw Kapuscinski Marina Bosi David Berners Intermedia Workshop Max Mathews Perceptual Audio Coding Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing Poppy Crum Malcolm Slaney Tom Rossing Eleanor Selfridge-Field the consulting professors, from both industry and academia, all with doctorates, further enrich the curriculum ► Malcolm Slaney – ► Marina Bosi - ► Tom Rossing ► Poppy Crum ► David Berners ► Eleanor Selfridge-Fields and ► faculty composer Jaroslaw Kapuscinski. Music Gaming and Neuroplasticity Computational Models of Sound Perception Musical Acoustics Music Query, Analysis, and StyleSimulation

45 STUDENTS FACULTY STAFF STUDENTS FACULTY STAFF DISCOVERY INVENTION
► Thank you Joan Mansour, thank you David Poole, thank you Max Mathews, ►thank you Leland Smith, thank you AI Lab, thank you Chris Chafe CCRMA and thank you Stanford University. DISCOVERY INVENTION CREATION TEACHING PUBLICATION PERFORMANCE COMMUNICATION Photo Patte Wood © J. Chowning

46 © J. Chowning


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