2 Session outline Green Cleaning defined and described The opportunity Researching the specification and selling the conceptEvaluation and selection of SuppliersKey contract conditions and schedules
3 What is ‘green cleaning’? Green Cleaning is an integrated, comprehensive system, often defined as “cleaning for health without harming our environment.”Specifies for least hazardous product for the job;Minimises the range of products used;Buys in concentrate (reduces packaging, transport, storage, resources used as fillers and bulking agents);Specifies recycled and low embodied energy products;Uses energy and water efficient equipment;Employs modified methods and technologies; andApplies quality assurance for training, procedures.Not necessarily more expensive, in fact studies from USA and UK have shown savings in both materials and labour.Necessarily more labour intensive. What is important is a good understanding of the requirement of the product, eg some ‘green cleaning chemicals’ require longer dwell times before reaching optimum effectiveness. If used immediately the impression may be that they are not effective.Resulting in less clean or hygienic environments; in many instances, the environment is more healthy due to reduction of lingering chemicals and particulates.
4 Characteristics : No persistent bio-acumulates or toxic chemicals No ozone depleting substancesLow, or no, volatile organic compoundsNo phosphatesNo carcinogens, mutagens or tetragensEnergy efficient, minimise water use;Ergonomic and reduce injuries like back strainContain recycled content (paper, plastic) and are durable, re-usable and recyclable.
5 Conventional practices Commonly used products contain toxic and hazardous substances:Phthalates (distribute fragrances and act as plasticisers), solvents (HCFC- 141), surfactants (alkyl phenol ethoxylates), volatile organic compounds (all known carcinogens) that act as dispersants; fragrances that contain skin and respiratory irritants, but require no other label than ‘fragrance’ disinfectant / antimicrobial (paradichlorobenzene)Makes work by doing work (Stripping, sealing and polishing of floors)Promotes the ‘hygiene myth’ that surfaces should be disinfected in order to be clean and safe.There is a growing theory that excessive use of disinfectants and chemicals is associated with increases in bacterial resistance, auto-immune diseases, allergies, respiratory problems like asthma and other hyper-sensitive conditions.
6 Benefits of Green Cleaning Better health for cleaners (dermatitis, asthma, conditions associated with chronic exposure to chemicals);A study in Washington state conducted several years ago revealed that six out of every 100 professional janitors were injured every year by the chemicals they used. Of these injuries, 40 percent involved eye irritation and burns, 36 percent caused skin irritation and burns, and 12 percent were a result of aspirating fumes. The cost for lost time and the treatment of such injuries totalled more than US$725 per incident.Better health for workers and building occupants through improved indoor air quality (IAQ); associated with lower time lost due to illness amongst occupants, fewer allergies and incidents of hyper sensitivity;Reduced environmental impact, notably waterways, treatment works, aquatic creatures and plants, reduced waste to landfill, reduced toxic substances released into environment.Contributes points towards Green Star rating for Interior fit-out. From ISSA (The worldwide cleaning association) website:
7 Sourcing methodologyRobust, best practice procurement practice
8 Project structure and governance ChampionsSteering CommitteeProject TeamInternal stakeholders
9 Planning and analysis Spend Analysis Customer Survey Project Plan A sustainable procurement approach must be developed, delivered and maintained in complex, dynamic environments.Protracted, Considered, Thoughtful analysis reveals connections in what can seem at first chaotic.Stakeholder engagement elicits powerful analytical data for implementation.“Culture eats strategy for breakfast”
10 Planning and analysisIndustry AnalysisSupply Chain Mapping
11 BeforeAncillary contracts managed by UNSW (window cleaning, continuous toweling, feminine hygiene, waterless urinals)5 contractors + day labour + in-house staffConsumables purchased by UNSW ( hand soap, paper products, cleaning chemicals)
12 Researching the specification Journals and publicationsInternetStandardsSite visits
13 Standards and Certifications for Green Cleaning Cleaning methods and materials contribute points toward ‘green building’ rating schemes:Green Star ratings through the Green Building Council of Australia.Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ratings through the U.S. Green Building Council.BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method in the U.K.Primary category is in indoor air / environment quality and considers emissions from furniture, paints, carpets, HVAC and cleaning products and methods.Ratings for machinery and products based on energy and water efficiency ratings, third party certification provided on health and environmental impact of chemicals (GECA in Australia, Green Seal and EcoLogo in U.S. and Canada, European Flower in U.K. and E.U.).Australian Environmental Labelling Association have standards for Cleaning Services and Cleaning Products that provide the basis of GECA certification.
