Memory Jog: Advent of Cinema Visual phenomenon: Persistence of Vision Persistence of Vision
Memory Jog: Persistence of Vision A series of individual still images, each showing a slightly different phase of a movement are presented to us in rapid succession with some kind of "shutter" effect between the images. A series of individual still images, each showing a slightly different phase of a movement are presented to us in rapid succession with some kind of "shutter" effect between the images. The "shutter" can be a slot in a drum, a mirror surface, or images on different pages or sides of a the moving object.
Memory Jog: Eadweard Muybridge British photographer British photographer Known for use of multiple cameras to capture motion Known for use of multiple cameras to capture motion Invented Zoopraxiscope (1872-1878) Invented Zoopraxiscope (1872-1878) A primitive motion picture projector machine A primitive motion picture projector machine Recreated the illusion of movement by projecting images in rapid succession onto a screen from photos printed on a rotating glass disk. Recreated the illusion of movement by projecting images in rapid succession onto a screen from photos printed on a rotating glass disk.
Memory Jog: Eadweard Muybridge Multiple cameras to capture motion:
Memory Jog: The Lumière Brothers Louis and Auguste Louis and Auguste Created a machine for both film projection and development - 1895 Created a machine for both film projection and development - 1895 More portable, lighter than a Kinetograph More portable, lighter than a Kinetograph
Memory Jog: Lumière Brothers (cont.) Often called the founding fathers of modern film because they held the first public screening or commercial exhibition. Often called the founding fathers of modern film because they held the first public screening or commercial exhibition. Ten short films with 20 showings a day. Examples: Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory and Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat Ten short films with 20 showings a day. Examples: Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory and Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat
Memory Jog: Georges Méliès Introduced idea of a storyline and plot. Introduced idea of a storyline and plot. Méliès was a stage magician before becoming interested in film. Méliès was a stage magician before becoming interested in film.
Memory Jog: Georges Méliès He was very innovative in the use of camera tricks. He was very innovative in the use of camera tricks. In 1899, he was the first film-maker to use artificially arranged scenes to construct and tell a narrative story. In 1899, he was the first film-maker to use artificially arranged scenes to construct and tell a narrative story.
Memory Jog: Edison Mfg. Company From 1894 to 1918, his studio made nearly 1,200 films. He was involved in none of them. From 1894 to 1918, his studio made nearly 1,200 films. He was involved in none of them. Earliest productions were brief "actualities" showing everything from acrobats to parades to fire calls. Earliest productions were brief "actualities" showing everything from acrobats to parades to fire calls. Competition from French and British story films in the early 1900s rapidly changed the market. Competition from French and British story films in the early 1900s rapidly changed the market.
Memory Jog: Great Train Robbery Directed by Edwin S. Porter in 1903. Directed by Edwin S. Porter in 1903. First True western, although shot in New Jersey First True western, although shot in New Jersey Shot out of chronological sequence Shot out of chronological sequence Story told with only one shot Story told with only one shot Ending: Gun pointed at audience and fired at them. Ending: Gun pointed at audience and fired at them.
Memory Jog: Dream of Rarebit Fiend Created by Edwin S. Porter in 1906 Created by Edwin S. Porter in 1906 Based on a popular newspaper comic strip by Winsor McCay Based on a popular newspaper comic strip by Winsor McCay Trick photography, more advanced subject matter within the films story. Trick photography, more advanced subject matter within the films story.
Memory Jog: Nickelodeons A small storefront theatre of dance hall converted to view films A small storefront theatre of dance hall converted to view films Although different, they all: Although different, they all: Showed moving pictures Showed moving pictures Charged five-cent admission Charged five-cent admission
Recap In the early 1900s, movies became a popular attraction in amusement arcades, music halls, traveling fairs, wax museums and vaudeville houses in many countries.
Recap (cont.) 1903 – Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality. 1904 – Narrative film began to become the dominant form. 1904 – The first film exchange (distribution company) in the U.S. was founded by Harry, Albert, Sam and Jack Warner. They called it The Duquesne Amusement Supply Co. It was the precursor to Warner Bros. Pictures.
