Presentation on theme: "Literary Periods, 1800-Present"— Presentation transcript:
1 Literary Periods, 1800-Present English 230120 February 2014Jeff LilburnEnglish Literature LibrarianMount Allison University Libraries & Archives
2 Today’s Class Where to find appropriate secondary resources What is peer-reviewHow to search library catalogues and article databases (to find books & articles)Search Strategy and Keyword Selection
3 Primary SourcesA primary source provides first-hand information on the topic.The author or artist personally participated in the event under discussion, such as a science experiment, a humanitarian mission, or the creation of a work of art.
4 Secondary SourcesSecondary sources present an argument, interpretation, conclusion, or summary based on information found in primary sources.
6 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources? …A novel, short story, poem or play
7 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources? …A novel, short story, poem or playExamples of secondary sources?
8 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources? …A novel, short story, poem, playExamples of secondary sources?Criticism and analysis of literary works, such as:…A book about the plays of David Mamet…A scholarly journal article about Hamlet…A book chapter about Virginia Woolf’s novels_____Source for previous slides (and where to find more information and examples):Primary and Secondary Resources: A Research Guide,
9 What is a Scholarly Source? Keep in mind that your assignment asks you to annotate the sources you useYour annotations will need to include evidence of the scholarly authority of each sourceRead your assignment instructions carefully
10 What is a Scholarly Source? Usually written by experts in the field (look for: credentials, author affiliations)Usually peer-reviewed (critically assessed by other scholars and experts in the field prior to publication)Engages and builds on previous research on the same subject (see next bullet)Always cites all sources quoted or referenced in the book or paper (articles and books aimed at a non-academic audience don’t normally do this)
11 What is a Scholarly Source? Generally published in a peer-reviewed journal (articles) or by a university press or publisher specializing in scholarly works (e.g.: Oxford University Press)Makes a contribution to the field (presents an original argument or interpretation)Examine hit list of scholarly sources and discuss what it means to be a scholarly source. Get students to click on the European Journal of Marketing (article title: “Mobile phone choice.” This is a peer-reviewed paper.) Have them click on “full text PDF.” They see a journal article with university author; the received date; the revised date; the accepted date. They see an abstract that lists typical format of a peer-reviewed paper. Also, scroll to the end to see list of sources.A peer-reviewed article is the highest standard of scholarly source, because of the rigorous quality control it undergoes.
13 What is Peer Review?“Scrutinizing Science: Peer Review.” Understanding Science. University of California Museum of Paleontology. 4 October 2011 <http://www.understandingscience.org/article/alvarez_01>.
14 Most Common Scholarly Secondary sources in Literary Studies? Books, such as a single-author book about the works of Margaret Atwood.Book chapters, such as essays published as chapters in edited collections (e.g. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood)Journal articles (articles published in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals)
15 Where to find Secondary Sources Mount A Library CatalogueUse to find books, ebooks, and book chapters (also movies, music, government publications, and more)Library Databases (such as the MLA Database, JSTOR, Project Muse, ProQuest)Use to find articles in scholarly journals (and, in some cases, in magazines and newspapers; in some cases books & book chapters)Ask students to get on library website; check all are on it before move on- Encourage them to look through for answers to many questions on their own (e.g. library hours, etc.) will cover top 3 Quick Links for now.
16 The MtA Library Catalogue A catalogue of what’s available at our library.Use to find books, ebooks, movies, journals, magazines, newspapers and more…But not articles. More on this later.
18 Known-item Searching Title: Mill on the Floss (omit initial articles) When you already know the title or author name of a book, you can search by TITLE or by AUTHOR.This type of search is called a Starts With, or Browse search (it permits you to browse an alphabetical list of titles, authors, etc.)Examples:Title: Mill on the Floss (omit initial articles)Author: Eliot, George (last name first)
19 Keyword Searching: Finding Books About a Topic or Author Search for books on a topic or for books *about* an author or his/her worksSearch for a word, words or a phrase anywhere in the library catalogue record (eg: words from the author, title, subject, and publisher fields, etc.).Combine words and phrases using AND, OR, NOTExamples:eliot and waste land and modernismatwood and (gender or women or men)
20 Example (keyword):richler and biographyExample (Title):Jane Eyre
21 Example (keyword):richler and biographyExample (Title):Jane Eyre
22 Example (keyword):richler and biographyExample (Title):Northanger Abbey
23 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Click for More DetailExample (Title):Northanger AbbeyTitle, Author, Publisher, Year of publicationCall Number
24 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): More DetailSome records (but not this one) include a “Contents” note that provides the Table of Contents (chapter titles).This is more common for collections of essays (edited anthologies) than it is for single-author books such as this one.Example (Title):Northanger AbbeyTitle, Author, Publisher, Year of publicationSubject HeadingsCall Number
25 Known-item search: Author Example (keyword):richler and biographyExample (Title):Northanger Abbey
26 Example (keyword):richler and biographyExample (Title):Northanger Abbey
27 Example (keyword):richler and biographyExample (Title):Northanger Abbey
28 Searching by Subject Author names can be used as subjects Subject searches use Library of Congress SUBJECT HEADINGS.These are standardized headings assigned to a book when it is published to describe what the book is about.A single book may have just one or, more likely, several different Subject Headings.Author names can be used as subjectsYou can search by Subject using an author’s name to find books about that author.
