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Literary Periods, 1800-Present

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1 Literary Periods, 1800-Present
English 2301 20 February 2014 Jeff Lilburn English Literature Librarian Mount Allison University Libraries & Archives

2 Today’s Class Where to find appropriate secondary resources
What is peer-review How to search library catalogues and article databases (to find books & articles) Search Strategy and Keyword Selection

3 Primary Sources A primary source provides first-hand information on the topic. The author or artist personally participated in the event under discussion, such as a science experiment, a humanitarian mission, or the creation of a work of art.

4 Secondary Sources Secondary sources present an argument, interpretation, conclusion, or summary based on information found in primary sources.

5 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources?

6 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources?
…A novel, short story, poem or play

7 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources?
…A novel, short story, poem or play Examples of secondary sources?

8 In Literary Studies Examples of primary sources?
…A novel, short story, poem, play Examples of secondary sources? Criticism and analysis of literary works, such as: …A book about the plays of David Mamet …A scholarly journal article about Hamlet …A book chapter about Virginia Woolf’s novels _____ Source for previous slides (and where to find more information and examples): Primary and Secondary Resources: A Research Guide,

9 What is a Scholarly Source?
Keep in mind that your assignment asks you to annotate the sources you use Your annotations will need to include evidence of the scholarly authority of each source Read your assignment instructions carefully

10 What is a Scholarly Source?
Usually written by experts in the field (look for: credentials, author affiliations) Usually peer-reviewed (critically assessed by other scholars and experts in the field prior to publication) Engages and builds on previous research on the same subject (see next bullet) Always cites all sources quoted or referenced in the book or paper (articles and books aimed at a non-academic audience don’t normally do this)

11 What is a Scholarly Source?
Generally published in a peer-reviewed journal (articles) or by a university press or publisher specializing in scholarly works (e.g.: Oxford University Press) Makes a contribution to the field (presents an original argument or interpretation) Examine hit list of scholarly sources and discuss what it means to be a scholarly source. Get students to click on the European Journal of Marketing (article title: “Mobile phone choice.” This is a peer-reviewed paper.) Have them click on “full text PDF.” They see a journal article with university author; the received date; the revised date; the accepted date. They see an abstract that lists typical format of a peer-reviewed paper. Also, scroll to the end to see list of sources. A peer-reviewed article is the highest standard of scholarly source, because of the rigorous quality control it undergoes.

12 What is Peer Review?

13 What is Peer Review? “Scrutinizing Science: Peer Review.” Understanding Science. University of California Museum of Paleontology. 4 October 2011 <http://www.understandingscience.org/article/alvarez_01>.

14 Most Common Scholarly Secondary sources in Literary Studies?
Books, such as a single-author book about the works of Margaret Atwood. Book chapters, such as essays published as chapters in edited collections (e.g. The Cambridge Companion to Margaret Atwood) Journal articles (articles published in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals)

15 Where to find Secondary Sources
Mount A Library Catalogue Use to find books, ebooks, and book chapters (also movies, music, government publications, and more) Library Databases (such as the MLA Database, JSTOR, Project Muse, ProQuest) Use to find articles in scholarly journals (and, in some cases, in magazines and newspapers; in some cases books & book chapters) Ask students to get on library website; check all are on it before move on - Encourage them to look through for answers to many questions on their own (e.g. library hours, etc.) will cover top 3 Quick Links for now.

16 The MtA Library Catalogue
A catalogue of what’s available at our library. Use to find books, ebooks, movies, journals, magazines, newspapers and more… But not articles. More on this later.

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18 Known-item Searching Title: Mill on the Floss (omit initial articles)
When you already know the title or author name of a book, you can search by TITLE or by AUTHOR. This type of search is called a Starts With, or Browse search (it permits you to browse an alphabetical list of titles, authors, etc.) Examples: Title: Mill on the Floss (omit initial articles) Author: Eliot, George (last name first)

19 Keyword Searching: Finding Books About a Topic or Author
Search for books on a topic or for books *about* an author or his/her works Search for a word, words or a phrase anywhere in the library catalogue record (eg: words from the author, title, subject, and publisher fields, etc.). Combine words and phrases using AND, OR, NOT Examples: eliot and waste land and modernism atwood and (gender or women or men)

20 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Jane Eyre

21 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Jane Eyre

22 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Northanger Abbey

23 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title):
Click for More Detail Example (Title): Northanger Abbey Title, Author, Publisher, Year of publication Call Number

24 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title):
More Detail Some records (but not this one) include a “Contents” note that provides the Table of Contents (chapter titles). This is more common for collections of essays (edited anthologies) than it is for single-author books such as this one. Example (Title): Northanger Abbey Title, Author, Publisher, Year of publication Subject Headings Call Number

25 Known-item search: Author
Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Northanger Abbey

26 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Northanger Abbey

27 Example (keyword): richler and biography Example (Title): Northanger Abbey

28 Searching by Subject Author names can be used as subjects
Subject searches use Library of Congress SUBJECT HEADINGS. These are standardized headings assigned to a book when it is published to describe what the book is about. A single book may have just one or, more likely, several different Subject Headings. Author names can be used as subjects You can search by Subject using an author’s name to find books about that author.

