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Eastern Absolutism Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess information and draw conclusions Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess information and draw conclusions.

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Presentation on theme: "Eastern Absolutism Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess information and draw conclusions Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess information and draw conclusions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eastern Absolutism Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess information and draw conclusions Thinking Skill: Explicitly assess information and draw conclusions Objective: Understand various forms of absolute monarchy throughout Eastern Europe

2 Prussia Leaders: Hohenzollern Family Frederick William I r The Soldiers King Militarized the Prussian states Militarized the Prussian states Created Absolutism Created Absolutism –Created tremendous bureaucracy to execute demands –Junkers (landowning nobility) incorporated into army leadership army leadership …led to an Officer Caste –Turns Prussia into Sparta of the North Large, well-trained army (38,000 83,000) Large, well-trained army (38,000 83,000) Prussian society becomes disciplined and obedient Prussian society becomes disciplined and obedient Lays the foundation for future German militarization Lays the foundation for future German militarization Demanded unquestioning obedience Demanded unquestioning obedience Basically: Policies of F.W. I + Peasant Bondage + Junker Tyranny = most militaristic country of modern time. Basically: Policies of F.W. I + Peasant Bondage + Junker Tyranny = most militaristic country of modern time.

3 Frederick the Great (r )

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5 Frederick the Greats Court

6 Europe in 1740

7 Austrian Empire:

8 Maria Theresa (r ) Maria Theresa (r )

9 Maria Theresa & Her Family Her Notable Children: HRE Joseph II HRE Leopold II Queen Marie Antoinette (Fr.) Her Notable Children: HRE Joseph II HRE Leopold II Queen Marie Antoinette (Fr.)

10 Austrian Empire-Multiple Ethnicities cause problems Austria, Vienna (German) Austria, Vienna (German) Bohemia, Prague (Czech) Bohemia, Prague (Czech) Hungary, Budapest (Hungarian) Hungary, Budapest (Hungarian) Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, was an edict issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the throne of the Archduchy of Austria could be inherited by a daughter.

11 War of the Austrian Succession War of the Austrian Succession

12 Hapsburg Empire

13 Prussia & the Austrian Empire:

14 Holy Roman Empire: 1750

15 Russia Today

16 Former Soviet Region Compared in Latitude & Area with the United States

17 Russias Time Zones

18 Topography of Russia

19 Siberia Permafrost Average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°C, and in July from 1 to 25°C 150,000,000 population. 150,000,000 population. A former gulag Soviet prison camp. A former gulag Soviet prison camp.

20 Early Russia

21 Early Byzantine Influences: Orthodox Christianity

22 Early Byzantine Influences: Cyrillic Alphabet

23 Themes in Russian History Expansion by conquest. Expansion by conquest. Need for warm-water ports. Need for warm-water ports. The necessity of a strong, central government. The necessity of a strong, central government.

24 Russian Expansion

25 The Mongols Invade Russia

26 Ivan the Great (r ) Ivan III Tearing the Great Khans Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.

27 Russia Ivan III r Established concept of tsar Established concept of tsar Overthrew Mongol yoke Overthrew Mongol yoke Promoted the Third Rome Promoted the Third Rome

28 Russia in the Late 1500s

29 Ivan the Terrible (IV) r Serfdom Serfdom Secret police Secret police Ivan managed countless changes in the progression Ivan managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All Russia. Tsar of All Russia. Historic sources present disparaging accounts of Ivan's Historic sources present disparaging accounts of Ivan's complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, complex personality: he was described as intelligent and devout, yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness. yet given to rages and prone to episodic outbreaks of mental illness. His contemporaries called him "Ivan Groznyi" the name, which, His contemporaries called him "Ivan Groznyi" the name, which, although usually translated as "Terrible", actually means something although usually translated as "Terrible", actually means something closer to "Redoubtable" or "Severe" and carries connotations of might, power and strictness rather than horror or cruelty

30 The Romanov Dynasty ( ) Romanov Family Crest : Known as the Time of Troubles…….and then….

31 The Pendulum of Russian History Pro-West For Progress & Change Encourage New Ideas, Technologies, etc. Anti-West Isolationist Xenophobic Ultra-Conservative Most Tsars Most Tsars Russian Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church Military Military peasants peasants A few Tsars A few Tsars Intellectual elites Intellectual elites Merchants/businessmen Merchants/businessmen Young members of the middle class. Young members of the middle class. REFORM-MINDED LEADER DEMAGOGUE

