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1 COSTS VERSUS BENEFITS for ENERGY STORAGE IN THE GRID Walter J. Culver Board Chairman Great Lakes Energy Institute at Case Western Reserve University,

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Presentation on theme: "1 COSTS VERSUS BENEFITS for ENERGY STORAGE IN THE GRID Walter J. Culver Board Chairman Great Lakes Energy Institute at Case Western Reserve University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 COSTS VERSUS BENEFITS for ENERGY STORAGE IN THE GRID Walter J. Culver Board Chairman Great Lakes Energy Institute at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106

2 2 It can soften the stress on the grid from ramping –Solar & wind come at the wrong times, with severe, long ramps (easily 10 MW/sec) at the start and end of the generation workday. –Even w/o renewables there are ramps around breakfast, dinnertime, and the use of air conditioners. It can improve profits and reduce consumer rates by storing cheap energy and releasing it during expensive periods. In lieu of peaker generators, it can fill in the spikes from solar & wind intermittencies that can disrupt frequency and voltage. Storage Has Been Conceptually Attractive for Decades

3 3 The Stress Thing: Steam-Fired Generators Dont Like to Cycle… From D. Bradshaw, Value Proposition for Wind Smoothing and Mitigation of Ramps, EPRI Webinar, Functional Requirements for Energy Storage Applications…, 29 July 2010:

4 4 From W. J. Culver, High-Value Energy Storage for the Grid: A Multi-Dimensional Look, The Electricity Journal 23 (Dec. 2010), pp …And Storage Is Far Better Emissions-Wise

5 5 32% of the grid is arguably storage-addressable, but only 2.5% of the grid is served by storage ( 30 GW of the U.S.s 1100 GW), and of that 99% is pumped hydroelectric storage from reservoirs at elevation. Reason? Cost, interwoven with the complexity of quantifying the benefits in the business case for storage. But Storage Penetration of the Grid is Low

6 6 There are 17 storage applications,* Some needing a high power-to-energy configuration and some needing a low power-to-energy configuration. Some are alternatives to generation, others transmission & distribution (T&D), yet others customer-premises assets. The needs swing considerably around the average, requiring care to size and justify any given deployment. The needs do not translate well to the storage providers world, so their product-specification sheets lose some relevance. * See J. Eyer, G. Corey: Sandia National Laboratories report SAND , Energy Storage for the Electricity Grid, Benefits and Market Potential…, 232 pages, February 2010, where applications are called Benefit Types. The Complexity in Assessing Benefits Starts with the Diversity of Applications in the Grid

7 7 And Raw Costs Are Too High… From W. J. Culver…, adapted from D. Rastler, New Demand for Energy Storage, Electric Perspectives, September/October 2008, pp 30-47: %20Perspectives%20Article%20Listing/ EnergyStorage.pdf %20Perspectives%20Article%20Listing/ EnergyStorage.pdf

8 8 …Compared to the One-By-One Applications Benefits From W. J. Culver...

9 9 Newspaper accounts of 10 MW wind-farm in Maui, Hawaii report $1,000 per kW (half the EPRI tables costs, but still too high). The TECHNOLOGY of Li ion batteries is benefitting from the auto market – but any economies of scale are at the cell level. The power electronics – at least a 1/3 adder to raw-storage cost – is the subject of major federal research investments.* * See, e.g., the ARPA-e program ADEPT (Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology), which is surge-funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (the 2009 stimulus package): Especially for Electrochemical Storage, Costs ARE Dropping…

10 10 13 of the 17 applications are good candidates for sharing a deployment with other applications.* Consider. e.g., five applications wrapped synergistically around Benefit Type 11, Time-of-Use Energy Cost Management: …But a Straighter Path to Deeper Penetration Is Multi-Use Storage to Harvest Multiple Benefits * See J. Eyer, page 121.

11 11 The Reddish Line Shows the Economic Payoff is Between 50% and 100% Better in This Multi-Use Deployment

12 12 The Benefit Types (applications) have to be compatible and the combinations cost-attractive -- even if no one Benefit Type is. So we need tools to answer the following analytically and to make verification, validation, and accreditation (V&V&A) runs: –Which applications fit multi-use baskets specific to us? –How do we optimize the mix of technologies, control laws, and sites across what operational scenarios? –What what-ifs do we try in the convenience of a testbed? –Is the financial payoff worth the trouble? This all heuristic today: To start building a definitive toolbox is a goal of the Energy Storage Validation Center (ESVC) started by Case Western Reserve and other partners. To Realistically Harvest These Multi-Use Synergies…


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