29 Subject Headings: CLICK!

30 Subject Headings: CLICK!

31 Subject Headings: CLICK!

32 Subject Headings: CLICK!

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34 Finding Articles Note list of databases by subject
Will show a multidisciplinary one: ProQuest (All) Read description: several databases searched together Note on /off campus access

35 Where to search for Journal Articles
Articles are NOT indexed in the Library Catalogue. So: you cannot use the catalogue to find articles. Articles are indexed in various library databases, such as: The MLA Database Project Muse, JSTOR, ProQuest… And other databases listed here: Indexes and Databases: English Literature

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38 MLA Database Index to scholarly research in several languages covering topics in language, literature, linguistics, folklore and film. Also indexes (selectively) books and essays published in edited collections (chapters). Not a full-text database, but will help you identify articles (and books, chapters…) that we may have in print or in another database (such as JSTOR, Project Muse).

39 MLA Database In case you were wondering…
Yes, the “MLA” in the name of this database is the same as that in the MLA Handbook, and MLA citation style (Modern Language Association). No, the MLA Database does not use MLA Style. You will have to supply the Style.

40 MLA Database Main Search page
atwood and oryx and crake

41 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake

42 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake
Take time to review and assess your search results to find the items that are most relevant to you.

43 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake
These Subject Terms help describe what the article is about and they are clickable, like “tags.”

44 MLA Main Search page How to find out if this article is available at the Library? atwood and oryx and crake

45 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake

46 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake

47 MLA Main Search page Journal Title atwood and oryx and crake
Where to look to find out if the journal is available in digital format Description of the volumes we have in print format. The Library does not have print issues from 2010.

48 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake Click!

49 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake

50 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake

51 MLA Main Search page atwood and oryx and crake

52 RECAP: Finding Articles Once You Have a Citation (but don’t yet have the full text)
Use the Library Catalogue and/or Journal Finder to search for the title of the journal (not title of the article). Sample citation: Stewart, Alan. "Shakespeare And The Carriers." Shakespeare Quarterly 58.4 (2007):

53 RECAP: Finding Articles Once You Have a Citation (but don’t yet have the full text)
Use the Library Catalogue and/or Journal Finder to search for the title of the journal (not title of the article). Sample citation: Stewart, Alan. "Shakespeare And The Carriers." Shakespeare Quarterly 58.4 (2007):

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55 Mount A. Libraries Journal Finder
This journal is available in four library databases. Note that the years available vary from one database to another.

56 This journal is available in four library databases
This journal is available in four library databases. Note that the years available vary from one database to another. Issues for 2007 (vol 58)

57 This journal is available in four library databases
This journal is available in four library databases. Note that the years available vary from one database to another.

58 Interlibrary Loan When the book or article you need isn’t available… You can request them using the library’s interlibrary loan service.

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60 Other Databases JSTOR, Project Muse, Wiley Online, Oxford Journals Online, ProQuest, Taylor & Francis and more All of these are searchable and include full-text access to scholarly articles

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62 JSTOR Advanced Search Page

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64 Can limit to one or several of the 328 individual journals in Language & Literature

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68 Keyword Selection & Search Strategy
When starting a search: Identify the “key” words that best describe your topic. Then, try to think of related words (synonyms, broader or more specific terms, etc.) Try to account for variations in spelling and language (e.g. theatre/theater, catalog/catalogue) For books on a topic…

69 Keyword Selection Sample essay topic: Discuss the depiction of the poor in the works of American playwrights. What are the relevant keywords?

70 Keyword Selection Sample essay topic: Discuss the depiction of the poor in the works of American playwrights. What are the relevant keywords?

71 Keyword Selection Sample essay topic: Discuss the depiction of the poor in the works of American playwrights. However… Keyword search: poor and american and playwrights = 0 items !

72 Keyword Selection What to do… Try using synonyms, related words (broader or more specific), variant spellings (theatre, theater), etc. In other words: try to account for the various ways different authors may express the same or similar ideas or topics.

73 Keyword Selection Our keywords: Poor: American: Playwrights: Suggest synonyms, related words, etc.

74 Keyword Selection Our original keyword search: poor and american and playwrights = 0 items Using a few synonyms and related words: (poor or poverty or class) and (america$ or united states) and (play$ or drama or theatre or theater) = 55 items!

