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Stanford Historical Society A BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMA John Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus May 15

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Presentation on theme: "Stanford Historical Society A BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMA John Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus May 15"— Presentation transcript:

1 Stanford Historical Society A BRIEF HISTORY OF CCRMA John Chowning Osgood Hooker Professor of Fine Arts and Professor of Music, Emeritus May 15 The Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics CCRMA Stanford University

2 Stanford Symphony Orchestra 1964 © J. Chowning STRINGS HORNS WOODWINDS BRASSES TRUMPETS TROMBONES TUBATYMPANI PERCUSSION CONDUCTOR Sandor Salgo JC Joan Mansour

3 Joan Mansour & Max Mathews meet for the 1 st time years later © J. Chowning

4 John chowning Max standing next to IBM 7094 (BTL) Max Mathews, to whom we owe much,

5 Mathews, M.V., The Digital Computer as a Musical Instrument, Science, Vol. 142, No. 3592, , John chowning There are no theoretical limitations to the performance of the computer as a source of musical sounds, in contrast to the performance of ordinary instruments.

6 © J. Chowning COMPUTER DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER DAC Max Mathews sound synthesis program–Music IV Compared to electronic music studios of the time, with circuit boards, test equipment, wires and patch cords, I would not have to learn to solder But, I had to learn to program! In the Summer of 1964 on a visit to BTL, Max gave me the program and its compiler in a box and said forcefully DONT DROP THE CARDS! this was a conceptually simple system having three well-defined stages and pieces of machinery. LOUDSPEAKER

7 Stanford Symphony Orchestra 1964 © J. Chowning STRINGS HORNS WOODWINDS BRASSES TRUMPETS TROMBONES TUBATYMPANI PERCUSSION CONDUCTOR JC Joan Mansour David Poole

8 David Poole (my angel) © J. Chowning

9 Computer Music Project moved with the AI Laboratory from Pine Hall to the D. C. Power Laboratory in 1966

10 © J. Chowning D. C. Power Lab at 1600 Arastradero Rd.

11 Leland Smith

12 Leland Smiths Score programs © J. Chowning Score as complement to Maxs synthesis program begins adapting Score for music printing

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15 Score became, and remains, the hi-end industry standard

16 90 º 0º0º 0º0º 0º0º 0º0º CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 Listeners space within the speaker perimeter j. chowning Music for loudspeakers listeners sounds moving through an illusory sound space I continued my work in creating music in an illusory space that would allow compositional constructions in which sound could be positioned and moved through the space.

17 Localization and Moving Sound Sources FAST FASTER FASTER YET! J.M. Chowning 11/30/02 90 º 0º0º 0º0º CH 1 CH 2 CH 3 CH 4 0º0º

18 x System to process signal using functions shown in preceding slide. Rev CH1 Rev CH2 Rev CH3 Rev CH4 AM CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 AMFM x AM % signal (to rev) x Original signal x x x x Spatial Processing Scheme d 1 dtd (distance) d DIRECT SIGNAL SIGNAL REVERB j. chowning (doppler) CONTROL SIGNALS 3 REALIZATIONS COMPUTERS AND LANGUAGES: ALLOW DIRECT CONROL OF THE MATERIAL OF MUSIC SOUND STRUCTURE AND MUSIC STRUCTURE CAN BE JOINED IN A NEW WAY THE VALUE OF A MULTI- DISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENT MY EARS ARE MY MOST IMPORTANT TOOL!

19 x Rev CH1 Rev CH2 Rev CH3 Rev CH4 AM CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 AMFM x AM % signal (to rev) x Original signal x x x x Spatial Processing Scheme d 1 dtd (distance) d DIRECT SIGNAL SIGNAL REVERB j. chowning (doppler) CONTROL SIGNALS 3 DAC

20 © J. Chowning (still, without knowing how to solder) METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SIMULATING LOCATION AND MOVEMENT OF SOUND Patent number: Filing date: Mar 9, 1970 Issue date: May 1972 Income: a few thousand $ (enough to purchase a 4-ch sound recording system)

21 j. chowning Discovery of FM Synthesis November, 1967

22 e =A{J 0 (I) sin αt + J 1 (I)[sin(α+β)t - sin(α-β)t] + J 2 (I)[sin(α+2β)t + sin(α-2β)t] + J 3 (I)[sin(α+3β)t - sin (α-3β)t] … + J n (I)[sin(α+nβ)t ± sin(α+nβ)t]} e = Asin(2πf c t+Isin2πf m t) FM EQUATION AND THE TRIGONOMETRIC EXPANSION © J. Chowning For a complete description of FM/PM Synthesis see Bill Schottstaedt's tutorial https://ccrma.stanford.edu/software/snd/snd/fm.html The FM paper can be downloaded from https://ccrma.stanford.edu/people/john-chowning

23 + + Percussive tones Brass-like tones modulation Index (bandwidth) amplitude B a n d w i d t h frequency I © J. Chowning c m = 1.0 = 1.4= 1.0

24 © J. Chowning

25 John M. Chowning + + Singing voice modulation Index (bandwidth) amplitude FREQ AMP f 2f 3f … Formants (resonances) © j. chowning Vibrato with resonances causes complex modulation of the partials, enriching the color Synthesis of the Singing Voice by Means of Frequency Modulation. Current Directions in Computer Music Research, Edited by Max V. Mathews and John R. Pierce, MIT Press, 1989.