14 The specification and contract structure Terms & Conditions included in Tender PackageGreen Cleaning specification a mixture of technical and performance based requirementsService Level AgreementKey Performance Indicators“carrot and stick”Cost (Structure, Total Cost of Ownership)transparent and understoodshared cost savings
17 Implementation Four pilot buildings with nominated contact Active communications and liaison
18 Implementation Training for contractor and University staff Audits for verification and fine tuning service delivery
19 2 + years laterCosts and variations contained and managed to contract conditionsBenefits extended to other university operations
20 2 + years later Continuing innovation: Wagtail floor and window technologyDyson hand-dryersChemical free scrubbers
21 Critical success factors Planning, research and analysisKnow your business, know the opportunities in the market, research innovationGovernance and StructureA transparent and robust process delivers reliable resultsContract and Supplier ManagementClear deliverables, measures and cost structure; a partnership approachChange ManagementEarly adopters, active communications, small steps before full roll out
22 References, sites,Harvard University Rutgers University Royal Roads University, British Columbia Macquarie University and Monash University – though not a comprehensive program in either instance.
23 Examples from U.S.A. Harvard University Provide training for Supervisors and Cleaning Staff; utilise training through major suppliers like Johnson DiverseyUse Green Seal certified products and micro-fibre cloth technologiesHEPA filters for vacuums, walk off mats at entries,Stopped stripping and sealing stone and tiled floors in some areas – results in lower gloss, requires communication with clients.Uninstalled ‘auto’ deodoriser dispensers in toiletsCleaners turn lights off when leaving room / building
24 Rutgers UniversityInternal team of FM and Procurement identified desirable characteristics using Green Seal Standard 37 as benchmarkInvited top 7 suppliers of cleaning products to demonstrate their ‘green cleaning’ products and dispensing systems, plus msds for review.Ascertained which companies provided training in LOTETrialed products with Cleaning staff to get ‘buy-in’ and identify most effective products over 3 month periodMeasured dispensing system resulted in reduction of 50% of products in useReviewed other methods and technologies at same timeReview of sick days taken by 240 FM staff 12 months after conversion found 12% fewer days taken.
25 Royal Roads U British Columbia “Chemical Free Cleaning Program” commenced in 2000.Utilises colour coded microfibre cloth technologyCloths used wet (capillary action) and dry (electrostatic action) depending on taskEnzyme cleaner used to clean clothsCosts and Benefits:• Reduced environmental impact due to reduced resource (e.g. paper towels and rags) and chemical use;• Saves time and money as cleaning with micro-fibre cloths/mops is more efficient than traditional means;• Fewer allergic reactions chemicals as the system is virtually chemical free;• Fewer incidences of back and shoulder problems in custodial staff as no heavy mops and buckets;• Reduced chance of spills and chemical related accidents as system is virtually chemical free;• Improved public safety as chance of slipping on wet floors is greatly reduced as wet mop leaves only a thin film of water that dries in a mere 20 seconds.• Micro-fibre cloths can be reused at least 500 times;• Cloths and mops are light and can be laundered in great quantity;• The cloths and mops take up less space and therefore reduces transport costs and required space for storage closets;• Initial investment in the system is significant ($12,000), however, Royal Roads save $XXXX/year on chemicals and XX on labour costs, as the system is more efficient.
27 Cold water cleaning of microfibre cloth technologies Colour based visual cleaning systemsCold water cleaning of microfibre cloth technologiesRed for washroomsYellow for specialtyErgonomic toolsGreen for foodBlue for general
28 Products and technologies Citrus based cleanersHigh Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters in vacuumsWater efficient walk behind scrubbers
29 Technologies and products textDilution control systems allow purchasing in bulk, less exposure for cleaners and controls the ‘more is better’ urge.Bulk chemicals are diluted and used through colour coded reusable bottles
30 Which ingredients are high risk? ACIDSHydrochloric acidPhosphoric acidCorrosive:Causes blindnessDamages skinDisrupts POTWCAUSTICSSodium hydroxideSodium metasilicatePotassium hydroxideSOLVENTSPerchloroethyleneButoxyethanolEthanolamineTolueneHCFC-141Causes cancerPoison (absorbs though skin & poisons liver, kidneys, and fetus)Depletes ozone layerSURFACTANTSAlkyl phenol ethoxylatesEndocrine disruptionDISINFECTANTSSodium hypochloriteParadichlorobenzeneQuaternary ammonium chlorideCorrosive & reactiveCorrosive & CNS depressant
31 @ UNSW before‘Sparkle’ Glass Cleaner contains ethyleneglycol, 2-butoxy ethanol, ammonium hydroxide.‘Ceramica’ tile cleaner contains glycol ether, ethanolamine.‘Vectra’ floor cleaner contains dipropolene glycol methyl ether, acylic polymer‘Remove’ carpet shampoo contains butyl Icinol‘Go Getter’ toilet cleaner contains phosphoric acid, surfactant, quarternary ammonium compound, is classified as a poison and has a pH of 1.‘Big Shot’ air ‘freshener’ contains “perfume”, “antimicrobial”, “Surfactant” and does not list specific ingredients because our labelling laws don’t require it for these types of materials.95% of perfumes are synthetic compounds derived from petroleum, most are classified as irritants, sensitisers and some as carcinogenic (source - U.S. EPA)Products listed with “Non-hazardous materials” note that the product fumes on burning, has a pH of (scale is logarithmic and tops out at 14) and is caustic.