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FIA-SRS Phase 3 Vegetation Structure and Diversity Pilot Study Year 2 Sonja Oswalt Research Associate University of Tennessee Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries.

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Presentation on theme: "FIA-SRS Phase 3 Vegetation Structure and Diversity Pilot Study Year 2 Sonja Oswalt Research Associate University of Tennessee Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIA-SRS Phase 3 Vegetation Structure and Diversity Pilot Study Year 2 Sonja Oswalt Research Associate University of Tennessee Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries Dept. Sonja Oswalt Research Associate University of Tennessee Forestry, Wildlife & Fisheries Dept.

2 OutlineOutline What is VEG? What is VEG? Recap of 2002 South Carolina Pilot Study Recap of 2002 South Carolina Pilot Study Tennessee 2003 Pilot StudyWhy it Worked Tennessee 2003 Pilot StudyWhy it Worked South Carolina VEG Data AnalysisA Glimpse of Whats to Come South Carolina VEG Data AnalysisA Glimpse of Whats to Come What is VEG? What is VEG? Recap of 2002 South Carolina Pilot Study Recap of 2002 South Carolina Pilot Study Tennessee 2003 Pilot StudyWhy it Worked Tennessee 2003 Pilot StudyWhy it Worked South Carolina VEG Data AnalysisA Glimpse of Whats to Come South Carolina VEG Data AnalysisA Glimpse of Whats to Come

3 What is VEG? A measurement of the composition and spatial arrangement of all vascular plants on plot A measurement of the composition and spatial arrangement of all vascular plants on plot Includes all trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and fern allies (horsetails and club mosses) Includes all trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and fern allies (horsetails and club mosses) Examine which forest types are more prone to invasion by non- native species Assess which reporting areas are most diverse Complete sample tree diversity on plot (regeneration) allows better prediction of successional trends A measurement of the composition and spatial arrangement of all vascular plants on plot A measurement of the composition and spatial arrangement of all vascular plants on plot Includes all trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and fern allies (horsetails and club mosses) Includes all trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, ferns, and fern allies (horsetails and club mosses) Examine which forest types are more prone to invasion by non- native species Assess which reporting areas are most diverse Complete sample tree diversity on plot (regeneration) allows better prediction of successional trends

4 South Carolina 2002 Recap Field Methods: Four subplots per plot Four subplots per plot Subplot = 24 radius circle Subplot = 24 radius circle Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Quadrats: Ground cover to 1% Quadrats: Ground cover to 1% Quadrats: Species cover to 1% Quadrats: Species cover to 1% Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4) Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4) Four subplots per plot Four subplots per plot Subplot = 24 radius circle Subplot = 24 radius circle Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Quadrats: Ground cover to 1% Quadrats: Ground cover to 1% Quadrats: Species cover to 1% Quadrats: Species cover to 1% Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4) Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4)

5 South Carolina 2002 Recap Logistics Botanist traveled with forestry crew doing P2 and other P3 variables Botanist traveled with forestry crew doing P2 and other P3 variables Forestry crew marked subplots for veg. work Forestry crew marked subplots for veg. work Botanist collected veg. data without help from foresters Botanist collected veg. data without help from foresters Crew left plot when foresters were done, regardless of Veg. Indicator completion (Subplots that were started were finished) Crew left plot when foresters were done, regardless of Veg. Indicator completion (Subplots that were started were finished) Crew traveled from Lexington/Newberry daily and returned home every night Crew traveled from Lexington/Newberry daily and returned home every night Botanist traveled with forestry crew doing P2 and other P3 variables Botanist traveled with forestry crew doing P2 and other P3 variables Forestry crew marked subplots for veg. work Forestry crew marked subplots for veg. work Botanist collected veg. data without help from foresters Botanist collected veg. data without help from foresters Crew left plot when foresters were done, regardless of Veg. Indicator completion (Subplots that were started were finished) Crew left plot when foresters were done, regardless of Veg. Indicator completion (Subplots that were started were finished) Crew traveled from Lexington/Newberry daily and returned home every night Crew traveled from Lexington/Newberry daily and returned home every night

