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GC University Library 1 Bibliographical Citation Styles.

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1 GC University Library 1 Bibliographical Citation Styles

2 GC University Library 2 Presented By Abdul Waheed (Chief Librarian) Samreen Lateef (Librarian) Abid Iqbal (Librarian)

3 GC University Library 3 What is Citation The pertinent information needed to find the full text of a publication. Citations are provided in bibliographies, indexes, and the lists of references in scholarly works. Citation formats vary according to field of study and/or requirements of particular publications (See: style guide). Citation of a book generally includes: author(s), title, publisher, date. Citation of an article in a periodical generally includes: author(s), article title, source journal title, volume, pages, and date

4 GC University Library 4 What are Citation Style Guides A standardized system for citing materials used when writing books or papers. Citation styles are often created by professional organizations such Modern Language Association (MLA) American Psychological Association (APA) University of Chicago Press ( Chicago Manual of Style ). GCU Library Bibliographic Citation

5 GC University Library 5 Why Cite Sources? To avoid plagiarism To credit the source with the original idea or information To lend credibility and authority to a thesis To back up ideas with credible illustrations, known facts, and accepted statistics

6 GC University Library 6 Using a Consistent Format Using a consistent format helps your reader understand your arguments and the sources theyre built on. It also helps you keep track of your sources as you build arguments.

7 GC University Library 7 Where Do We Find MLA Format? MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. Composition textbooks GCU Website


9 GC University Library 9 DIFFERENT TYPES OF MATERIALS Book Book with editor(s) instead of author(s) Book with corporate author Book usually known by its title One paper from a collection in a book Journal article Conference paper (when proceedings have a named editor) Conference paper (when proceedings have no named editor or are part of a major series) Newspaper article Continue…

10 GC University Library 10 …….Continue Thesis/dissertation Report Patent Standard Map Video and DVD Film Webpages and e-books E-journal articles (treat PDF versions of print journal articles just like print journals Continue……….

11 GC University Library 11 …….Continue discussion lists (gcumail/listserv etc) Personal s CD-ROMs (applies to works in their own right, not bibliographic databases) Unpublished material

12 GC University Library 12 Text Citation & Reference List Entry Text Citation for immediate reference Complete Citation in Reference List at the end

13 GC University Library 13 MLA Bibliographical Style

14 GC University Library 14 Why Do We Have to Follow a Style Guide? In higher classes like MA/M.phil you learn to do research and write in a scholarly style. The purpose of scholarly writing is to document as much about a subject as possible. A style guide is a set of rules that guide you in this documentation process. When you have a problem with your paper it is good to have a helpful guide.

15 GC University Library 15 MLA Style The Modern Language Association has created a handbook Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 6th ed. New York: MLA, 2003.

16 GC University Library 16 Sources of Information

17 GC University Library 17 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Books –Book with a single author –Book with two authors –Book with a corporate author –An edited book –A chapter/article in an edited book –Dictionary or Encyclopaedia –Entry in an encyclopaedia –A thesis –Conference Paper –Report

18 GC University Library 18 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Articles from Journals (academic/scholarly) Print version PDF version - subscription database HTML fulltext version World Wide Web version - not subscription database

19 GC University Library 19 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Articles from Magazines Popular Trade Interest

20 GC University Library 20 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Newspaper Articles Print version Electronic version - subscription database World Wide Web version Newspaper Article with no author.

21 GC University Library 21 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Webpages Website Webpage Webpage ( page author & host organization not the same)

22 GC University Library 22 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Personal Communication Interview

23 GC University Library 23 SOURCES OF INFORMATION DVD / Video / CD-Rom Video/DVD CD-Rom

24 GC University Library 24 SOURCES OF INFORMATION Others Course handout Statutes/Acts Standards Patents

25 GC University Library 25 Citation Style For Books

26 GC University Library 26 Sample Entry for a Book (In Text) (Aijazuddin 121) Author page number

27 GC University Library 27 Sample Entry for a Book (In reference list) Aijazuddin, F.S. Lahore recollected: an album. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, Author Title and subtitle Publishing Company City where published Publication Date

28 GC University Library 28 Books With Single Author IN TEXTREF LIST (Aijazuddin 121)Aijazuddin, F.S. Lahore recollected: an album. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publishers, 2004.

