2Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Musical Theatre Drama and music have existed as independent expressions of art for thousands of years. It was not until the seventeenth century that the two art forms blended to create a new art form, opera. Opera continued to evolve over the next three centuries, resulting in another new art form: musical theatre. From its American roots, musical theatre has gained popularity around the world. Its unique and accessible blend of drama and music continue to attract new fans today.
3Music in Musical Theatre and Film: An Introduction to Musical Theatre During the 1800s, opera as an art form continued to evolve, but in two entirely opposite directions. In Germany, composers like Richard Wagner wrote lengthy “heroic” operas that took as many as six hours to perform. Meanwhile, in Paris and Vienna, a lighter, more sentimental form of comic opera was finding favor with opera-goers. These “light operas,” or operettas, were actually stage plays with songs and dance interspersed with spoken lines.
4Music in Musical Theatre and Film: The Birth of the Broadway Musical Toward the end of the century, the operetta crossed the Atlantic, where it underwent a transformation. Ultimately it evolved into a dramatic stage form that combines the art of acting and singing. The Broadway musical had been born.Like jazz, the Broadway musical – or simply “musical” – is a uniquely American invention. Its forerunners included not only operettas but minstrel shows and vaudeville. Vaudeville was an early staged variety show that included songs, dances and comedy skits.One of the first composers of Broadway musicals was George M. Cohan. His first show was Little Johnny Jones (1904). “Give My Regards to Broadway,” a song Cohan wrote for the show, became a classic in its own right. More importantly, the song contained the first-ever reference to Broadway as a synonym for “musical theatre.”
5Music in Musical Theatre and Film: The Classic Broadway Musical In the 1920s, the Broadway musical underwent some refinements. Although the emphasis was still on music, the stories began to assume more of the characteristics of actual drama. These included richer plotlines and carefully scripted dialogue, the spoken lines of a play or musical show. During this era, composers such as George Gershwin, Jerome Kern, and Cole Porter emerged on the scene. Among their legendary contributions to musical theatre were Lady Be Good, Show Boat, and Anything Goes.After World War II, composers and lyricists further developed the musical. The period saw the creation of beloved musicals including My Fair Lady (Frederick Loewe and Alan Jay Lerner), The Sound of Music (Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II), and West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim). Such musicals added many unforgettable show tunes such as “Maria,” “Edelweiss,” and “Somewhere” to pop singers’ repertoires. A repertoire is an inventory of compositions mastered and performed by a musician.Prior to World War II, musicals by and large reflected optimism – the belief that goodness will triumph over evil. During the latter part of the twentieth century, however, writers of musicals began addressing darker, more serious themes in their musicals. Examples of this trend include John Kander and Fred Ebb’s dark comedies Chicago and Cabaret.
6Music in Musical Theatre and Film: From Broadway to Hollywood The fact that classic musicals continue to be revived on Broadway today attests to the popularity of this art form. In addition, many Broadway musicals have been adapted into successful films. Several of these became Hollywood hits that earned numerous Academy Awards. These includeWest Side Story (1961) – ten Oscars, including Best PictureMy Fair Lady (1964) – eight Oscars, including Best PictureThe Sound of Music (1965) – five Oscars, including Best PictureCabaret (1972) – eight OscarsChicago (2002) – six Oscars, including Best Picture
7Music in Musical Theatre and Film: An International Trend By the early 1970s, British and French creative teams were making important contributions of musical theatre. In the decades following, they have become a dominant force in this art form. London native Andrew Lloyd Webber’s creations include Cats, Evita, and The Phantom of the Opera. Elton John, also of Great Britain, collaborated with Tim Rice to create shows such as The Lion King and Aida. French composers Claude-Michel Schonberg and Alain Boublil created such blockbuster hits as Les Miserables and Miss Saigon.
8Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Musical Theatre Today After a century’s history, Broadway musicals still flourish today. Classics are revived in innovative ways even as composers and lyricists push the envelope of this art form. On Broadway, it is common to see traditional productions playing side by side with contemporary rock musicals.New stars continue to rise on the Broadway stage. As in the past, the allure of the Broadway stage will continue to attract and produce great singing and acting talents.
9Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Musical Theatre Terms Operettas – stage plays with songs and dance interspersed with spoken linesBroadway musical – a dramatic stage form that combines the arts of acting and singingVaudeville – an early staged variety show that included songs, dances, and comedy skitsDialogue – the spoken lines of a play or musical showRepertoire – an inventory of compositions mastered and performed by a musicianMonologue – a dramatic speech or song delivered by one character in a play
10Perceptive Listening Miss Baltimore Crabs The Lady’s Choice Number your paper Listen to each excerpt. Write the name of the song that is playing next to the correct number.Miss Baltimore CrabsThe Lady’s ChoiceWelcome to the 60sRun and Tell ThatGood Morning BaltimoreIt Takes TwoI Know Where I’ve BeenThe New Girl in TownBig, Blonde, and BeautifulYou’re Timeless To MeBig, Blonde, and Beautiful (Reprise)I Can Hear the BellsYou Can’t Stop the BeatWithout LoveThe Nicest Kids in TownIt’s Hairspray
11Perceptive Listening Answers: Good Morning Baltimore The Nicest Kids in TownIt Takes TwoMiss Baltimore CrabsI Can Hear the BellsLadies’ ChoiceThe New Girl in TownWelcome to the 60sRun and Tell ThatBig, Blonde and BeautifulBig, Blonde and Beautiful (Reprise)You’re Timeless To MeI Know Where I’ve BeenWithout LoveIt’s HairsprayYou Can’t Stop the Beat
12Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Composers – John Williams John Williams (b. 1932) is an American composer, conductor, and pianist. Williams has composed many of the most famous film scores in Hollywood history, including Star Wars, Superman, Harry Potter, Indiana Jones, Schindler’s List, E.T., Home Alone, and Jurassic Park. In addition, he has composed theme music for four Olympic Games, NBC Nightly News, and the inauguration of Barack Obama. Williams is a five-time winner of the Academy Award. He has also won 4 Golden Globes and 21 Grammy Awards.
13Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Composers – John Williams
14Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Film – Harry Potter Harry Potter and the Prisoner of AzkabanMusic: John WilliamsBook: J. K. RowlingSoundtrack: The Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban original motion picture soundtrack was released on 25 May The film's score was composed and conducted by John Williams. It introduced two major themes: “Window to the Past” and “Double Trouble”, although neither have been in any other films as of yet. Other notable themes were the theme used to represent the Time-Turner and to represent Sirius Black's hunt for Harry. Some other minor themes also appeared for the first time.
15Music in Musical Theatre and Film: Film – Harry Potter Soundtrack:Double Trouble:Double Trouble was composed by John Williams during the production of the film as he felt to be a warm welcome back to Hogwarts. The song was sung by the London Oratory School Schola. The lyrics to this song are taken directly from Shakespeare's Macbeth.Forward to Time PastThe track is heard when Hermione and Harry use the time turner to go back in time. During the whole piece a ticking sound is heard, indicating that time is running out. Loads of flourishing strings over-lap the four note motif that the brass repeat rhythmically, and lastly the little bursts of woodwind throughout enforce the sensation of movement.The Dementors ConvergeThis music is heard when Harry is attempting to save Sirius Black from the Dementors. The piece mainly consists of discordant, wavering strings at the beginning, but as it progresses, Williams weaves punctuating piccolos and long notes of brass that gradually build up the menacing tension. This rises to a climax where thunderous clusters of timpani and hair-raising choir are introduced only to die back down, followed by an atmospheric flutter from the harp. The strings then lead into another extremity which uses bits and pieces from William's "The Patronus Light", interjected by harsh, grating brass. The music appears to die off again instantly, however the familiar sound of lush strings and celesta (so prominent in William's earlier scores for these films) subdue the tension afore.FinaleThis is probably best known for appearing in the Goblet of Fire film trailer.