6 South Carolina 2002 Recap Completion Results Collected data on 31 out of 33 plots in 27 counties in SC Collected data on 31 out of 33 plots in 27 counties in SC Completed 71 out of 124 subplots (57%) Completed 71 out of 124 subplots (57%) Subplots completed (# plots): Subplots completed (# plots): 4 (4)3 (6) 2 (16)1 (5) Average: 2.3 subplots per plot Collected data on 31 out of 33 plots in 27 counties in SC Collected data on 31 out of 33 plots in 27 counties in SC Completed 71 out of 124 subplots (57%) Completed 71 out of 124 subplots (57%) Subplots completed (# plots): Subplots completed (# plots): 4 (4)3 (6) 2 (16)1 (5) Average: 2.3 subplots per plot

7 South Carolina 2002 Why Didnt It Work? More travel than plot time More travel than plot time No overnight stays No overnight stays Ave. 3.3 hrs on plot/day, 4.4 hrs travel/day Ave. 3.3 hrs on plot/day, 4.4 hrs travel/day One plot: 65 min. in field, 7 hours driving (1 SP completed) One plot: 65 min. in field, 7 hours driving (1 SP completed) Botanist did not adhere to time limits for species search Botanist did not adhere to time limits for species search Excessive keying/coding on plot Excessive keying/coding on plot More travel than plot time More travel than plot time No overnight stays No overnight stays Ave. 3.3 hrs on plot/day, 4.4 hrs travel/day Ave. 3.3 hrs on plot/day, 4.4 hrs travel/day One plot: 65 min. in field, 7 hours driving (1 SP completed) One plot: 65 min. in field, 7 hours driving (1 SP completed) Botanist did not adhere to time limits for species search Botanist did not adhere to time limits for species search Excessive keying/coding on plot Excessive keying/coding on plot

8 Tennessee 2003How Did it Differ? Slightly Different Methodology Slightly Different Methodology Ability to work 10-hour days Ability to work 10-hour days Overnight stays in working counties Overnight stays in working counties Cooperative crew members Cooperative crew members Strict adherence to time limits Strict adherence to time limits Collecting more, keying less… Collecting more, keying less… Data collection on paperentry into Tally later Data collection on paperentry into Tally later Coding either en route from plot or in hotel Coding either en route from plot or in hotel

9 2003 Methodology Four subplots per plot Four subplots per plot Subplot = 24 radius circle Subplot = 24 radius circle Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Quadrats: Ground cover to 1%--ELIMINATED Quadrats: Ground cover to 1%--ELIMINATED Quadrats: Species cover to 1%--ELIMINATED Quadrats: Species cover to 1%--ELIMINATED List presence/absence of species only Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species CHANGED: Record % cover of each species in 3 Ht classes: 0-6 ft, 6-16 ft, 16+ ft Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4) Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4) Four subplots per plot Four subplots per plot Subplot = 24 radius circle Subplot = 24 radius circle Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Three 1-m2 quadrats in each SP Quadrats: Ground cover to 1%--ELIMINATED Quadrats: Ground cover to 1%--ELIMINATED Quadrats: Species cover to 1%--ELIMINATED Quadrats: Species cover to 1%--ELIMINATED List presence/absence of species only Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: List all species, cover to 1% Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species Subplot: Note layer of greatest cover for all species CHANGED: Record % cover of each species in 3 Ht classes: 0-6 ft, 6-16 ft, 16+ ft Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4) Subplot: Total cover (of all species combined) to 1% for each layer class (1-4)