34 Finding Articles Note list of databases by subject Will show a multidisciplinary one: ProQuest (All)Read description: several databases searched togetherNote on /off campus access
35 Where to search for Journal Articles Articles are NOT indexed in the Library Catalogue.So: you cannot use the catalogue to find articles.Articles are indexed in various library databases, such as:The MLA DatabaseProject Muse, JSTOR, ProQuest…And other databases listed here: Indexes and Databases: English Literature
38 MLA DatabaseIndex to scholarly research in several languages covering topics in language, literature, linguistics, folklore and film.Also indexes (selectively) books and essays published in edited collections (chapters).Not a full-text database, but will help you identify articles (and books, chapters…) that we may have in print or in another database (such as JSTOR, Project Muse).
39 MLA Database In case you were wondering… Yes, the “MLA” in the name of this database is the same as that in the MLA Handbook, and MLA citation style (Modern Language Association).No, the MLA Database does not use MLA Style.You will have to supply the Style.
40 MLA Database Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake
47 MLA Main Search page Journal Title atwood and oryx and crake Where to look to find out if the journal is available in digital formatDescription of the volumes we have in print format. The Library does not have print issues from 2010.
48 MLA Main Search pageatwood and oryx and crakeClick!
52 RECAP: Finding Articles Once You Have a Citation (but don’t yet have the full text) Use the Library Catalogue and/or Journal Finder to search for the title of the journal (not title of the article).Sample citation:Stewart, Alan. "Shakespeare And The Carriers." Shakespeare Quarterly 58.4 (2007):
53 RECAP: Finding Articles Once You Have a Citation (but don’t yet have the full text) Use the Library Catalogue and/or Journal Finder to search for the title of the journal (not title of the article).Sample citation:Stewart, Alan. "Shakespeare And The Carriers." Shakespeare Quarterly 58.4 (2007):
68 Keyword Selection & Search Strategy When starting a search:Identify the “key” words that best describe your topic.Then, try to think of related words (synonyms, broader or more specific terms, etc.)Try to account for variations in spelling and language (e.g. theatre/theater, catalog/catalogue)For books on a topic…
69 Keyword SelectionSample essay topic: Discuss the depiction of the poor in the works of American playwrights. What are the relevant keywords?
70 Keyword SelectionSample essay topic: Discuss the depiction of the poor in the works of American playwrights. What are the relevant keywords?
71 Keyword SelectionSample essay topic: Discuss the depiction of the poor in the works of American playwrights. However… Keyword search: poor and american and playwrights = 0 items !
72 Keyword SelectionWhat to do… Try using synonyms, related words (broader or more specific), variant spellings (theatre, theater), etc. In other words: try to account for the various ways different authors may express the same or similar ideas or topics.
73 Keyword SelectionOur keywords: Poor: American: Playwrights: Suggest synonyms, related words, etc.
74 Keyword SelectionOur original keyword search: poor and american and playwrights = 0 items Using a few synonyms and related words: (poor or poverty or class) and (america$ or united states) and (play$ or drama or theatre or theater) = 55 items!
75 Keyword selection matters. Search strategy matters. A few tips:Don’t rely on just one or two searchesThe first words used to describe a topic are probably not the only words you could use to search for information on that topicTake time to think about other ways to search for information on your topic (to find items that were not retrieved the first time)The sources you find first or most easily may or may not be the best sources for your topic
76 Keyword Search Tip! $ in the Library Catalogue Truncation Symbol$ in the Library Catalogue* in most other library databasesExample:Canad$ will find: Canada, Canadian, Canadians, Canadiana…- Could add here that phrase search = ‘ ‘ (single quotes, but is also not standard, so will show later when search other dbases)
77 Annotated Bibliographies Place your annotation immediately after the citation – do not begin on a new line or new paragraph.Formatting Guidelines: see MLA Handbook section and 5.3.3For more examples, see the Concordia Libraries How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography guide
78 Annotated Bibliographies: MLA Handbook 5.3.1 “An annotated bibliography, also called Annotated List of Works Cited, contains descriptive or evaluative comments on the sources.”Example:Harbord, Janet. The Evolution of Film: Rethinking Film Studies. Cambridge: Polity, Print. A synthesis of classic film theory and an examination of the contemporary situation of film studies that draws on recent scholarship in philosophy, anthropology, and media studies.