Whats Happening in the World? 1901 – U.S. President William McKinley is assassinated. 1903 – The first World Series is played. 1903 – The Wright brothers successfully fly the first airplane. 1906 – Kelloggs starts selling corn flakes.
Filmmaking Becomes BIG Business In 1906, about 5,000 nickelodeons existed throughout the U.S. In 1906, about 5,000 nickelodeons existed throughout the U.S. Many studios were created to keep up with the increased demand for films. Many studios were created to keep up with the increased demand for films. Annual attendance at nickelodeons exceeded two million. Annual attendance at nickelodeons exceeded two million. By 1908, there were 8,000-10,000 nickelodeons with 200,000 customers a day. By 1908, there were 8,000-10,000 nickelodeons with 200,000 customers a day.
Key Development At this time, the Bell & Howell Company was founded by Chicago movie projectionist Donald Bell and camera repairman Albert Howell. Bell & Howell developed an innovative film projection system. Their company revolutionized motion picture photography and projection equipment.
Filmmaking Moves West In 1907, the first filmmakers arrived in Los Angeles. They began to realize that Los Angeles was a good filming area with a favorable climate and a variety of natural scenery. Previously, American movies were filmed mostly in New York City and New Jersey. The other big reason they flocked west, they could get away from Thomas Edison and the Edison Trust.
An Early Monopoly Nine leading film producers or manufacturers (including Biograph that joined forces with Edison) set up the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC), a.k.a. "the Edison Trust." The Motion Picture Patents Company, founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak.
The Edison Trust The MPPC or Edison Trust was an attempt to legally monopolize production in the early American film industry. These producers were granted licenses to use equipment authorized by the Trust, while everyone else was ruled to be running illegal film production operations.
The Edison Trust (cont.) In 1910, the Edison Trust formed a subsidiary called the General Film Company to use intimidation and violence (with threats of not selling or leasing licensed equipment) against independents or any other distributors who purchased and showed motion pictures from any other company. Kodak agreed to sell film stock only to member companies.
More Legal Involvement In 1909, in a case over the 1907 version of Ben Hur, an American court ruled that unauthorized films infringed on copyrights. As a result, film companies legally had to begin buying screen rights to plays and books.
U.S. Movie Business Grows In 1909, there were about 9,000 movie theaters or nickelodeons in the U.S. The typical film was only a single reel long, or 10- 12 minutes in length. The performers were anonymous.
Early Motion Picture Production Edisons Black Mariah New Jersey
Early Motion Picture Production Looking into the studio. Circa 1907
Film Stock Standardized 1909 1909 35mm film was recognized as the international standard film gauge. It has remained the dominant film gauge since that time.
Artificial Light In 1909, cameraman Billy Bitzer became the first to film entirely indoors using artificial light.
First Movie Stunt 1910 1910 The first official movie stuntman jumped into the Hudson River from a burning balloon.
An Edison Failure In 1910, Thomas Edison introduced his Kinetophone, a sound- film process which made talking films a reality. However, his attempt to combine the phonograph and motion pictures failed commercially.
Whats Happening in the World? 1910 – The Boy Scouts are established in America. 1910 – The Boy Scouts are established in America. 1912 – Oreo Cookies are introduced. 1912 – Oreo Cookies are introduced. 1912 – The Titanic sinks. (For real, not the movie.) 1912 – The Titanic sinks. (For real, not the movie.) 1914 – World War I begins. 1914 – World War I begins.
Early Independents Carl Laemmle, Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP) Carl Laemmle, Independent Motion Picture Company (IMP) Harry E. Aitken, Majestic Films Harry E. Aitken, Majestic Films Adolph Zukor, Famous Players Adolph Zukor, Famous Players
Filmmakers Flock to the West Coast Film companies began to move to the area we later know as Hollywood. Los Angeles will soon annex Hollywood. The Nestor Company built the first full-time studio in a district of Los Angeles known as Hollywood. It was the first movie studio based in Hollywood.
