2Democritus@400 B.C.Theorized that if you were to cut something in half, then cut it in half again and again…Eventually you would be left with something too small to be cut.Therefore, Democritus gave us “atomos,” or “uncuttable,” to be the word for the smallest individual particle of a substance.
3John Dalton Dalton’s Atomic Theory ~ 1808 All matter is composed of atoms.Atoms of each element are the same size, mass, etc., but are different from atoms of other elements.Atoms can’t be subdivided (cut) or destroyed.Envisioned atoms as “tiny, solid balls”
4Cathode Ray Tube If you run electricity through a gas filled tube, you see streams of particlesHow do we know they are particles?A cross left a “shadow”, so something must be traveling in a straight line.How do we know it isn’t light?J.J. Thomson put a magnet next to the tube and it bent the beam.Light is not magnetic!Beam had a negative charge
5J.J. Thomson Thomson’s Atomic Theory ~ 1897 “Muffin” Model Discovered negatively charged electrons.Envisioned atoms as a “positively charged sphere with electrons embedded in it.”“Muffin” ModelPositively charged breadNegatively charged “blueberries” floating around (electrons)
6Hantaro Nagaoka Nagaoka’s Atomic Theory~ 1904 “Planetary” Model Proposed a nucleusEnvisioned electrons orbiting a positively charged sphere in the center.“Planetary” ModelElectrons = planetsPositive Center Sphere = Sun
7Alpha Particle CannonErnest Rutherford shot fast moving positively charged alpha particles at thin gold foil…If Thomson’s model was correct, the alpha particles would pass right through the foil.Instead, some deflected back at large angles!
8Alpha Particle Cannon Conclusions: Thomson’s model was inaccurate A new model must be created1. The atom is mostly empty space2. There is a dense, positively charged nucleus in the center
9Ernest Rutherford Rutherford’s Atomic Theory ~ 1911 “Peach” Model The atom is composed of mostly empty space.Small, dense, positively charged nucleus containing almost all of the atom’s mass.“Peach” ModelPeach Pit = NucleusMeat = Empty space with electrons randomly orbiting nucleus.
10Refining Atomic Theory in the Early 1900’s Masses of protons are measured.Protons are 2000 times more massive than electrons.Charge of protons is determined to be positive.Protons provide equal & opposite charge to electrons.
11Niels Bohr Bohr’s Atomic Theory ~ 1913 Bohr’s Model Electrons do not “randomly” orbit the nucleus.Electrons move in specific “layers” or “energy levels” / “shells” (3-dimensional).Atoms absorb or give off energy when electrons move from one “level” to another.Bohr’s Model“onion” modelElectrons move on layers of an onion.
12Valence ElectronsValence electrons are the electrons located furthest from the nucleusThey are a determining factor in chemical bonding.If you visualize the atom like Bohr (an onion), the valence electrons are the electrons located on the outer layer.
13New ProblemAs scientists find the masses of atoms, they always have about twice the mass predicted by the number of protonsRemember, the mass of electrons is so small it is insignificantSo, there must be something else in the atom…
14James Chadwick Contribution to Modern Model ~ 1932 Discovered the neutronSame mass as protonNo electrical chargeThis is why it was not “discovered” earlierExistence of neutron explained why atoms were heavier than the total mass of the protons and electrons.
15Modern Model Electron Cloud Model ~ 1920’s to present Electrons form a negatively charged cloud around the nucleus.It is impossible to determine exactly where an electron is at any given time. (probability instead)Higher probability of electrons near nucleus.