10 Tennessee 2003 Completion Results Collected data on 15 plots in 15 counties Collected data on 15 plots in 15 counties 60 Subplots Total, 4 non-forested: 56 Total Forested Subplots 60 Subplots Total, 4 non-forested: 56 Total Forested Subplots ALL BUT ONE PLOT COMPLETED ALL BUT ONE PLOT COMPLETED --Why the one? The botanist got lost… Collected data on 15 plots in 15 counties Collected data on 15 plots in 15 counties 60 Subplots Total, 4 non-forested: 56 Total Forested Subplots 60 Subplots Total, 4 non-forested: 56 Total Forested Subplots ALL BUT ONE PLOT COMPLETED ALL BUT ONE PLOT COMPLETED --Why the one? The botanist got lost…

11 Why Did Tennessee Work? Fewer, Longer days are Key, and the ability to trade-off hours between days (i.e., work 12 hours one day and 8 the next) Fewer, Longer days are Key, and the ability to trade-off hours between days (i.e., work 12 hours one day and 8 the next) Elimination of time-consuming, redundant data collection Elimination of time-consuming, redundant data collection Strict Adherence to Time Limits Strict Adherence to Time Limits Total Hours spent Traveling: 76 Total Hours spent Traveling: 76 Total Hours spent on Plot: 47 Total Hours spent on Plot: 47 Total Hours spent Pressing Plants: 3 Total Hours spent Pressing Plants: 3 Total Hours spent Identifying: In process Total Hours spent Identifying: In process Total Hours spent Entering data: In process Total Hours spent Entering data: In process

12 Per-Day Breakdown 5 Hours Traveling per day 5 Hours Traveling per day 3-4 Hours on plot per day 3-4 Hours on plot per day 20 minutes pressing plants 20 minutes pressing plants ~ 20 minutes to prepare unknowns ~ 20 minutes to prepare unknowns ~ 30 minutes to code data ~ 30 minutes to code data ~ 45 minutes to enter data ~ 45 minutes to enter data Preparing & Sending Unknowns / Entering Data completed in hotel during evening Total Time Needed Per Day: ~ 10 Hours

13 2003 Time (Preliminary) Logistics remain the largest problem. However, 4 10-hour days and shorter methods help to counteract.

14 Where Are We Headed With The Data? South Carolina Invasive Species Report: An Example of Uses for VEG P3 Data South Carolina Invasive Species Report: An Example of Uses for VEG P3 Data

15 Data Analysis Data from South Carolina P-2 Exotic Species Variable Data from South Carolina P-2 Exotic Species Variable Data from South Carolina P-3 VEG collection Data from South Carolina P-3 VEG collection Analyzed by Eco-region and Physiographic Section Analyzed by Eco-region and Physiographic Section Two Levels: Plot and Subplot Two Levels: Plot and Subplot SAS software, NCSS software, Arcview SAS software, NCSS software, Arcview Summary statistics, differences in relative diversity, occurrence of non-native invasives Summary statistics, differences in relative diversity, occurrence of non-native invasives

16 Results (P-2 and P-3) Phase-2 Phase forested plots in 46 counties in forested plots in 46 counties in % contained at least one alien species 41% contained at least one alien species 15% contained at least two 15% contained at least two 3 % contained at least 3 3 % contained at least 3 <1% contained 4 or more <1% contained 4 or more Phase-3 Phase plant families represented 102 plant families represented 6% of all identified species are alien 6% of all identified species are alien However: Alien species occurred in 80% of measured plots However: Alien species occurred in 80% of measured plots In contrast: 73% of native species occurred in LESS THAN 10% of all plots and 48% occurred in only ONE measured plot In contrast: 73% of native species occurred in LESS THAN 10% of all plots and 48% occurred in only ONE measured plot

17 Mean Number of Species/Subplot by Ecological Region (Significantly Different at α = 0.10) Mean Number of Species/Subplot by Ecological Region (Significantly Different at α = 0.10)