Filmmakers Flock to the West Coast (cont.) Most of these film companies have moved to the West Coast to escape the watchful eye of the MPPC or Edison Trust. The result is that Hollywood was soon to become the motion-picture capitol of the world.
Pan-Cake Makeup Developed 1910 1910 Max Factor creates the first makeup formulated especially for film.
Independents Strike Back… The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) or Edison Trust tried to monopolize film distribution by setting up the General Film Company. Independent William Fox responded by making his own films and establishing The Fox Film Foundation – soon to become one of Hollywoods foremost studios.
…and Get Stronger… 1912 1912 Carl Laemmle merged his IMP company with other studios to found Universal Pictures Company, which was to become the first major, long- lasting Hollywood studio Carl Laemmle merged his IMP company with other studios to found Universal Pictures Company, which was to become the first major, long- lasting Hollywood studio The Mutual Film Corporation was formed. The Mutual Film Corporation was formed. Jesse Lasky formed the Jesse Lasky Feature Play Company with his brother-in-law Samuel Goldwyn and Cecil B. DeMille. Jesse Lasky formed the Jesse Lasky Feature Play Company with his brother-in-law Samuel Goldwyn and Cecil B. DeMille. The independents made longer feature films than the short one-reelers made by the MPPC.
…and Stronger 1912 1912 Adolph Zukor founded an independent film studio named the Famous Players Film Corporation, with distribution arranged with a new organization named Paramount. Paramount Pictures is one of the oldest American motion picture studios. Its logo –a majestic mountain peak– still remains recognizable, making it the oldest surviving Hollywood studio film logo.
Slapstick Comes To Life 1912 1912 Canadian writer and actor Mack Sennett formed the Keystone Film Company and Studio. The first Keystone Kop film from the studio, Hoffmeyers Legacy was released later that year.
The Film Industry Begins to Change 1912-1913 1912-1913 Thomas Ince pioneered the role of film producer by devising standard production budgeting formulas and introducing a detailed shooting script. Thomas Ince pioneered the role of film producer by devising standard production budgeting formulas and introducing a detailed shooting script. Motion pictures moved out of nickelodeons and into real theaters. Motion pictures moved out of nickelodeons and into real theaters. Motion picture acting gained respect, due to greater attendance from the American middle class. Motion picture acting gained respect, due to greater attendance from the American middle class. The public singled out certain actors and actresses as special favorites. The public singled out certain actors and actresses as special favorites.
WWI Begins 1914 1914 The start of World War I interrupted European motion picture production and eventually brought it to a halt. It never recovered dominance in the marketplace. The American movie industry thrived on business and viewership in the European market.
Animation Goes Big-Time Winsor McCay, creator of the comic Rarebit Fiend, unleashes Gertie the Dinosaur, the first animated cartoon in 1914.
Charlie Chaplin Discovered 1914 1914 Charlie Chaplin, a silent actor and pantomimist, was recruited to Keystone Studios. He went on to an amazing acting, directing and producing career in Hollywood that spanned nearly 70 years. His immortal, trademark Little Tramp character was invented while at Keystone and lives on today.
Birth of a Nation 1915 1915 Birth of a Nation, the masterpiece by D.W. Griffith, is released. Griffith defined the art of motion pictures, pioneering film techniques still used today, including altering camera angles, using close-ups in a dramatic way, and breaking up scenes into multiple shots.
Birth of a Nation (cont.) Birth of a Nation premiered with a phenomenal ticket price of $2, due to its $110,000 production budget. It was highly controversial because of its racist theme.
Movie Factory System Introduced In 1915, producer/director Thomas Ince introduced a factory system – a method used to mass produce films. Different films in various stages of production would be systematically rotated through his movie studio. Ince appointed a group of supervisors, called producers, who each had control over a certain number of movies. Sometimes, 10 or more movies were being produced in his studio at one time.
New Camera Technology The Bell & Howell 2709 movie camera allowed directors to film close- ups with physically moving the camera.
Edison Trust Struck Down 1915 1915 William Fox led a successful fight against Thomas Edisons Motion Pictures Patents Company (MPPC). A federal court declared the MPPC and its subsidiary, the General Film Company, to be an illegal restraint on trade and an illegal monopoly, and fined more than $20 million. The MPPC was soon officially dissolved and disbanded.