26 © J. Chowning METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING A MUSICAL SOUND Patent number: Filing date: May 2, 1975 Issue date: Apr 19, 1977 Income: ?

27 Founding of the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics CCRMA (kar·ma) © J. Chowning Photo Patte Wood Leland Smith James (Andy) Moorer John Grey John Chowning Loren Rush from the beginning, our work was multidisciplinary

28 Ligeti at Stanford Jan –Jun informed Boulez of our work

29 1975- Pierre Boulez brings IRCAM team to CCRMA for two week course in computer music © J. Chowning Photo Patte Wood Pierre Boulez James (Andy) Moorer Steve Martin – graduate student John Chowning Max Mathews

30 © J. Chowning John Pierce Jean-Claude Risset John Chowning Max Mathews IRCAM PDP-10

31 Pete Samson with the SamsonBox digital synthesizer a highly optimized computer for synthesizing and processing audio signals in real- time. It was built for CCRMA in 1977 and was retired in It is now part of the collection at the Musée de la Musique in the Cité de la Musique, Paris. In early January 2010, Mike McNabb and Bill Schottstaedt generated the original music for Mars in 3D using a software emulator of the Samson Box programmed by Bill Schottstaedt. Mute! Mute off! The Samson Box Digital synthesizerc

32 © J. Chowning 1983 – DX7

33 © J. Chowning METHOD OF SYNTHESIZING A MUSICAL SOUND Patent number: Filing date: May 2, 1975 Issue date: Apr 19, 1977 Income: a lot more than the 1 st patent (enough to endow CCRMA, thanks to Stanford) ?

34 1985-Move to the Knoll Patte Wood Heidi Kugler John R. Pierce

35 Chris Chafe Director CCRMA Jay Kadis Julius Smith Fernando oLpez- Lezcano Bill Schottstaedt Max Mathews Nette Worthey AND CCRMA FLOURISHES Radio Baton The JOS Global Index Recording Engineering Planet CCRMA CLM 1996 – CHOWNING RETIRES – CHRIS CHAFE IS APPOINTED DIRECTOR Tricia Schroeter Patte Wood Heidi Kugler

36 Ge Wang Fernando Lopez-Lezcano Sasha Leitman Jonathan Abel Takako Fujioka Jonathan Berger Chris Chafe Director CCRMA Julius Smith Max Mathews MODULATIONS Jay Kadis Tricia Schroeter Bill Schottstaedt Carr Wilkerson Nette Worthey HAGIA SOPHIA LISTENING ROOM Bill retired 2012 Max died April 2011 INSTRUMENT MAKING

37 BANF/SEOUL/NY/SAN DIEGO STANFORD/ST JOHNS CHRIS CHAFE STANFORD/BEIJING -NETWORK CONCERTS -SONIFICATION -HUMAN/COMPUTER PERFORMANCE CHRIS CHAFE

38 JULIUS SMITH Impulse response from a Schroeder / Feedback Delay Network reverberator (recently implemented in Faust) A waveguide model of a cylindrical tube with a conical tip -FAUST -DIGITAL WAVEGUIDES -STUDENTS Waveguide model of a bowed string JULIUS SMITH Pablo Castellanos Macin MEXICO Romain Michon FRANCE Zhengshan Shi CHINA

39 JONATHAN BERGER Sonification of satellite data from Jiyeh 2007 oil spill -SONIFICATION

40 JONATHAN BERGER -SONIFICATION -MUSIC AND THE BRAIN -OPERAS THEOTOKIA THE WAR REPORTER JONATHAN BERGER

41 GE WANG CHUCK AUDIO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE & BOOK OCARINA, FOR IPHONE (OVER 10 MILLION DOWNLOADS) STANFORD LAPTOP ORCHESTRA GE WANG

42 TAKAKO FUJIOKA Interests of my research Biological nature of human musicality How does our brain work to understand sounds? How does the brain change when learning musical skills? How do learning and brain development/aging interact? How can that knowledge be used for education, therapy, and sound application? TAKAKO FUJIOKA

43 The upcoming NeuroMusic CCRMA!! -BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE - BEHAVIOURAL AND EEG ANALYSIS -MOTION, VIDEO, AND AUDIO ANALYSIS - REHABILITATION TAKAKO FUJIOKA

44 the teaching/research is enriched further (and still) by Max Mathews David Berners Marina Bosi Poppy Crum Tom Rossing Malcolm Slaney Eleanor Selfridge-Field Jaroslaw Kapuscinski Computational Models of Sound Perception Perceptual Audio Coding Musical Acoustics Music Gaming and Neuroplasticity Music Query, Analysis, and StyleSimulation Introduction to Digital Audio Signal Processing Intermedia Workshop

45 © J. Chowning Photo Patte Wood DISCOVERY INVENTION CREATION COMMUNICATION TEACHING PUBLICATION PERFORMANCE STUDENTS FACULTY STAFF STUDENTS FACULTY STAFF

46 © J. Chowning


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