18 Scientific nameCommon NameFrequency (%) by Subplot Vitis rotundifolia Michx.muscadine73.24 Acer rubrum L.red maple67.61 Smilax glauca Walt.cat greenbriar57.75 Pinus taeda L.loblolly pine56.34 Prunus serotina Ehrh.pond pine54.93 Liquidambar styraciflua L.sweetgum53.52 Diospyros virginiana L.common persimmon49.30 Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) St. Hil.evening trumpetflower47.89 Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch.virginia creeper47.89 Quercus alba L.white oak42.25 Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.black gum40.85 Quercus laurifolia Michx.Laurel oak40.85 Rubus argutus Linksawtooth blackberry40.85 Smilax rotundifolia L.roundleaf greenbriar40.85 Ilex opaca Ait.American holly36.62 Quercus nigra L.water oak36.62 Cornus florida L.flowering dogwood35.21 Quercus falcata Michx.southern red oak33.80 Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntzepoison ivy33.80 Vaccinium arboreum Marsh.farkleberry32.39

19 Alien Species Detection P-2: Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) was most common (Frequency = 31.88%) P-2: Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) was most common (Frequency = 31.88%) However, P-2 can ONLY detect up to 4 per plot, and only those On the List (total of 16) However, P-2 can ONLY detect up to 4 per plot, and only those On the List (total of 16) P-3: Japanese honeysuckle was most common (Frequency = 45.16%), which corresponds to the P-2 data P-3: Japanese honeysuckle was most common (Frequency = 45.16%), which corresponds to the P-2 data P-3 can detect as many non-native potentially invasive species as are present (total of 27), making it a more sensitive method for detection P-3 can detect as many non-native potentially invasive species as are present (total of 27), making it a more sensitive method for detection

20 Effects of Disturbance Logistic regression indicated that distance of a plot from agricultural land was significant in explaining the presence of exotic species on a plot (p < 0.001) (p < 0.001)

21 Proportion of plots containing exotic species in each major ecological region Atlantic Coastal Plain 23%

22 South Carolina 2002/2003 Data Conclusions Non-native Species constitute a substantial threat to forest health in South Carolina Non-native Species constitute a substantial threat to forest health in South Carolina Phase-3 data indicate that although non-natives comprise a small % of vascular plants, those few species are alarmingly widespread Phase-3 data indicate that although non-natives comprise a small % of vascular plants, those few species are alarmingly widespread As the more detailed P-3 data continues to be collected, examination of edge-related disturbances may give insight into the impacts of types and patterns of disturbance on the establishment and reproduction of vascular plant species As the more detailed P-3 data continues to be collected, examination of edge-related disturbances may give insight into the impacts of types and patterns of disturbance on the establishment and reproduction of vascular plant species

23 Conclusion With increased efficiency in protocol and fewer but longer days in a week, the P-3 VEG collection is possible in the south With increased efficiency in protocol and fewer but longer days in a week, the P-3 VEG collection is possible in the south P-3 VEG can provide additional information regarding the spread of non-native species, the impacts of disturbance on vascular plant composition, and differences in regional diversity P-3 VEG can provide additional information regarding the spread of non-native species, the impacts of disturbance on vascular plant composition, and differences in regional diversity

24 Acknowledgements University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife, & Fisheries, Dr. George Hopper-Department Head University of Tennessee, Department of Forestry, Wildlife, & Fisheries, Dr. George Hopper-Department Head USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station FIA, John Kelly-Acting Project Leader USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station FIA, John Kelly-Acting Project Leader South Carolina State Forestry Commission South Carolina State Forestry Commission Tennessee Division of Forestry Tennessee Division of Forestry Sharon King, Jeff Turner, Beth Schulz, Cindy Aulbach, Byron Rominger, John Mullins, Anita Rose, TDF Crew Members Sharon King, Jeff Turner, Beth Schulz, Cindy Aulbach, Byron Rominger, John Mullins, Anita Rose, TDF Crew Members

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