Movies Face More Legal Scrutiny 1915 1915 In Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio, the Supreme Court ruled that states may censor films, encouraging scrutiny of movies during future decades.
Technicolor Arrives on the Scene 1915 1915 The Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation was founded in Boston. The company pioneered the development of color film processes known as Technicolor, which began to be regularly seen in Hollywood films in the 1920s and continued for many decades.
Studios Get Bigger The Jesse L. Lasky Company merged with its friendly rival, Adolph Zukors Famous Players Film Company. The new Famous Players-Lasky Corporation consolidated its production and distribution divisions with Paramount, and audiences began seeing Paramount Pictures. The Jesse L. Lasky Company merged with its friendly rival, Adolph Zukors Famous Players Film Company. The new Famous Players-Lasky Corporation consolidated its production and distribution divisions with Paramount, and audiences began seeing Paramount Pictures. Samuel Goldwyn established Goldwyn Company. Samuel Goldwyn established Goldwyn Company.
The Lincoln Motion Picture Co. The first African-American owned studio, the pioneering The Lincoln Motion Picture Company, was founded in 1917.
Warner Brothers The four Warner Brothers: Jack, Albert, Harry and Samuel, opened their first West Coast studio in 1918.
United Artists In an attempt to control their own work, Douglas Fairbanks, D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford and Charlie Chaplin established United Artists. UA would distribute and produce their own films.
Hollywoodland The Hollywood sign (originally HOLLYWOODLAND) was built for $21,000 in the early 1920s.
Whats Happening in the World? 1917 – The U.S. enters World War I. 1917 – The U.S. enters World War I. 1919 – Initiation of the National Park Service. 1919 – Initiation of the National Park Service. 1920 – 19 th Amendment gives women the right to vote. 1920 – 19 th Amendment gives women the right to vote. 1920 – The first radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh begins transmitting. 1920 – The first radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh begins transmitting.
New Editing Technique Appears 1922 1922 Russian filmmaker Lev Kuleshov experimented with montage, a new editing technique pioneered by Russian filmmakers. Montage uses rapid editing, special effects and/or music to present compressed narrative information.
Nervous Hollywood In response to many sensational crime and made up stories about Hollywood stars, plus the publics concern over movie content, Hollywood censored itself by creating the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA). The Hays Office as it would be called, a film review board was created to serve as Hollywoods public relations organization and to clean up the motion picture industry.
Walt Disney Gets His Start in KC 1922 1922 The first Walt Disney cartoon was Little Red Riding Hood, one of his Laugh O Grams studio productions that he made at his own animation studio in Kansas City before relocating to Los Angeles shortly thereafter.
MGM Studios is Born 1924 1924 The future MGM studio was formed out of the merger of three U.S. film production companies: Marcus Loew's Metro Pictures Corporation (1916), Goldwyn Pictures Corporation (1917) (known as Metro- Goldwyn), and the Louis B. Mayer Pictures Company (1918).
Columbia Pictures is Born 1924 1924 C.B.C. Film Sales Company (founded by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn, and Joseph Brandt) officially changed its name to Columbia Pictures Corporation.
Major Studios in Place Most of the major Hollywood motion-picture studios had been established by this time. The Big Five: Warner Brothers, Fox (later 20th Century Fox), RKO, Loew's Inc. (Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM)), Paramount (from Famous Players-Lasky)), The Little Three: United Artists, Universal and Columbia. All of these studios used Thomas H. Ince's efficient and profitable filmmaking "factory system."
Whats Happening in the World? 1924 – The first Olympic Winter Games are held. 1924 – The first Olympic Winter Games are held. 1927 – Babe Ruth sets home run record. 1927 – Babe Ruth sets home run record. 1928 – Bubble gum invented. 1928 – Bubble gum invented.
New Sound System 1925 1925 Western Electric and Warners Brothers agreed to develop a system to make movies with sound.