29 GC University Library 29 Books With two Authors IN TEXTREF LIST (Singleton and Straits 96) Singleton, Royce A., and Bruce C. Straits. Approaches to social research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

30 GC University Library 30 Books With Three Author IN TEXTREF LIST (Bodie, Kane, and Marcus 15) Bodie, Zvi, Alex Kane, and Alan J. Marcus. Investments. boston: McGraw Hill, 2005.

31 GC University Library 31 Books With more than three Author IN TEXTREF LIST (Kidwell, et al. 55)Kidwell, David S., et al. Financial institutions, markets, and money. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006.

32 GC University Library 32 Books Two or More Books by the Same Author IN TEXTREF LIST (Durant and Durant 45) Durant, Will and Ariel Durant. The age of Voltaire. New York: Simon, A dual autobiography. New York: Simon, 1977.

33 GC University Library 33 Books With Editor IN TEXTREF LIST (Chaghatai 21)Chaghatai, Ikram, ed. Shah waliullah ( ): his religious and political thought. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2005.

34 GC University Library 34 Books An Introduction, a Preface, a Foreword etc. IN TEXTREF LIST (Doctorow 67)Doctorow, E. L. Introduction. Sister Carrie. By Theodore Dreiser. New York: Bantam, v-xi.

35 GC University Library 35 Books With Corporate Authors IN TEXTREF LIST (Government of Pakistan 73) Government of Pakistan. Pakistan economic survey: Islamabad: Government of Pakistan, 2005.

36 GC University Library 36 Books With Translator IN TEXTREF LIST (Kafka 115)Kafka, Franz. Metamorphosis. Trans. and Ed. Stanley Corngold. New York: Bantam, 1972.

37 GC University Library 37 Books No Author IN TEXTREF LIST (World development report 56) World Development Report. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

38 GC University Library 38 Books An Edition Other than the First IN TEXTREF LIST (Aijazuddin 121)Aijazuddin, F.S. Lahore recollected: an album.2 nd ed. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publishers, 2004.

39 GC University Library 39 Books A Book in a Series IN TEXTREF LIST (Pihl 97)Pihl, Marshall R. The Korean singer of tales. Harvard Yenching Inst. Monograph ser. 37. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1994.

40 GC University Library 40 Books Multivolume Work IN TEXTREF LIST (Hodgson 215)Hodgson, Marshall G. S. The Venture of Islam: conscience and history in a world civilization. 3 vols. Lahore: Vanguard Books, 2004.

41 GC University Library 41 Books Anthology IN TEXTREF LIST (Feldman )Feldman, Paula R., ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

42 GC University Library 42 Books reference book (encyclopedia) IN TEXTREF LIST (Smith 253)Smith, Bruce Lannes. "Propaganda." New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropedia. 15th ed. 1991

43 GC University Library 43 Books reference book (dictionary) IN TEXTREF LIST (Onomatopoeia)"Onomatopoeia." Merriam- Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed

44 GC University Library 44 Books SACRED TEXTS IN TEXTREF LIST KoranKoran. Surah Kausar, ayat no. 2

45 GC University Library 45 Books SACRED TEXTS IN TEXTREF LIST Holy BibleThe Holy Bible. Revised Standard Version. New York: New American Library, 1962.

46 GC University Library 46 Books book review IN TEXTREF LIST (Naqvi)Naqvi, Rizwana. Unfairness of life. Rev. of On the edge: short stories, N. J. Nusha. The Dawn. 17 Sep. 2006: 7.

47 GC University Library 47 Books A Book Without Stated Publication Information or Pagination IN TEXTREF LIST (Bauer 26)Bauer, Johann. Kafka und Prag. [Stuttgart]: Belser, [1971?]

48 GC University Library 48 Books An Unpublished Dissertation IN TEXTREF LIST (Boyle 31)Boyle, Anthony T. the Epistemological Evolution of Penaissance Utopiean Literature, Diss. New York U, 1983.

49 GC University Library 49 Books A Pamphlet IN TEXTREF LIST London. New York: Trip Builder, 1996.

50 GC University Library 50 Periodicals

51 GC University Library 51 Journals scholarly article (using continuous pagination) IN TEXTREF LIST (Cohen 10)Cohen, Jerome B. Economic development in Pakistan. Land Economic. 29.(1958): 1-12.

52 GC University Library 52 Journals scholarly article (using Separate pagination for each issue) IN TEXTREF LIST (Cohen 10)Cohen, Jerome B. Economic development in Pakistan. Land Economic (1958): 1-12.