79 How to Get Help Ask me: email@example.com Research Help Desk In Person: Mon.-Thurs. 9-5, 6:30-10; Fri. 10:30-4:30; Sun. 1:00-4:30Live Chat: Chat link on the Libraries’ home pagePhone:Look for the “Ask a Librarian” link on the Library’s home pageKeep this up:Ask if anyone has questions; librarians here to help you.SAY: Remember to log out unless want to stay and work in the lab.Ask if can fill out brief card to let us know how you found out about this workshop and suggestions for future workshops.
82 Examples of Primary Sources: Original research (results of an experiment, an archeological dig)Government Records (Parliamentary Proceedings, Bills, Acts)Personal works (diaries, letters)Works of Art (paintings, sculptures, photographs)
83 Examples of Secondary Sources: A biographyA book reviewCommentary, criticism or analysis (of a work of music or a work of art)Histories
84 Academic Integrity: Using Information Ethically Know how to cite your sourcesMLA Citation StyleMLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (multiple copies available at LB G in the library’s reference collection)MLA Quick Guides available on the Library website’s (click on How-to and Help Guides)Other commonly used styles include APA and ChicagoDo this up front when save articles or other sources intend to use – if can’t find the info. you need for a proper reference, may be a sign that it is not a reliable source to use
85 Academic Integrity: Using Information Ethically Why cite?Do this up front when save articles or other sources intend to use – if can’t find the info. you need for a proper reference, may be a sign that it is not a reliable source to use
86 Academic Integrity: Using Information Ethically Why cite?To give credit where credit is due (i.e. acknowledge the contributions of others)To permit your reader to find the sources you usedTo provide evidence that you have consulted and engaged with relevant scholarshipTo ensure that your reader can distinguish your ideas from those of othersDo this up front when save articles or other sources intend to use – if can’t find the info. you need for a proper reference, may be a sign that it is not a reliable source to use
87 Do you like my painting? I painted it, really I did! PlagiarismPlagiarism is the act of taking credit for someone else’s work.Do you like my painting? I painted it, really I did!Avoiding plagiarism is important.Acting with academic integrity is pretty simple (NEXT SLIDE)da Vinci, Leonardo . Mona Lisa Musée du Louvre, Paris.
88 Avoiding PlagiarismThe basic idea is to give credit where credit is due. This is done by providing a citation whenever you are using someone else’s words, or paraphrasing a portion of their ideas.When examining life, one could say that all the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players.PlagiarismHow you provide citations varies depending on the format you need to use (MLA, APA,…)Ask your prof. -- different ones are preferred in different disciplinesShow web links to citation informationAs Shakespeare said, “all the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.” (AYL )Not Plagiarism
89 Using Web Sources Open Access Journals Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, Open Access Collections pageHow to determine if the information you found from a website is reputableConsider things like:Who is the author? A scholar, expert, don’t know?Who is responsible for the site? A university?Are any sources cited? Are they scholarly?Is the information current?Is there enough information available for you to write a proper citation? If no, why not?Esp. important when using sources that are not scholarly sources. Need to do more evaluation to see if valid to use for academic purposes.
90 How to Evaluate Search Results Do the resources you have found fit your requirements?Why do you want to use this information?Is there enough bibliographical information on the page to form a proper citation?Are factual claims backed up with evidence and supporting references?Do other sites and sources seem to say the same thing or is there dissention?Are the arguments sound? Obvious bias? Is it out of date?For more info: See the Evaluating Web Sources GuideEsp. important when using sources that are not scholarly sources. Need to do more evaluation to see if valid to use for academic purposes.
91 gender or women or men or masculinity milton and paradise lost
92 gender or women or men or masculinity milton and paradise lostChapter TitleBook Title
93 gender or women or men or masculinity milton and paradise lostChapter TitleBook Title
94 gender or women or men or masculinity milton and paradise lostTitle would appear here… if we had it.Chapter TitleWe don’t have this book in ourCollection, but you can still get itby submitting an interlibrary loanRequest.Book Title