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Global Change Unit Chapter 9: Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 19: Climate Change and Ozone Completion.

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Presentation on theme: "Global Change Unit Chapter 9: Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 19: Climate Change and Ozone Completion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Change Unit Chapter 9: Sustaining Biodiversity: The Species Approach Chapter 19: Climate Change and Ozone Completion

2 Chapter 9: Sustaining Biodiversity - The Species Approach

3 Extinction Background extinction - Continuous low level extinction
Extinction rate - number of species that go extinct during a time period (%) Extinction is natural, but human activities are destroying and degrading biodiversity causing premature extinctions.

4 Endangered and Threatened Species
Endangered species have so few survivors that the species could soon become extinct. Threatened species are abundant in their natural range but could become endangered because of declining numbers.

5 Endangered Species

6 Why prevent extinction?
Instrumental value - usefulness to us in providing ecological and economic services. Intrinsic or existence value - species have the right to exist.

7 HIPPCO: The greatest threat to species
H: Habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation I: invasive species P: population and resource use P: pollution C: climate change O: overexploitation



10 Invasive Species Accidentally or intentionally introduced
Often have no natural predators or competitors.

11 Invasive Species Prevention of new invasive species is important.

12 Overexploitation Illegal killing, capturing and selling of wild species. Demand for bushmeat Exotic pets

13 Protecting Species U.S. Endangered Species Act - Identify and protect endangered species in the U.S. and abroad. Based on biological factors alone, which makes it controversial. ESA forbids projects that could jeopardize and endangered species or threaten its habitat.

14 Protecting Species Establish wildlife refuges and other protected areas. Gene banks, botanical gardens, and wildlife farms Zoos and Aquariums

15 Chapter 19: Climate Change and Ozone Depletion

16 The History of Global Warming
Over earth’s 4.5 billion year history its climate has been altered by volcanic eruptions, solar input, moving continents, meteors etc. Glacial and interglacial periods have marked the past 900,000 years.

17 Global Temperature

18 The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect warms the lower atmosphere in the surface of the earth. How? Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (all make up 1%) molecules kinetic energy increases when energy is reflected by the earth into the atmosphere. The energy is then reflected back to the surface in the form of infrared energy.

19 Greenhouse Gases Humans emit A LOT of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Agriculture Deforestation Burning fossil fuels

20 In the past, increases in greenhouse gases have coincided with increased global temperature.

21 Greenhouse Gases CO2 levels have increased from 228 ppb to 384 ppb (59%) in the last 275 years from mostly burning fossil fuels. Methane emissions are caused by: dams, landfills, farm animals, extracting fossil fuels, melting permafrost. N2O levels have risen by 20% during the last 275 years mostly due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers.



24 Predicting the Effects of Global Warming is Complicated

25 Understanding Global Warming
Hotter Sun? Probably not, as the stratosphere has been cooling. Oceans absorb carbon dioxide, but as they warm, they cannot hold as much and release CO2 back into the atmosphere (oops).

26 Understanding Global Warming
Increased Cloud Cover could reflect the sun and cool the earth or keep the energy near the surface (like a greenhouse gas). Depends on cloud type. Air pollution - aerosols (suspended microscopic droplets and particles) can hinder or increase cloud formation.

27 Effects of Global Warming
Problem: The change in global temperature is occurring rapidly.

28 Effects of Global Warming

29 Ice and Snow Are Melting

30 Sea Levels are Rising

31 Permafrost is Melting

32 There is More Changing Ocean Currents Extreme weather in some areas
Biological ranges are being altered and biodiversity threatened. Threats to Human Health

33 Global Warming and Biodiversity

34 Slowing Climate Change
Problems: Global Issue Effects are long lasting Long-term political issue Impacts of Climate Change are not spread evenly Solutions could disrupt economies

35 Slowing Climate Change
Improve energy efficiency Shift from non-renewable fossil fuels to a mix of renewable sources. Stop cutting forests (especially tropical) Capture and store as much CO2 as possible. How can this be done?

36 Slowing Climate Change

37 Carbon Capture and Storage
CCS involves removing CO2 from smokestacks and storing the elsewhere like abandoned coal beds or gas fields. Expensive power plants How can CO2 be captured Requires a lot of energy Supports continued use of coal


39 Governments and Climate Change
The cost of damages from global warming and the cost to slow it down are debatable. Governments can regulate CO2 and CH4 pollutants, use carbon or energy taxes instead of property or income tax.

40 The Kyoto Protocol In 1997, 161 nations met in Japan to negotiate a treaty to slow climate change. 174 of the worlds 194 nations ratified the treaty that required developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Allows for trading of greenhouse gas emissions. (caps set high)

41 Some are Making a Change
China and India are investing in sustainable development. U.S. Companies are reducing greenhouse emissions to save money. Wal-Mart saves $34 million a year by using cfl’s and auxiliary power units for shipping trucks.

42 Ozone Depletion Seasonal thinning of the ozone layer caused by:
Chlorofluorocarbons - air conditioners, fridges, aerosol cans, cleaners, fumigants Hydrobromoflurocarbons - fire extinguishers Methyl bromide - fumigant Hydrogen chloride - space shuttles Various chemicals from cleaning solvents

43 Ozone Depletion is Bad More UV-A and UV-B radiation will reach the earth’s surface resulting in more cataracts, sunburns and skin cancer. Increased radiation could impair or destroy phytoplankton.

44 Reversing Ozone Depletion
Stop producing all ozone-depleting chemicals. (60 years to recover) Warming the troposphere makes the stratosphere cooler which slows down ozone repair. Copenhagen Protocol (1992) countries agreed to phase-out key ozone-depleting chemicals.

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