Newer Sound System 1926 1926 A newer and better recording system for putting synchronized sound-on-film called Movietone was developed for the Fox Film Corporation. In this system, the sound track was placed onto the actual film next to the picture frames, rather than on a separate synchronized disc as in the Vitaphone system.
End of Silent Era 1927 1927 The effective end of the silent era of films came when Warner Brothers produced and debuted The Jazz Singer, the first widely-screened feature-length talkie or movie with dialogue.
AMPAS Founded 1927 1927 The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) was founded. Its president was Douglas Fairbanks, and its first awards ceremony was held in 1929, to honor films in 1927 and 1928.
Frame Rate Established 1927 1927 Motion picture film became standardized at 24 fps.
Mickey Mouse Debuts 1928 1928 The first Mickey Mouse film, Plane Crazy, debuted. Walt Disney also introduced the first popular animated cartoons with synchronized sound later this year: Steamboat Willie, Mickey's first sound cartoon This was considered Mickey Mouse's screen debut performance and birthdate.
First Oscars Presented 1929 1929 The first Academy Awards were announced and awarded during a ceremony, with Paramount's Wings (1927) winning Best Picture (based on production). It was the only silent film to win an Oscar for Best Picture.
Technicolor Blooms 1929 1929 George Eastman demonstrated his first movie in Technicolor in Rochester, NY.
Walt Disney Productions 1929 1929 Walt Disney Productions was formed.
End of the 1920s The film careers of many silent film stars ended due to their voices being unsuitable for the new medium, or due to the fact that their voices didn't match their public image. Others, however, such as Greta Garbo, and the comedy team of Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy successfully adapted to sound.
Whats Happening in the World? 1929 – The Great Depression begins. 1929 – The Great Depression begins. 1932 – Amelia Earhart flies across the Atlantic Ocean. 1932 – Amelia Earhart flies across the Atlantic Ocean. 1938 – Orson Welles The War of the Worlds is broadcast. 1938 – Orson Welles The War of the Worlds is broadcast. 1939 – World War II begins when Germany invades Poland. 1939 – World War II begins when Germany invades Poland.
Popular Movie Genres 1930s The most popular film genres of the time were Musicals Musicals Gangster films Gangster films Newspaper movies Newspaper movies Westerns Westerns Comedies Comedies Melodramas Melodramas Horror movies Horror movies
Golden Age of Hollywood 1930s – 1940s 1930s – 1940s This was the era which has been predominantly referred to as "The Golden Age of Hollywood" by film critics and historians, and considered the apex of film history. The "Golden Age" came to a close with the breakup of the studios and declining attendance from challenges brought by shopping centers and television.
Subtitles 1930 1930 The U.S. movie industry began to dub in the dialogue of films exported to foreign markets.
More Cartoon Stars 1933 1933 Warner Brothers' producer Leon Schlesinger assembled the 'gods of animation', including Tex Avery, Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, and Bob Clampett.
King Kong Debuts 1933 1933 The classic adventure-action film, King Kong, debuted. A "Beauty and the Beast" tale, featured the actress Fay Wray, and astonishing stop-motion special effects animation, and ended with the iconic image of Kong atop the Empire State Building. It was the first film heavily promoted and marketed on the radio.
Movie Theaters improve. 1933 1933 Theaters began to open refreshment stands.
Snow White Debuts 1937 1937 The first full-length animated feature, Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, was released. It was made for a budget of $1.5 million. Snow White was the top moneymaker in 1938, when it made an astronomical $8 million.
1939 This year has often been called the "greatest year in film history" by film buffs, movie historians and critics, chiefly due to the inordinate number of classic films. Some of the greatest films ever made were released in 1939, including: Gone With the Wind The Hunchback of Notre Dame Mr. Smith Goes to Washington NinotchkaStagecoach The Wizard of Oz Wuthering Heights Other major classic films in 1939 included Beau Geste, Destry Rides Again, Gunga Din, Of Mice and Men, and many more.
A Future Rival Unveiled The future rival to film – television – was formally introduced at the New York World's Fair in Queens. The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) unveiled a display of its first TV sets for sale to the American public.