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Www.phi.com Angle Dependent XPS 1 SCA LaB 6 Scanning Electron Source Al Anode 5-Axis Sample Stage Electrons Photoelectrons X-rays Multi Channel Detector.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.phi.com Angle Dependent XPS 1 SCA LaB 6 Scanning Electron Source Al Anode 5-Axis Sample Stage Electrons Photoelectrons X-rays Multi Channel Detector."— Presentation transcript:

1 Angle Dependent XPS 1 SCA LaB 6 Scanning Electron Source Al Anode 5-Axis Sample Stage Electrons Photoelectrons X-rays Multi Channel Detector Scanning Input Lens Ellipsoidal Monochromator The analysis depth is varied by changing the sample tilt angle

2 Angle Dependent XPS 2 = 90° = 10° d = sin d = analysis depth = electron mean free path = photoelectron take off angle d d X-ray Beam Analyzer Input Lens Analyzer Input Lens e -

3 ADXPS Profile of the Native Oxide on a Si Wafer Surface Binding Energy (eV) c/s C 1s Binding Energy (eV) c/s O 1s x Binding Energy (eV) c/s Si 2p metal oxide x10 3 Corrected for Take-Off-Angle intensity variation Sine of the Photoelectron Take-off Angle Atomic Concentration (%) O 1s C 1s Si 2p - metal Si 2p - oxide Chemical Composition Atomic Concentration Profile

4 ADXPS Profile of the Native Oxide on a Si Wafer Surface Binding Energy (eV) c/s Pos. Chem. State Si 2p3 metal Si 2p1 metal Si 2p oxide Si 2p Curve Fitting Used to Isolate Si Metal and Oxide Chemical Composition Atomic Concentration Profile sine [toa] Atomic Concentration (%) O 1s C 1s Si 2p - metal Si 2p - oxide

5 Interpretation of ADXPS Profiles Using a Stratification Algorithm The stratification algorithm requires peak intensity data from two or more take off angles. The minimum data set should include a high and low take off angle. Estimation of layer order –The peak intensity ratios of all peaks are compared between all the measured take off angles. The number of layers and layer order is based on the correlation of peak intensity ratios. Estimation of film thickness and composition –The peak intensities measured at the high take off angle and the layer order information are used to calculate layer thickness and composition. –The algorithm is useful for qualitative sample to sample comparisons

6 Assumptions and Limitations of the Stratification Algorithm Stratification model assumptions –Individual layers are continuous and uniform in thickness –Individual layers are uniform in composition –Interfaces are abrupt Stratification model limitations –Generic electron mean free paths are applied for thickness calculations Since the model is not calibrated for the sample being measured, the absolute layer thicknesses may contain systematic error –If the actual sample composition violates any of the assumptions, this will impact the layer detection process, composition, and thickness results

7 Stratification Algorithm Interpretation of the ADXPS Profile of the Native Oxide on a Si Wafer 7 Structure Analysis with automatic layer assignment sine [toa] Atomic Concentration (%) O 1s C 1s Si 2p - metal Si 2p - oxide Chemical Composition Atomic Concentration Profile StructureDescription Depth (nm) C 1s (100.0 %) O 1s (67.0 %)Si 2p – oxide (33.0 %) Si2p – metal (100.0 %) Layer1 Layer2(2.03 nm) Residue (1.77e-008) Top Layer(0.19 nm)

8 ADXPS Profile of a Self Assembled Thiol Monolayer on Au sine [toa] Atomic Concentration (%) S 2p O1s Au 4f C 1s (C-C/C-H) C 1s (C-O) Chemical Composition Atomic Concentration Profile Sample in courtesy of Dr. Sophie Noel Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de Paris URA CNRS Universités Paris

9 ADXPS Profile of a Self Assembled Thiol Monolayer on Au x 10 4 Binding Energy (eV) c/s Pos. Sep. %Area C-C/C-H C-O C 1s sine [toa] Atomic Concentration (%) S 2p O1s Au 4f C 1s (C-C/C-H) C 1s (C-O) Chemical Composition Atomic Concentration Profile Peak Fit Routine Separating C 1s Chemical States

10 ADXPS Profile of a Self Assembled Thiol Monolayer on Au 10 StructureDescription Depth (nm) O 1s (41.3 %) C 1s C-O (58.7 %) C 1s C-C/C-H (100.0 %) S 2p (100.0 %) Au 4f (100.0 %)Layer1 Layer2(0.11 nm) Layer3(1.58 nm) Top Layer(0.31 nm) Residue (1.18e-010) sine [toa] Atomic Concentration (%) S 2p O1s Au 4f C 1s (C-C/C-H) C 1s (C-O) Chemical Composition Atomic Concentration Profile Structure Analysis with automatic layer assignment

11 HfO 2 on Si ADXPS Profile sine [toa] Atomic Concentration (%) O 1s C 1s Hf 4f Si 2p (oxide) Si 2p (metal) ° 30° 45° 75° x 10 4 Binding Energy (eV) c/s Hf 4f

12 HfO 2 on Si Structure Analysis Depth (nm) 1.11 nmO 1s 71.2%Hf 4f 28.8% 2.96 nmO 1s 65.2%Si 2p 13.8%Hf 4f 21.0% Si 2p 100% This model was created by a stratification analysis tool in MultiPak. Generic attenuation lengths were used.


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