Presentation on theme: "Coatings for Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Applications"— Presentation transcript:
1Coatings for Fuel Cells & Hydrogen Applications Teer Coatings LimitedCoatings for Fuel Cells & Hydrogen ApplicationsKevin CookeTeer Coatings Ltd,West Stone House,Berry Hill Industrial Estate, Droitwich, Worcestershire,WR9 9AS, UK
2Introduction to Teer Coatings Ltd: Outline of PresentationIntroduction to Teer Coatings Ltd:TCL’s proprietary technology: Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP)Applications in Fuel Cells and HydrogenExample: coatings for PEM cell electrodesTCL’s Low Carbon related Collaborative ResearchSummary & ConclusionsAcknowledgements
4RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Company StructurePRODUCTION COATINGS15 Coating SystemsAutomated cleaning, etc.Single items to 10,000’s/wk3 PRIMARY DIVISIONS:Design & ManufactureCoating & Test EquipmentInc. “bespoke” designs~17 Coating Systemsplus, range of Testing & Analysis EquipmentRESEARCH & DEVELOPMENTEQUIPMENT BUILDING
5July 2009: Miba AG took a minority share (24.9%) of TCL full ownership is expected by the end of 2010.until then TCL remains a SME!The Miba Group is a leading international company, of ~2600 employees, headquartered in Austria.Miba is a leading strategic partner of the international engine and automotive industry.Miba’s product portfolio includes sintered components, engine bearings, friction and coated materials.TCL & HTC (Miba’s Coatings Competence Centre, with ~40 employees) will collaborate closely.
6Routine Production Coatings: Hard coatings, e.g. for cutting tools, etc.e.g. single nitrides TiN, CrN… & alloy nitrides TiAlN, CrAlN, CrTiAlN…, oxides, multilayers, etc.Self lubricating, low friction coatings for wear resistancee.g. carbon based: TCL Graphit-iC™& Dymon-iC; and MoS2 based: TCL MoST™Plus, coatings for corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, optical properties, etc.Coatings typically 1-3µm thick, but…nm to mm thickness possible for special applications
8….for many different applications…. Gears, Bearings and otherWear ComponentsCutting ToolsBody Jewellery….!
9….including Coating of Powders & Grits! Coating sources project into barrelBarrel Coater(Load Locked)Powder exposed to coating flux
10Closed Field Magnetron Sputtering Unbalanced field.Field lines “closed” with another magnetron.Plasma confined around substrates.Electrons loss to chamber walls minimised.Increased ionisation.Dense, adherent coatingsTypical energies 20-30eV, ideal for high quality film growth.Closed Field Magnetron Sputtering was discovered by Teer CoatingsUnbalanced magnetrons have stronger outer magnets, allowing excess field to emerge laterally. Some of the plasma is able to “leak” away, bathing the substrate with an additional energetic flux.When magnets of opposite polarity are arranged in a chamber the lateral fields will link and can form a “magnetic bottle”This retains electrons in the chamber where they can cause further ionisation, increasing the efficiency of plasma generation.Enhanced energetic bombardment of the substrate improves the adhesion and density of the coatings.