53 GC University Library 53 Journals Reprinted Article IN TEXTREF LIST (Hunt 30)Hunt, Tim. "The Misreading of Kerouac." Review of Contemporary Fiction 3.2 (1983): Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. C. Riley. Vol. 61. Detroit: Gale,

54 GC University Library 54 Newspapers and Magazines Newspaper or magazine articles IN TEXTREF LIST (Azfar 7)Azfar, Kamal. Concepts of justice. Dawn 17 Sep. 2006: 1+.

55 GC University Library 55 Citing Electronic Resources

56 GC University Library 56 Author Article title Journal title Volume Issue Date Pagination Cite what is available. Database name Supplier Library Access date URL Citing Electronic Resources

57 GC University Library 57 Citing Electronic Resources CITATION MODEL FOR SCHOLARLY JOURNALS IN TEXTREF LIST (Authors last name page number) Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Database. Supplier. Library. Access date.

58 GC University Library 58 Citing Electronic Resources CITATION FOR SCHOLARLY JOURNALS IN TEXTREF LIST (Cohen 10)Cohen, Jerome B. Economic development in Pakistan. Land Economic 29(1958):1-12 Ebscohost. GCU Library. 15 Sep

59 GC University Library 59 Citing Electronic Resources For Common Websites IN TEXTREF LIST (GCU Library)GCU Library. Personal Collections. 15 Sep ons.htm#PERSONAL%20COLLECTI ONS: ons.htm#PERSONAL%20COLLECTI ONS:.

60 GC University Library 60 Citing Electronic Resources CITATION MODEL FOR ONLINE NEWSPAPER IN TEXTREF LIST (Authors last name) Author's Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title day (if given) month year: pages. Database. Supplier. Library. Access date.

61 GC University Library 61 Citing Electronic Resources CITATION FOR ONLINE NEWSPAPER IN TEXTREF LIST (Rehman)Rehman, Mir Jamil."A sensational week." The News 23 Sep GCU Library. 25 Sep

62 GC University Library 62 Citing Electronic Resources CD ROM IN TEXTREF LIST (Marriage)"Marriage." Encyclopedia Judaica. CD- ROM. Vers Jerusalem: Judaica Multimedia, 1997.

63 GC University Library 63 Citing Electronic Resources Articles from An Online Encyclopedia IN TEXTREF LIST (Carfruny)Carfruny, Alan W. East India Company. 29 January World Book Online Reference Center

64 GC University Library 64 Miscellaneous Print and Non-Print Sources

65 GC University Library 65 Film Or Video Recording IN TEXTREF LIST (Annie)Annie Hall. Dir. Woody Allen Videocassette. MGM/UA Home Video, Sound recording: Counting Crows. August and Everything After. DGC, 1993.

66 GC University Library 66 Television Program IN TEXTREF LIST Tazi MandiTazi Mandi. GEO TV. 25 October, 1998.

67 GC University Library 67 Television Advertisement IN TEXTREF LIST (Nestle)Nestle. Advertisement. PTV 1. 3 Sep. 2006

68 GC University Library 68 A Performance IN TEXTREF LIST (Hamlet)Hamlet. by William Shakespeare. Dir John Gielgud. Perf. Richard Burton. Shubert Theatre, Boston. 4 Mar. 1964

69 GC University Library 69 Painting and photograph IN TEXTREF LIST (Dr. Khalid Aftab)Dr. Khalid Aftab in the Postgraduate Library. Photograph by Library Computer Operator. 27 April 2006

70 GC University Library 70 Personal Interview IN TEXTREF LIST (Khalid)Dr. Khalid Aftab. Personal Interview. 7 March 2006.

71 GC University Library 71 Speech IN TEXTREF LIST (Waheed)Waheed, Abdul. Introduction to GCU digital library. Lahore:GCU Library. 7 March 2006.

72 GC University Library 72 Sound recording IN TEXTREF LIST (Nusrat)Nusrat Fata Ali Khan. Qawali. Rehmat Cassette House.1998

73 GC University Library IN TEXTREF LIST (Khalid)Khalid Pervaiz. Bibliographical Citation Workshop. to Abdul Waheed. 22 Sep

74 GC University Library 74 A Manuscript or Typescript IN TEXTREF LIST (Chaucer 54)Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales. Harley ms British Lib. London

75 GC University Library 75 Common Knowledge

76 GC University Library 76 Common Knowledge IN TEXTREF LIST Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) is the last prophet of Allah No need to give the publishing details.

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