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Fuel Cell Simulator System Martin Ordonez, Masters Candidate Supervisors: Dr. M. Tariq Iqbal Dr. John E. Quaicoe Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland

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Introduction Fuel Cells (FC) Why FC Simulators?

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Organization Direct Methanol FC (DMFC) and Electronic Load Description Dynamic Behavior of a DMFC Fast Dynamic Power Converter for FC Simulators Stand Alone FC Simulator A Novel FC Simulator Based on a Small Single FC Conclusions

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DMFC System Description Cross section of the DMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly Anode and Cathode Plates

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DMFC System Description Cross section of the DMFCActual DMFC

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Electronic Load for FC Systems Conceptual Schematic of the electronic load power stage and instrumentation Picture of the Electronic load

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An Advanced Electronic Load for FC Systems Conceptual Schematic of the electronic load based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) DSP board top view DSP board bottom view

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An Advanced Electronic Load for FC Systems The advanced electronic loadPower module expansion

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DMFC Steady State Characteristic Curve FC Polarization Curve

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Dynamic Behavior of a DMFC: Current Steps Response to a series of current steps : v-i plot Response to a series of current steps : time domain plot

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Dynamic Behavior of a DMFC: Power Steps Response to a series of power steps : v-i plot Response to a series of power steps : time domain plot

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Dynamic Behavior of a DMFC: Resistive Steps Response to a series of resistive steps : v-i plot Response to a series of resistive steps : time domain plot

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Dynamic Behavior of a DMFC: Current Ripple DC+AC current test for 25Hz and 400Hz: v-i plot DC+AC current test for 25Hz and 400Hz: time domain plot

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Power extraction as a percentage of the power extraction without ripple Current Ripple Operation: Output Power Reduction

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Peak Power Availability Peak power extraction from no-load to 400mA : v-i plot Peak power extraction from no-load to 400mA : time domain plot

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FC Electrical Equivalent Model

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Summary Advanced electronic load Dynamic behavior of a DMFC Power reduction with current ripple operation Peak power availability Examination of the generic FC dynamic model

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Fast Dynamic Power Converter for FC Simulators Dynamic response requirements? Fast dynamic response Large signal frequency response: DC+AC current test for 25Hz and 400Hz: v-i plot Unity Gain Negligible phase shift

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Evaluation of Isolated Converters Flyback Forward Push pull, half and full bridge Following a reference signalInductor and output current

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Reversible Buck converter Topology Selected for the Power Converter Advantages: Avoid discontinuous conduction mode Fast capacitor discharge (reverse current) Best switch utilization Suitable for switching surface control

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Control Strategy: A Simple Analogy Which is the fastest way to travel by car? MallUniversity

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Maximum acceleration Brake!!!! Control Strategy: A Simple Analogy Answer: Time optimal MallUniversity

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Control Strategy: Time Optimal

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Control Strategy: Parameter Change

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Control Strategy: Normalization

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Control Strategy: Normalized Switching Surface

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Control Strategy: More Switching Surfaces

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Control Strategy: Facts About Switching Surfaces Facts: No unique SS can give a universal solution Simple approach to predict the transient response: The closer the better

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Control Strategy: Inspection of the Ideal Transient

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Control Strategy: Region of Convergence

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Control Strategy: Control Law

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Power Converter Prototype

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Simulation vs. Experimental Results

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More Experimental Results Start up and resistive stepsFrequency response

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Summary Analysis of the dynamic requirements Converter topology selection Control strategy: Selection of a SS Prototype development Experimental result

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Stand Alone Fuel Cell Simulator Conceptual block diagram of the system Suitable for Laboratory operation No computer No communication cards No licensed software Small low cost system

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Parameters of the Model 1) 2) 3) 4)

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FC Model vs. Actual FC

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DSP-based Implementation Flow diagram of the FC model and power converter controller

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FC Stack Emulation: 55 Single Cells in Series Response to a series of current steps : v-i plot and time domain plot

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Summary Empirical model with reduced computational requirements Development of a stand alone FC simulator based on a DSP The most important feature: portability Good match between the FC simulator and experimental results

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A Novel FC Simulator Based on a Small Single FC Replacing FC model for a small single FC Include membrane drying, catalyst poisoning, aging, etc. Avoid results that depart from reality Use of scale up rules

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A Novel FC Simulator Based on a Small Single FC Control Area Network (CAN) bus PC based monitoring and analysis Fast dynamic power converter for FC simulators Four modes of operation

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A Novel FC Simulator Based on a Small Single FC Control Area Network (CAN) bus PC based monitoring and analysis Fast dynamic power converter for FC simulators Three modes of operation

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A Novel FC Simulator Based on a Small Single FC Control Area Network (CAN) bus PC based monitoring and analysis Fast dynamic power converter for FC simulators Three modes of operation

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A Novel FC Simulator Based on a Small Single FC Control Area Network (CAN) bus PC based monitoring and analysis Fast dynamic power converter for FC simulators Three modes of operation

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Operating Principle

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Experimental Results: Current Ripple Operation 120 Hz current ripple operation: v-i plot and time domain plot Ch1: Power converter output voltage Ch2: Single FC output voltage Ch3: Single FC output current Ch4: Power converter output current

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Experimental Results: Current Step Response Current step response : v-i plot and time domain plot Ch1: Power converter output voltage Ch2: Single FC output voltage Ch3: Single FC output current Ch4: Power converter output current

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Concluding Summary Electronic load development Dynamic test of DMFC Power converter design Stand alone FC simulator A novel FC simulator based on a single FC

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Acknowledgments Dr. T. Iqbal Dr. J. Quaicoe Ms. Moya Crocker Dr. R. Venkatesan Dr. P. Pickup Dr. O. Yepez Dr. M. Koen Alonso Mr. F. Ghioldi Prof. R. Oros

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Fuel Cell Simulator System Martin Ordonez, Masters Candidate Supervisors: Dr. M. Tariq Iqbal Dr. John E. Quaicoe Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland Questions?

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