75 Keyword selection matters. Search strategy matters.
A few tips: Don’t rely on just one or two searches The first words used to describe a topic are probably not the only words you could use to search for information on that topic Take time to think about other ways to search for information on your topic (to find items that were not retrieved the first time) The sources you find first or most easily may or may not be the best sources for your topic

76 Keyword Search Tip! $ in the Library Catalogue
Truncation Symbol $ in the Library Catalogue * in most other library databases Example: Canad$ will find: Canada, Canadian, Canadians, Canadiana… - Could add here that phrase search = ‘ ‘ (single quotes, but is also not standard, so will show later when search other dbases)

77 Annotated Bibliographies
Place your annotation immediately after the citation – do not begin on a new line or new paragraph. Formatting Guidelines: see MLA Handbook section and 5.3.3 For more examples, see the Concordia Libraries How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography guide

78 Annotated Bibliographies: MLA Handbook 5.3.1
“An annotated bibliography, also called Annotated List of Works Cited, contains descriptive or evaluative comments on the sources.” Example: Harbord, Janet. The Evolution of Film: Rethinking Film Studies. Cambridge: Polity, Print. A synthesis of classic film theory and an examination of the contemporary situation of film studies that draws on recent scholarship in philosophy, anthropology, and media studies.

79 How to Get Help Ask me: jlilburn@mta.ca Research Help Desk
In Person: Mon.-Thurs. 9-5, 6:30-10; Fri. 10:30-4:30; Sun. 1:00-4:30 Live Chat: Chat link on the Libraries’ home page Phone: Look for the “Ask a Librarian” link on the Library’s home page Keep this up: Ask if anyone has questions; librarians here to help you. SAY: Remember to log out unless want to stay and work in the lab. Ask if can fill out brief card to let us know how you found out about this workshop and suggestions for future workshops.

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82 Examples of Primary Sources:
Original research (results of an experiment, an archeological dig) Government Records (Parliamentary Proceedings, Bills, Acts) Personal works (diaries, letters) Works of Art (paintings, sculptures, photographs)

83 Examples of Secondary Sources:
A biography A book review Commentary, criticism or analysis (of a work of music or a work of art) Histories

84 Academic Integrity: Using Information Ethically
Know how to cite your sources MLA Citation Style MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (multiple copies available at LB G in the library’s reference collection) MLA Quick Guides available on the Library website’s (click on How-to and Help Guides) Other commonly used styles include APA and Chicago Do this up front when save articles or other sources intend to use – if can’t find the info. you need for a proper reference, may be a sign that it is not a reliable source to use

85 Academic Integrity: Using Information Ethically
Why cite? Do this up front when save articles or other sources intend to use – if can’t find the info. you need for a proper reference, may be a sign that it is not a reliable source to use

86 Academic Integrity: Using Information Ethically
Why cite? To give credit where credit is due (i.e. acknowledge the contributions of others) To permit your reader to find the sources you used To provide evidence that you have consulted and engaged with relevant scholarship To ensure that your reader can distinguish your ideas from those of others Do this up front when save articles or other sources intend to use – if can’t find the info. you need for a proper reference, may be a sign that it is not a reliable source to use

87 Do you like my painting? I painted it, really I did!
Plagiarism Plagiarism is the act of taking credit for someone else’s work. Do you like my painting? I painted it, really I did! Avoiding plagiarism is important. Acting with academic integrity is pretty simple (NEXT SLIDE) da Vinci, Leonardo . Mona Lisa Musée du Louvre, Paris.

88 Avoiding Plagiarism The basic idea is to give credit where credit is due. This is done by providing a citation whenever you are using someone else’s words, or paraphrasing a portion of their ideas. When examining life, one could say that all the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players. Plagiarism How you provide citations varies depending on the format you need to use (MLA, APA,…) Ask your prof. -- different ones are preferred in different disciplines Show web links to citation information As Shakespeare said, “all the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.” (AYL ) Not Plagiarism

89 Using Web Sources Open Access Journals
Google Scholar, Directory of Open Access Journals, Open Access Collections page How to determine if the information you found from a website is reputable Consider things like: Who is the author? A scholar, expert, don’t know? Who is responsible for the site? A university? Are any sources cited? Are they scholarly? Is the information current? Is there enough information available for you to write a proper citation? If no, why not? Esp. important when using sources that are not scholarly sources. Need to do more evaluation to see if valid to use for academic purposes.

90 How to Evaluate Search Results
Do the resources you have found fit your requirements? Why do you want to use this information? Is there enough bibliographical information on the page to form a proper citation? Are factual claims backed up with evidence and supporting references? Do other sites and sources seem to say the same thing or is there dissention? Are the arguments sound? Obvious bias? Is it out of date? For more info: See the Evaluating Web Sources Guide Esp. important when using sources that are not scholarly sources. Need to do more evaluation to see if valid to use for academic purposes.

91 gender or women or men or masculinity
milton and paradise lost

92 gender or women or men or masculinity
milton and paradise lost Chapter Title Book Title

93 gender or women or men or masculinity
milton and paradise lost Chapter Title Book Title

94 gender or women or men or masculinity
milton and paradise lost Title would appear here… if we had it. Chapter Title We don’t have this book in our Collection, but you can still get it by submitting an interlibrary loan Request. Book Title

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