32 Peter the Great (r )

33 Peter the Great r Wanted to expand Russia and build a strong military Wanted to expand Russia and build a strong military Encouraged Western ideas and technology –how specifically? Encouraged Western ideas and technology –how specifically? Waged war for 35 out of 36 years during his reign Waged war for 35 out of 36 years during his reign Tsar Peter was tall and thin, rather than stout. His hair was thick, short, and dark brown; he had large eyes, black with long lashes, a well-shaped mouth, but the lower lip was slightly disfigured... For his great height, his feet seemed very narrow. His head was sometimes tugged to the right by convulsions Tsar Peter was tall and thin, rather than stout. His hair was thick, short, and dark brown; he had large eyes, black with long lashes, a well-shaped mouth, but the lower lip was slightly disfigured... For his great height, his feet seemed very narrow. His head was sometimes tugged to the right by convulsions

34 Personal Information Red Hair? Red Hair? Into Dentistry Into Dentistry Very bad temper Very bad temper Travelled in disguise Travelled in disguise micromanager micromanager Often Brutal and violent Often Brutal and violent Epileptic? Tourettes? Epileptic? Tourettes? Rebels were tortured Rebels were tortured before they were executed before they were executed Bigtime collector of Midgets d+giants&source=bl&ots=FZL5V772QG&sig=KF1Hp7ppwr2GJncbXcPv9dpnDeM&hl=en#v=onepage&q=peter%20the %20great%20%2B%20midgets%20and%20giants&f=false Bigtime collector of Midgets d+giants&source=bl&ots=FZL5V772QG&sig=KF1Hp7ppwr2GJncbXcPv9dpnDeM&hl=en#v=onepage&q=peter%20the %20great%20%2B%20midgets%20and%20giants&f=false d+giants&source=bl&ots=FZL5V772QG&sig=KF1Hp7ppwr2GJncbXcPv9dpnDeM&hl=en#v=onepage&q=peter%20the %20great%20%2B%20midgets%20and%20giants&f=false d+giants&source=bl&ots=FZL5V772QG&sig=KF1Hp7ppwr2GJncbXcPv9dpnDeM&hl=en#v=onepage&q=peter%20the %20great%20%2B%20midgets%20and%20giants&f=false Plots against him all the time Plots against him all the time Drinking club to mock the church Drinking club to mock the church Other___________? Other___________?

35 More info Peter I of Russia came to the throne in Known as Peter the Great, he was a brilliant but highly controversial ruler. He made Russia into a great power although he brutally oppressed many of its people. While many countries in Western Europe had made economic, scientific, and cultural changes by the 17th century, Russia the largest country at the timewas still a mostly illiterate, agricultural society, based on a feudal system of serfdom. It had no army, few schools, and almost no factories. Foreigners were kept out. Peter was determined to bring Russia up to date. In 1697 Peter traveled to Europe in disguise (although at over 6 feet tall, he was rather recognizable). He worked as a carpenter in a Dutch shipyard, learned how to cobble shoes, engrave metal, and even to pull teeth.

36 Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War

37 Peter the Greats Contributions Warm water port---St. PetersburgWindow to the West Warm water port---St. PetersburgWindow to the West

38 Peter the Greats Contributions Shaving of Beards

39 Peter the Greats Contributions Women no longer had to wear veils, had to start wearing high heels Women no longer had to wear veils, had to start wearing high heels New calendar New calendar Potatoes from the New World Potatoes from the New World Building of factories Building of factories Started first newspaper Started first newspaper Modernized army Modernized army Mining and exporting of iron Mining and exporting of iron Long overcoats banned...short jackets like the West Long overcoats banned...short jackets like the West Nobles served in army or civil service for life Nobles served in army or civil service for life Built schools and universities--- required 5-year education away from home Built schools and universities--- required 5-year education away from home Table of Ranks: Meritocracy Table of Ranks: Meritocracy Commoners drafted into the army for life. Commoners drafted into the army for life.

40 The Winter Palace, St. Petersburg

41 Poland: A failed State Largest state in Eastern Europe Largest state in Eastern Europe The Noble Republic - Elected Kings The Noble Republic - Elected Kings Any noble could veto any law Any noble could veto any law Complete collapse of central government Complete collapse of central government Enserfment of peasant population Enserfment of peasant population Eventual disappearance of Poland from map of Europe –why? Eventual disappearance of Poland from map of Europe –why? No constitutionalism and no absolutism No constitutionalism and no absolutism

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43 Conclusions What do all forms of absolute monarchy have in common (including France)? What do all forms of absolute monarchy have in common (including France)? What characteristics of leadership are necessary to maintain absolute authority? What characteristics of leadership are necessary to maintain absolute authority? Is it realistic to expect that absolutism would endure throughout a nations history? Is it realistic to expect that absolutism would endure throughout a nations history? What kinds of reactions to absolute rule might you expect in the years ahead? What kinds of reactions to absolute rule might you expect in the years ahead?


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