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Film History Beginnings, Innovations and Experiments.

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Presentation on theme: "Film History Beginnings, Innovations and Experiments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Film History Beginnings, Innovations and Experiments

2 Advent of Cinema Late 1790s, the first projected amusements and images began to increase. Late 1790s, the first projected amusements and images began to increase. Many of these were Many of these were variations of devices that variations of devices that projected images from projected images from transparencies onto a transparencies onto a screen with a simple screen with a simple light source, light source, like a candle. like a candle.

3 Advent of Cinema (cont.)

4 Advent of Cinema Visual phenomenon: Persistence of Vision Persistence of Vision

5 Persistence of Vision A series of individual still images, each showing a slightly different phase of a movement are presented to us in rapid succession with some kind of "shutter" effect between the images. A series of individual still images, each showing a slightly different phase of a movement are presented to us in rapid succession with some kind of "shutter" effect between the images. The "shutter" can be a slot in a drum, a mirror surface, or images on different pages or sides of a the moving object.

6 Zoetrope A device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession of static pictures. A device that produces an illusion of action from a rapid succession of static pictures. Perceived a motion picture. Perceived a motion picture.

7 Other Simulated Motion Devices 1830s – 1860s 1830s – 1860s

8 Four Key Inventions 1831 – The discovery of the law of electromagnetic induction – The discovery of the law of electromagnetic induction. Discovered by Michael Faraday, electromagnetic induction is a principle used in generating electricity and powering motors and other machines.

9 Four Key Inventions (cont.) 1839 – The birth of still photography. Development of the first commercially viable daguerrotype (a method of capturing still images on silvered, copper metal plates).

10 Key Inventions (cont.) 1841 – The process for printing negative photographs on high-quality paper was patented – The process for printing negative photographs on high-quality paper was patented.

11 Key Inventions (cont.) 1870 – The development of celluloid, which was later used as the base for photographic film – The development of celluloid, which was later used as the base for photographic film.

12 Eadweard Muybridge British photographer British photographer Known for use of multiple cameras to capture motion Known for use of multiple cameras to capture motion Invented Zoopraxiscope ( ) Invented Zoopraxiscope ( ) A primitive motion picture projector machine A primitive motion picture projector machine Recreated the illusion of movement by projecting images in rapid succession onto a screen from photos printed on a rotating glass disk. Recreated the illusion of movement by projecting images in rapid succession onto a screen from photos printed on a rotating glass disk.

13 Eadweard Muybridge (cont.) Zoopraxiscope

14 In 1878, Muybridge was In 1878, Muybridge was commissioned to determine whether the four legs of a galloping horse left the ground at the same time. commissioned to determine whether the four legs of a galloping horse left the ground at the same time. He set up 24 cameras He set up 24 cameras along a racetrack. along a racetrack. Viewing the photos in succession comprised a primitive movie. Viewing the photos in succession comprised a primitive movie.

15 Trivia 1886 Daeida Wilcox, the wife of real estate developer, Harvey Henderson Wilcox, named her ranch in Cahuenga Valley, Daeida Wilcox, the wife of real estate developer, Harvey Henderson Wilcox, named her ranch in Cahuenga Valley, Hollywood. Hollywood.

16 William Dickson 1890 Commissioned by Thomas Edison, whom Dickson worked for, Dickson built the first modern motion-picture camera and named it the Kinetograph. Commissioned by Thomas Edison, whom Dickson worked for, Dickson built the first modern motion-picture camera and named it the Kinetograph.

17 William Dickson (cont.) Kinetograph

18 Edisons Inventions Kinetograph – camera Kinetograph – camera Kinetoscope – the method of viewing the films (No sound) Kinetoscope – the method of viewing the films (No sound) Kinetophone – synchronize sound with motion picture projected onto a screen. Kinetophone – synchronize sound with motion picture projected onto a screen.

19 Edisons Inventions (cont.) Kinetograph

20 Kinetoscope

21 Kinetophone

22 Early Edison Motion Picture Production Earliest copyrighted film that still survives is Edisons Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze Earliest copyrighted film that still survives is Edisons Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze January 7, 1894 January 7, 1894 Fred Ott, an employee of Edison, sneezing comically for the camera. Fred Ott, an employee of Edison, sneezing comically for the camera. Made for publicity purposes, to promote Edison and his company. Made for publicity purposes, to promote Edison and his company.

23 The Lumière Brothers Louis and Auguste Louis and Auguste Often called the Founding Fathers of Modern Film Often called the Founding Fathers of Modern Film Created a machine for both film projection and development Created a machine for both film projection and development More portable, lighter than a Kinetograph More portable, lighter than a Kinetograph Called Cinematographe Called Cinematographe

24 The Lumière Brothers (cont.) Cinematographe CameraCamera & Projector

25 The Lumière Brothers (cont.) Often called the founding fathers of modern film because they held the first public screening or commercial exhibition. Often called the founding fathers of modern film because they held the first public screening or commercial exhibition. Ten short films with 20 showings a day. Ten short films with 20 showings a day.Examples: Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat

26 The First Female Film-Maker Alice Guy-Blaché Generally acknowledged as the worlds first female film director. Generally acknowledged as the worlds first female film director. Contributed to the development of narrative film-making. Contributed to the development of narrative film-making. The Cabbage Fairy, a one-minute fictional film is considered to be the first- ever narrative fiction film. The Cabbage Fairy, a one-minute fictional film is considered to be the first- ever narrative fiction film.

27 George Eastman Founded Eastman Kodak Company Invented roll film, which was the basis for motion picture film. On September 4, 1888, Eastman registered the trademark, Kodak.

28 Georges Méliès Introduced idea of a storyline and plot Introduced idea of a storyline and plot Méliès was a stage magician before becoming interested in film. Méliès was a stage magician before becoming interested in film.

29 Georges Méliès (cont.) He was very innovative in the use of camera tricks. He was very innovative in the use of camera tricks. In 1899, he was the first film-maker to use artificially arranged scenes to construct and tell a narrative story. In 1899, he was the first film-maker to use artificially arranged scenes to construct and tell a narrative story.

30 Edison Manufacturing Company From 1894 to 1918, his studio made more than 1,100 short films. He was involved in none of them. These earliest productions were called "actualities." called "actualities." Competition from French and British story films in the early 1900s rapidly changed the market.

31 The Great Train Robbery Directed by Edwin S. Porter in Directed by Edwin S. Porter in A former Thomas Edison cameraman. A former Thomas Edison cameraman. First True western, although shot in New Jersey First True western, although shot in New Jersey Shot out of chronological sequence Shot out of chronological sequence Story told with only one shot Story told with only one shot Ending: Gun pointed at audience and fired at them. Ending: Gun pointed at audience and fired at them.

32 Dream of Rarebit Fiend Created by Edwin S. Porter in 1906 Created by Edwin S. Porter in 1906 Based on a popular newspaper comic strip by Winsor McCay Based on a popular newspaper comic strip by Winsor McCay Trick photography, more advanced subject matter within the films story. Trick photography, more advanced subject matter within the films story.

33 Nickelodeons A small storefront or dance hall converted into a place to view motion pictures (films). Although different, all nickelodeons: Showed moving pictures Showed moving pictures Charged five-cent admission Charged five-cent admission Silent films were accompanied by piano or accordion. Sing-a-longs in between reel changes

34 Nickelodeons (cont.)

35 NEXT: The Birth of Hollywood Cinema


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