Presentation on theme: "Urban Heat Island Effect (城市熱島效應)"— Presentation transcript:
1Urban Heat Island Effect (城市熱島效應) The Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityDepartment of Applied PhysicsUrban Heat Island Effect (城市熱島效應)
2What is Urban Heat Island Effect? The temperature in cities is higher than the suburbs (郊區)The temperature in cities is higher and so isotherm (等溫線) decreases gradually from the cities to the surrounding suburbs (郊區).The city seems to be an island in relief map (地形圖) surrounded by the “suburb” ocean, so it is called Heat Island (熱島).
3Urban Heat Island Effect Hot air in city continuously flows up and disperse at a certain height in the sky, forming low pressure area (低壓區) on ground.Cool air on ground from suburbs flows into the city causing circumfluence (環流).Smoke and dust from industrial areas (工業區) around the city flow into the town centre instead, causing the concentration of pollutants in town center higher than that of the industrial area.
6Causes (成因) of Urban Heat Island Effect Buildings highly concentrated in citiesLow wind speed near ground levelPoor ventilate (通風)Artificial environment absorbs much radiationfrom the SunMultiple reflection and absorption between roofs, walls of buildings and the groundLarge heat capacity (熱容量) of reinforced concrete (鋼筋水泥) absorbs much radiation during daytimeHeat release due to human activitiesheat emission by air-conditioners and carsAir pollutionSuch pollutants absorb radiation heat easily
7Influence (影響) of Urban Heat Island Effect The strength of Urban Heat Island Effect isrelated to the scale of the city (城市規模), meteorology factors (氣象因素), etc.The annual mean temperature (年平均氣溫) of big cities is 0.5 ~ 1 °C higher than that of suburbsThe lowest mean temperature (平均最低氣溫) of big cities in winter is 1 ~ 2 °C higher than that of suburbsCities seems like a warm island, Urban Heat Island Effect is more apparent in big cities and at night.
9Influence (影響) of Urban Heat Island Effect Weaken the intensity of solar radiation (太陽輻射) and sunshine (日照)Dust in the air is increasing due to air pollution. Therefore, solar radiation reaching the ground is weakened.
10Urban Heat Island Effect Influence (影響) ofUrban Heat Island EffectLow humidity (低濕), foggy (多霧), rainfall (降雨) increasesCities with good drainage system (排水系統) and concrete ground causing humidity of cities lower than that of suburbs.The ground is dry. It cannot help accommodating weather.There are many cloud condensation nuclei (凝結核) in the sky above the cities, so it is foggy.The annual rainfall (年降雨量) in cities is about 5 – 10% higher than that of the suburbs.
11Urban Heat Island Effect aggravated (加劇) by Urbanization (城市化) Development of cities accelerates the changes of climaterapid urbanization in Hong Kong in recent 50 years causing the warmer climatethe temperature rises 1 °C in averageReasons:A large number of trees are chopped, fewer plants to remove carbon dioxide (二氧化碳) and to adsorb (吸附) dustDensity and height of buildings increases, so wind cannot flow into citiesExhaust (廢氣) discharged from air-conditioners and cars