11FC&H2 Example - coatings for bipolar plates: TCL’s magnetron sputtering technology isindustrially qualifiedideal for the deposition of thin, dense, well adhered, high quality coatings on a wide range of substrates (including metals and vacuum-stable polymers).Product-specific results of TCL’s previous work in this field are obviously confidential to the customers concerned![V Fox: presented at - Manufacturing of Bipolar Plates event, Swerea IVF, Stockholm, 29th January 2008]
12“Metallic” thin film coatings for bipolar plates: dense, homogeneous coatings of metals are deposited at high ratesmultiple elemental targets (typically 4 or 6)alloys and/or graded compositions easily createdcompounds (nitrides, oxides, etc.) can be synthesised by reactive depositionreactive gas (e.g. N2) introduced during the deposition processcompound (e.g metal + nitrogen = MeN) formed in situautomatic feed back control (reactive gas flow slaved to metal content of the plasma)
13Transition metal nitrides (e.g. TiN, CrN etc.) hard, dense and relatively inertroutine coating sources up to 1m (>2m demonstrated!)metallic levels of electrical conductivityexcellent adhesion (Rockwell and scratch adhesion results on M42 tool steel substrate shown below)
14New high rate magnetron deposition of TiN: 2 magnetrons (12.5kW each)50 mins deposition: total thickness 3.36 μmdeposition rate 4 μm/hr 4x higher than from conventional magnetronshardness: 33 GPascratch adhesion – Lc>60N (i.e. very good)So, achieved 4x increase in rate with no obvious deterioration in coating quality
15Graphit-iC™ coatingsoriginally developed for demanding, high load bearing, tribological applicationscontains ~5 at. % chromiumhardness H = 10 to 40 GPa (selectable);Young’s modulus E* ~ 155 GPalow coefficient of friction (<0.1)very low specific wear rate (~ m3N-1m-1)electrically conducting (like graphite) – high sp2 contentconventional process, ~2µm takes several hrs
163-steps: in-situ ion cleaning Graphit-iC™ Coating Process3-steps:in-situ ion cleaningdeposition of thin metallic Cr interlayerdeposition of C-Cr layer
18Graphit-iC™ coatings for bipolar plates: power input can be increased by up to 3x cf TCL’s “conventional” Graphit-iC coating processdeposition rates improved by 2 to 2.7x, sayhere, 2-axis rotation improves coating uniformity. In-line systems with magnetrons sputtering simultaneously onto both sides of the plates could be used in a production process.pure carbon or Graphit-iC coatings can be deposited at thickness ranging from <100nm to a few micronscoatings can be (have been) deposited with or without Cr adhesion layersrates as high as ~5 µm/hour are already achievable for a stationary substrate (equivalent to 85nm per min)
19TCL’s Collaborative Projects related to “Low Carbon” HydroGENTP (’08-’11)NECLASSTP (’08-’10)Low Cost PVsTP (’08-’11)PROSVACTTP (’08-’11)TSBProjectsCLUSTERBEAMMNT (’06-’09)HYPNOMEMTP (’06-’09)
20Technology Programme projects include: NECLASS: improving FC catalyst utilisationHydroGEN: coatings for electrolysisHYPNOMEM: thin film membranes for H2 purificationCLUSTERBEAM/PROSVACT: creating nano-clusters for model catalysts, etc.Low cost Photovoltaics: cheap, PV materials by thin film, with improved spectral response & long lifeTCL project leaderexcept for HydroGEN &NECLASS
21TCL’s research portfolio includes relevant collaborative projects Summary & ConclusionsPVD coatings have multiple potential applications in Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen EconomyTeer Coatings Limited offers relevant, industrially-qualified, thin film coatingse.g. environmentally resistant, electrically conductive thin film coatings for electrode platesTCL can support partners’ process and equipment needs, from R&D through to full productionTCL’s research portfolio includes relevant collaborative projects
22AcknowledgementsThe collaborative projects described above have benefited from DTI/Technology Strategy Board (MNT and Technology Programme) support.HYPNOMEM was a joint feasibility project by Univ B’ham’s Metallurgy & Materials Department (Rex Harris, John Speight, David Book, Vicky Mann, Sean Fletcher, Jo Grant) and TCL (Joanne Hampshire).Other project collaborators are too numerous to mention, but are gratefully acknowledged!
23For more information please contact: Teer Coatings Limited, West Stone House,Berry Hill Industrial Estate,Droitwich, Worcs, WR9 9AS, UK.Tel: +44(0) ; Fax: +44(0)
24Key Contacts: Paul Teer – Managing Director Dennis Teer – Chairman/Technical DirectorDr Kevin Cooke – Collaborative Research CoordDr Glynn Dyson – Sales & Marketing ManagerWayne Southall – Production Coatings ManagerDr Joanne Hampshire – Special Coatings Manager