5 An Introduction to Musical theatre During the 1800’s the evolution of opera splitGermany – lengthy heroic operasParis and Vienna – lighter more sentimental comic operaOperettas:stage plays with songs and dance interspersed with spoken linesThe birth of the Broadway musical:Operettas came to America and became the Broadway Musical:A dramatic stage form that combines the arts of acting and singingUniquely AmericanForerunners include operettas, minstrel shows, and vaudeville:An early stage variety show that included songs, dances, and comedy skits
6 George M. Cohan One of the first composers of Broadway musical His first hit show was Little Johnny Jones (1904)“Give My Regards to Broadway,” a song from that show became a classicIt contained the first ever reference to Broadway as a synonym for musical theater
7 The Classic Broadway Musical In the 1920’s the musical continued to developEmphasis on music but there was more emphasis on the storyRicher plot linesMore attention to dialogue:The spoken lines of a play or musicalGeorge Gershwin – Lady Be GoodJerome Kern – Show BoatCole Porter – Anything Goes
8 After World War II the musical further developed Before World War II musicals reflected optimism – good will win over evilAfter World War II the musical further developedMy Fair Lady – Lerner and LoeweThe Sound of Music – Rodgers and HammersteinWest Side Story – Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim
9 These musicals added many songs to the repertoire: An inventory of compositions mastered and performed by a musicianDuring the latter part of the 20th century musicals began addressing darker more serious themesJohn Kander and Fred Ebb = Chicago and Cabaret
10 From Broadway to Hollywood West Side Story (1961)10 Oscars, including Best PictureMy Fair Lady (1964)Eight Oscars, including Best PictureThe Sound of Music (1965)Five Oscars, including Best PictureCabaret (1972)eight OscarsChicago (2002)six Oscars, including Best Picture
11 An International Trend Andrew Lloyd WebberIn the 1970’s British and French teams began contributing to musical theaterAndrew Lloyd Webber – BritishCats, Evita (with Tim Rice), The Phantom of the OperaElton John – BritishThe Lion King and Aida, with Tim RiceClaude-Michel Schonberg and Alain Boublil – FrenchLes Miserables and Miss SaigonTim RiceElton John
12 Assignment Activity 1, p. 345 Investigate a Musical Select one of the musicals mentioned in this section, or choose another that you are interested in. Using reliable online and library resources, research the story and music of the show. Then complete the following:What is the musical about? Write a brief summary of the setting, characters, and basic plot. (10 points)How would you characterize the music? Select one song from the musical and analyze how the song conveys something in the plot or a character’s emotions. What mood does the song portray? What message does the song convey? (10 points)
13 Musical theater Today Broadway musicals are still popular today Both old and new can be seenAudra McDonald (b. 1970)Born in Berlin, GermanyAttended JulliardWon a 1994 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical for Rodgers and Hammerstein’s CarouselAlso won Tonys for Master Class(1996), Ragtime(1998), and A Raisin in the Sun (2004)Youngest actor to ever win three Tonys
14 Les Miserables One of the most popular musicals Opened in London in 1985Based on a novel by Victor Hugo written in 1862Social commentary on the quality of life in FranceUniversal themes of human struggle, endurance, and redemption made it one of the best-selling books in historySeveral 19th century, including Puccini, considered making it into an operaIn 1980 Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schonberg adapted the work into musical theatre
15 Activity 2 p. 347 “Prologue” CD 10:6 How would you describe the dialogue between Javert and Valjean in the “Prologue”Describe the differences in the quality of the voices based on the attitudes that the characters communicate through the music.How does the composer use dynamics to intensify the drama?Lyrics on p. 348
16 Activity 3, p. 349 “What Have I Done?” CD 10:7 Monologue:A dramatic speech or song delivered by one character in a playMake a list of the conflicts he is singing about.How does the melody affect your thoughts about Valjean?Do you think what he has done is forgivable? Why or why not?
17 Activity 4 p. 350 “I Dreamed a Dream” CD 10:8 Which of the following best describes the melodic form of the song?AAAA/ AABA/ ABBA/ AABCAABCThere are 3 distinct groupings of text that tell the story. Is the melody the same, different, or modified in each of the 3 texts?How does the song’s organization support the emotional content?The intro sets up Fantine’s story. The A sections describe he hopeful dreams. The darker B section foreshadows her downfall. The repeat of the A sections emphasizes her tragedy of her story.Think of a single word that describes the pathos depicted in the song.
18 Activity 5, p. 352 “One Day More” video Determine how the addition of music enhanced the dram and messages being presentedThe accompaniment is tailored to each character’s expression yet builds toward the climax of the song in a unifying dramatic wayWhy do you think the composer and lyricist chose to use this format to end the story in Act I?It reviews the characters’ place in the story as well as their emotional and character traits. It also sets up the action of Act II. The song is a dramatic and exciting way to end Act I.
19 Activity 6, p. 356 “On My Own” CD 10:9 Lyrics p. 353Which letter diagram best designates the melodic form of the song?AAAA/ AABB/ AABC/ AABAAABA
20 Activity 7, p. 357 “Empty Chairs at Empty Tables” CD 10:10 MotiveA short musical idea that is easily remembered and helps unify a composition
21 Review - terms Broadway musical Dialogue Monologue Motive Operettas A dramatic stage from that combines the arts of acting and singingDialogueThe spoken lines of a play or musical showMonologueA dramatic speech or song delivered by one character in a aplayMotiveA short musical idea that is easily remembered and helps unify a compositionOperettasStage play with songs and dance interspersed with spoken linesRepertoireAn inventory of compositions mastered and performed by a musicianVaudevilleAn early stage form that combines the arts of acting and singing/
22 Les Miserables Who they were/what they sang Character Sings “I Dreamed a Dream”Central character in Les MiserablesSings “On My Own”Cosette’s motherSings “Empty Chairs at Empty Tables”A police inspectorSings “What Have I Done?”Feels unrequited love for MariusFantineJean ValjeanEponineMariusJavert
23 Musicals of Andrew Lloyd Weber Jesus Christ SuperstarThe Phantom of the OperaCatsEvitaOne of the first composers of Broadway musicalsGeorge M. CohanOne composer who emerged during the 1920’s as a composer of Broadway musicalsGeorge GershwinBroadway singer and actor Audra McDonald won recognition in a revival of which Rodgers and Hammerstein classicCarousel
24 French composers Claude- Michel Schonberg and Alain Boublil wrote… The British composer who collaborated with Tim Rice to create The Lion KingElton JohnFrench composers Claude- Michel Schonberg and Alain Boublil wrote…Les MiserablesWest Side Story (1961)10 Oscars, including Best PictureMy Fair Lady (1964)8 Oscars, including Best PictureThe Sound of Music (1965)5 Oscars, including Best PictureCabaret (1972)8 OscarsChicago (2002)6 Oscars, including Best Picture
25 What characteristics have made Les Miserables a popular and successful musical? Universal themes of human struggleEnduranceRedemptionDrama of the plotEmotional expression of the music
26 What were some of the entertainment forms that contributed to the development of the Broadway musical? How did the Broadway musical change over the years?Predecessors of the Broadway musicalComic operasOperettasMinstrel showsVaudeville1920’s musicalsEmphasis on musicRicher plotlinesCarefully scripted dialogueAfter WWIIComposer lyricist teams created classic musicals like My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, and West Side StoryThese musicals popularized show tunesMusicals were mainly optimisticDuring the latter part of the 20th century musicals began addressing more serious themes