Climate Change (aka Global Warming) Global Warming
Climate Change WHAT? The rise in average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Greenhouse gas levels in the air are increasing (CO 2 methane, nitrous oxide primarily) This prevents heat from escaping causing slight world wide temperature increases
Climate Change CAUSE/EFFECT Causes The burning of fossil fuels Deforestation Fertilizers on crops Livestock Decomposition in landfills Effects Sea level Rise Glacial Melting Increase in Storm Strengths Changes in seasons and ecosystems
WHAT is ozone? Protective layer 9.3 – 18.6 miles above earth that block UV rays
Hole in the Ozone Cause/Effect CAUSE Caused by aerosol chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that escape into atmosphere and reacts with ozoneCFCs EFFECT Allows more UV rays penetrate the atmosphere and cause harm to many organisms (cancer, cataracts, plant damage) ****THIS DOES NOT CAUSE GLOBAL WARMING. THE TWO ARE NOT RELATED !!!
Cause and Effect CAUSE Demand for wood products, need for space, farmland, housing, roads EFFECT – Loss of habitat – habitat fragmentation: habitat is broken into smaller areas and animals and plants are forced into confined areas – Erosion, flooding, change in weather – Increase in CO2 in atmosphere due to less plants using the gas to photosynthesize
Acid Rain What? Acidic precipitation CAUSE Burning of fossil fuels (such as coal) releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. When they react with water they create sulfuric acid and nitric acid. EFFECT Has harmful effects on plants, animals, aquatic environments as well as infrastructure
Invasive species (EXOTIC SPECIES) WHAT/CAUSE Animals or plants introduced by people accidentally or intentionally EFFECT Can cause major ecological disaster if no natural predators are present and they out compete natural residents -asian carp, kudzu, lionfish, snakehead, python, wild boar,asian carp Cane toad NC Invasive Species
Pollution WHAT? Fertilizers, animal waste, particulate, and toxins entering the ecosystem from agriculture, industry and households Cause/Effect Smog (low level haze of particulates) Algal Blooms (from nutrient overload) Biomaccumulation: build up of toxins in organisms fatty tissues At each trophic level, chemical concentration increases: BiomagnificationBiomagnification Example: DDT concentrations increase from plankton to fish to fish-eating birds.
Fish-Eating Birds Magnification of DDT Concentration 10,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000,000 1 1000 Large Fish Small Fish Zooplankton Producers Water Rachel Carson DDT Figure 6-16 Biological Magnification of DDT Go to Section: